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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923130/using-the-anterior-visual-system-to-assess-neuroprotection-and-remyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis-trials
#1
REVIEW
Elizabeth Silbermann, Lindsey Wooliscroft, Dennis Bourdette
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical trials using agents directed at neuroprotection and remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) are needed. As optic neuritis (ON) is common in people with MS and the pathology of ON is similar to other MS lesions in the brain, measurements of the anterior visual system are frequently utilized in neuroprotection and remyelination trials. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the measurements is vital when interpreting the results of this research. RECENT FINDINGS: Techniques such as visual evoked potentials (VEP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are well established in MS and are thought to measure axonal integrity and myelination...
June 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915542/corazonin-signaling-is-required-in-the-male-for-sperm-transfer-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#2
Qiu-Li Hou, Er-Hu Chen, Hong-Bo Jiang, Shuai-Feng Yu, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiao-Qiang Liu, Yoonseong Park, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
Corazonin (Crz) is a widely distributed neuropeptide (or neurohormone) in insects with diverse physiological functions. The present study aimed to reveal the functions of Crz and its receptor (CrzR) in the regulation of sexual behavior and fertility in male Bactrocera dorsalis . Tissue-specific expression analyses showed that the BdCrz transcript was most abundant in the central nervous system (CNS), and the BdCrzR transcript was most abundant in both the fat body and CNS. Immunochemical localization confirmed that three pairs of Crz-immunoreactive neurons are located in the dorsolateral protocerebrum region of male adult brain...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915142/impaired-%C3%AE-cell-glucokinase-as-an-underlying-mechanism-in-diet-induced-diabetes
#3
Brian Lu, Kiran Kurmi, Miguel Munoz-Gomez, Egon J Jacobus Ambuludi, Jason M Tonne, Kuntol Rakshit, Taro Hitosugi, Yogish C Kudva, Aleksey V Matveyenko, Yasuhiro Ikeda
High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mouse models have been widely used to study early type 2 diabetes. Decreased β-cell glucokinase (GCK) expression has been observed in HFD-induced diabetes. However, owing to its crucial roles in glucose metabolism in the liver and in islet β-cells, the contribution of decreased GCK expression to the development of HFD-induced diabetes is unclear. Here, we employed a β-cell-targeted gene transfer vector and determined the impact of β-cell-specific increase in GCK expression on β-cell function and glucose handling in vitro and in vivo Overexpression of GCK enhanced glycolytic flux, ATP-sensitive potassium channel activation and membrane depolarization, and increased proliferation in Min6 cells...
June 13, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912273/evaluation-of-retropectoral-fat-grafting-in-breast-reduction-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-pilot-study
#4
Paulo Afonso Monteiro Pacheco Guimarães, Miguel Sabino Neto, Fabiana Claudino Lage, Fernanda Ferreira Guirado, Giselle Guedes Netto de Mello, Lydia Masako Ferreira
Background: One of the challenges in breast reduction is to maintain breast projection with 45% of its volume in the upper pole and 55% in the lower pole. Although widely used in breast surgeries, the behavior of fat grafts is still not completely understood. Objectives: To evaluate by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the survival of fat transferred to the retropectoral plane in patients undergoing breast reduction, in the search for an oncologically safe procedure with high predictability and reproducibility...
June 15, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909020/diet-modifies-colonic-microbiota-and-cd4-t-cell-repertoire-to-induce-flares-of-colitis-in-mice-with-myeloid-cell-expression-of-interleukin-23
#5
Lili Chen, Zhengxiang He, Alina Cornelia Iuga, Sebastião N Martins Filho, Jeremiah J Faith, Jose C Clemente, Madhura Deshpande, Anitha Jayaprakash, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Juan J Lafaille, Ravi Sachidanandam, Glaucia C Furtado, Sergio A Lira
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several studies have shown that signaling via the interleukin 23 (IL23) receptor is required for development of colitis. We studied the roles of IL23, dietary factors, alterations to the microbiota, and T cells in development and progression of colitis in mice. METHODS: All mice were maintained on lab diet 5053, unless otherwise noted. We generated mice that express IL23 in CX3CR1-positive myeloid cells (R23FR mice) upon cyclic administration of tamoxifen dissolved in diet 2019...
June 14, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902818/-substances-in-the-bovine-colostrum-a-survey
#6
Sebastian Ganz, Michael Bülte, Zdzislaw Gajewski, Axel Wehrend
The best studied substances in bovine colostrum are the immunoglobulins. They are absorbed in the small intestine of the neonate by pinocytosis. The Fc-receptor is not highly involved in this process in calves compared to other species. However, this receptor plays a crucial role in the transport of immunoglobulins from the circulation of the dam to the udder and, therefore, into the colostrum. During colostrogenesis, which starts up to 8 weeks prior to parturition, up to 500 g of immunoglobulins are transferred daily by this process...
June 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899183/dietary-intake-during-56-weeks-of-a-low-fat-diet-for-lomitapide-treatment-in-japanese-patients-with-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#7
Noriko Kameyama, Chizuko Maruyama, Fuyuha Kitagawa, Kazunobu Nishii, Kaori Uenomachi, Yayoi Katayama, Hiromi Koga, Naoko Chikamoto, Yuko Kuwata, Junko Torigoe, Masako Arimoto, Toshiaki Tokumaru, Katsunori Ikewaki, Atsushi Nohara, Yoshihiko Otsubo, Koji Yanagi, Masayuki Yoshida, Mariko Harada-Shiba
AIM: Lomitapide is an oral inhibitor of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein used to treat homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH); patients require a low-fat diet to minimize gastrointestinal adverse effects and dietary supplements to prevent nutrient deficiencies. We investigated the diet and nutritional status during lomitapide treatment. METHODS: Japanese patients with HoFH, who were in a phase 3 trial of lomitapide, were instructed to start low-fat diets with supplements of vitamin E and essential fatty acids 6 weeks before starting lomitapide treatment...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889210/impact-of-intracardiac-neurons-on-cardiac-electrophysiology-and-arrhythmogenesis-in-an-ex-vivo-langendorff-system
#8
Christiane Jungen, Katharina Scherschel, Nadja I Bork, Pawel Kuklik, Christian Eickholt, Helge Kniep, Niklas Klatt, Stephan Willems, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Christian Meyer
Since its invention in the late 19th century, the Langendorff ex vivo heart perfusion system continues to be a relevant tool for studying a broad spectrum of physiological, biochemical, morphological, and pharmacological parameters in centrally denervated hearts. Here, we describe a setup for the modulation of the intracardiac autonomic nervous system and the assessment of its influence on basic electrophysiology, arrhythmogenesis, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) dynamics. The intracardiac autonomic nervous system is modulated by the mechanical dissection of atrial fat pads-in which murine ganglia are located mainly-or by the usage of global as well as targeted pharmacological interventions...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888135/bioheat-transfer-model-of-transcutaneous-spinal-cord-stimulation-induced-temperature-changes
#9
Luyao Chen, Ang Ke, Peng Zhang, Zhaolong Gao, Xuecheng Zou, Jiping He
Transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) has been extensively studied due to its promising application in motor function restoration. Many previous studies have explored both the essential mechanism of action and the methods for determining optimal stimulation parameters. In contrast, the bioheat transfer analysis of tSCS therapy has not been investigated to the same extent, despite widely existing, and being of great significance in assuring a stable and thermally safe treatment. In this paper, we concentrated on the thermal effects of tSCS using a finite element-based method...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884823/microrna-410-5p-exacerbates-high-fat-diet-induced-cardiac-remodeling-in-mice-in-an-endocrine-fashion
#10
Tong Zou, Mei Zhu, Yi-Cheng Ma, Fei Xiao, Xue Yu, Li Xu, Lan-Qing Ma, Jiefu Yang, Jian-Zeng Dong
Metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are associated with an increased risk of cardiomyopathy. To date, microRNA (miRNAs) functions in cardiac remodeling induced by obesity remain to be elucidated. We found that rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) manifested cardiac fibrosis and LV dysfunction. In the heart of rats fed HFD, the phosphorylation levels of Smad 2 and the expression of fibrotic genes, such as connective tissue growth factor, collagen-1α1 (Col1α1), Col3α1, and Col4α1, were up-regulated, which accompanied by an increase in Smad 7 protein levels, but not its mRNA levels...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876184/goldilocks-mastectomy-with-bilateral-in-situ-nipple-preservation-via-dermal-pedicle
#11
Heather Richardson, Joel A Aronowitz
Patients who don't want or can't have formal breast reconstruction after mastectomy surgery can be considered for a Goldilocks mastectomy, where the breast fullness is recreated from what is left behind after the gland tissue is removed from underneath the skin in a breast reduction pattern. A Goldilocks mastectomy does not require the use of implants or tissue transfer from other parts of the body and may be completed in a single surgery. This is best suited for larger breasted women who are willing to have much smaller breasts as a result...
April 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873061/meta-analysis-of-the-oncological-safety-of-autologous-fat-transfer-after-breast-cancer
#12
REVIEW
T K Krastev, S J Schop, J Hommes, A A Piatkowski, E M Heuts, R R W J van der Hulst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871859/taci-deficient-macrophages-protect-mice-against-metaflammation-and-obesity-induced-dysregulation-of-glucose-homeostasis
#13
Lunhua Liu, Karen Etsuko Inouye, Windy Rose Allman, Adam Steven Coleman, Shafiuddin Siddiqui, Gökhan Siddik Hotamisligil, Mustafa Akkoyunlu
Transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) is a receptor for the TNF superfamily cytokines, B cell activating factor (BAFF) and A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL). Here, we demonstrate that TACI-deficient mice subjected to high fat diet (HFD) are protected from weight gain and dysregulated glucose homeostasis. Resistance to HFD-induced metabolic changes in TACI-deficient mice does not involve TACI mediated adipogenesis. Instead, accumulation of M2 macrophages (Mϕs), eosinophils and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is implicated in the protection from obesity induced assaults...
June 5, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869628/the-effect-of-prenatal-exposure-on-disposition-of-hexachloronaphthalene-in-female-wistar-rats-and-fetal-compartment
#14
Joanna Stragierowicz, Krystyna Sitarek, Bartłomiej Grobelski, Anna Kilanowicz-Sapota
OBJECTIVES: Due to structural and toxicological similarities to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-<i>p</i>-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were included in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in 2015. Hexachloronaphthalene (HxCN) is considered to be one of the most toxic congeners of PCNs. The objective of this study was to determine the maternal and fetal tissue concentrations of hexachloronaphthalene after a single administration...
June 4, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868321/simulating-internal-carotid-artery-injury-during-transsphenoidal-transclival-endoscopic-surgery-in-a-perfused-cadaver-model
#15
Tristan P C van Doormaal, Sander J H Diederen, Albert van der Zwan, Jan Willem Berkelbach, Arvid Kropveld, Paul R A M Depauw
Introduction  Managing internal carotid artery (ICA) injury during extended endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery is an extreme challenge. We aimed to find a possible surgical treatment strategy. Methods  We operated seven fresh, perfused cadaver heads with a transsphenoidal endoscopic approach of the ICA using a three-dimensional-high definition (3D-HD) endoscope. We made a paraclival ICA leak, which we tried to manage with clips and microsutures. Results  Accurate transsphenoidal clip application on the ICA was impossible with standard aneurysm clips and applier...
April 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867342/enhancement-of-astroglial-aerobic-glycolysis-by-extracellular-lactate-mediated-increase-in-camp
#16
Nina Vardjan, Helena H Chowdhury, Anemari Horvat, Jelena Velebit, Maja Malnar, Marko Muhič, Marko Kreft, Špela G Krivec, Saša T Bobnar, Katarina Miš, Sergej Pirkmajer, Stefan Offermanns, Gjermund Henriksen, Jon Storm-Mathisen, Linda H Bergersen, Robert Zorec
Besides being a neuronal fuel, L-lactate is also a signal in the brain. Whether extracellular L-lactate affects brain metabolism, in particular astrocytes, abundant neuroglial cells, which produce L-lactate in aerobic glycolysis, is unclear. Recent studies suggested that astrocytes express low levels of the L-lactate GPR81 receptor (EC50 ≈ 5 mM) that is in fat cells part of an autocrine loop, in which the Gi -protein mediates reduction of cytosolic cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). To study whether a similar signaling loop is present in astrocytes, affecting aerobic glycolysis, we measured the cytosolic levels of cAMP, D-glucose and L-lactate in single astrocytes using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based nanosensors...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863558/post-neurosurgical-temporal-deformities-various-techniques-for-correction-and-associated-complications
#17
Gabriel F Santiago, Jordan Terner, Amir Wolff, Jeffrey Teixeira, Henry Brem, Judy Huang, Chad R Gordon
INTRODUCTION: An irregular craniofacial contour along the temporal fossa, known commonly as 'temporal hollowing deformity,' (THD) can arise from multiple etiologies. In fact, up to half of all patients who undergo neurosurgical pterional dissections develop some form of temporal contour deformities. Unfortunately, temporal hollowing correction remains surgically challenging with many techniques resulting in high rates of failure and/or morbidity. METHODS: Herein, we describe anatomy contributing to postsurgical temporal deformity as well as time-tested prevention and surgical correction techniques...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863037/successful-surgical-closure-of-an-esophagobronchial-fistula-caused-by-a-foreign-body-in-the-esophagus-of-a-female-octogenarian-with-a-delayed-diagnosis-a-case-report
#18
Takahiro Yanagihara, Hideo Ichimura, Keisuke Kobayashi, Yukio Sato
Esophagobronchial fistula (EBF) caused by an esophageal foreign body is rare in adults. All surgical interventions in the reported cases were performed via right thoracotomy. We have successfully treated an 88-year-old woman with EBF caused by a thick 2 × 2 cm piece of cake decorating paper that was swallowed accidentally. There was a 2-month interval between ingestion of the foreign body and correct diagnosis. The bronchial opening of the EBF was on the cephalic wall of the proximal left main bronchus (LMB), so we planned a primary repair of the bronchial wall with sutures via left thoracotomy...
June 1, 2018: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860132/development-of-a-novel-sample-reuse-approach-to-measure-the-impact-of-lean-meat-bone-and-adipose-tissue-on-the-development-of-volatiles-in-vacuum-packed-chilled-lamb-stored-at-2-%C3%A2-c-for-15-days
#19
Lena Schuster, Corinna Franke, Patrick Silcock, Jonathan Beauchamp, Phil J Bremer
The impact of different ratios of lean meat, adipose tissue (fat) and bone on the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile of vacuum-packed (VP) lamb stored at 2 °C for up to 15 days was investigated using two sampling approaches. VOC development in individual samples was followed over time using either a traditional sampling regime where replicate samples were sampled (single-use) at a given time or a novel approach where replicate samples were resampled (reuse) over time. VOCs present in the headspace of the packaged samples were detected using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with complementary solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis on a subset of samples...
May 24, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849009/endocannabinoids-in-body-weight-control
#20
REVIEW
Henrike Horn, Beatrice Böhme, Laura Dietrich, Marco Koch
Maintenance of body weight is fundamental to maintain one's health and to promote longevity. Nevertheless, it appears that the global obesity epidemic is still constantly increasing. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are lipid messengers that are involved in overall body weight control by interfering with manifold central and peripheral regulatory circuits that orchestrate energy homeostasis. Initially, blocking of eCB signaling by first generation cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) inverse agonists such as rimonabant revealed body weight-reducing effects in laboratory animals and men...
May 30, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
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