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Fat transfer

Melissa Bainbridge, Jana Kraft
Transfer efficiencies of rumen-protected n-3 fatty acids (FA) to milk are low, thus we hypothesized that rumen-protection technologies allow for biohydrogenation and excretion of n-3 FA. The objectives of this study were to i) investigate the ruminal protection and post-ruminal release of the FA derived from the lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO), and ii) assess the bioavailability and metabolism of the EEO-derived FA through measuring the FA content in plasma lipid fractions, feces, and milk. The EEO was tested for rumen stability using the in situ nylon bag technique, then the apparent total-tract digestibility was assessed in vivo using six Holstein dairy cattle...
2016: PloS One
Dan Zhang, Kiera Robinson, Doina M Mihai, Ilyas Washington
Animals alter their physiological states in response to their environment. We show that the introduction of a chlorophyll metabolite, a light-absorbing pigment widely consumed in human diets, to Caenorhabditis elegans results in animals whose fat mass can be modulated by exposure to light, despite the worm consuming the same amount of food. In the presence of the chlorophyll metabolite, exposing the worms to light increased adenosine triphosphate, reduced oxidative damage, and increased median life spans, without an effect on animal reproduction...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Grande, H Murua, I Zudaire, E J Arsenault-Pernet, F Pernet, N Bodin
The lipid composition of somatic and reproductive tissues was determined for female skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis caught in the western Indian Ocean between latitude 10° N and 20° S and longitude 40° and 70° E. The highest total lipid (TL) contents were in the liver and gonads, with white muscle levels approximately three-fold lower. Three lipid classes dominated: triacylglycerols (TAG), sterol esters and wax esters (SE-WE) and phospholipids (PL). Collectively, these accounted for between 70 and 80% of TLs...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Mei Hua Gao, Dimosthenis Giamouridis, N Chin Lai, Evelyn Walenta, Vivian Almeida Paschoal, Young Chul Kim, Atsushi Miyanohara, Tracy Guo, Min Liao, Li Liu, Zhen Tan, Theodore P Ciaraldi, Simon Schenk, Aditi Bhargava, Da Young Oh, H Kirk Hammond
Using mice rendered insulin resistant with high fat diets (HFD), we examined blood glucose levels and insulin resistance after i.v. delivery of an adeno-associated virus type 8 encoding murine urocortin 2 (AAV8.UCn2). A single i.v. injection of AAV8.UCn2-normalized blood glucose and glucose disposal within weeks, an effect that lasted for months. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps showed reduced plasma insulin, increased glucose disposal rates, and increased insulin sensitivity following UCn2 gene transfer...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
Pablo H H Lopez, Susan Aja, Kazuhiro Aoki, Marcus M Seldin, Xia Lei, Gabriele V Ronnett, G William Wong, Ronald L Schnaar
Sialyltransferases are a family of 20 gene products in mice and humans that transfer sialic acid from its activated precursor, CMP-sialic acid, to the terminus of glycoprotein and glycolipid acceptors. ST3Gal-II (coded by the St3gal2 gene) transfers sialic acid preferentially to the 3-position of galactose on the Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus of gangliosides GM1 and GD1b to synthesize GD1a and GT1b respectively. Mice with a targeted disruption of St3gal2 unexpectedly displayed late-onset obesity and insulin resistance...
September 28, 2016: Glycobiology
Fred G Fedok, Harry Mittelman
The prejowl sulcus is a complex anatomic structure that results from several age-related changes in the lower face. These changes include the localized atrophy of a segment of the mandible inferior to the mental foreman, fat atrophy, and dehiscence and laxity of the ligamentous and muscular components of the region. The correction of the prejowl sulcus is rarely accomplished through rhytidectomy alone. Instead, the volume deficit of the sulcus usually requires the replacement of volume. Solid implants, fillers, and fat transfer may be used to improve the contour of the lower face...
October 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
Mario A Aycart, Muayyad Alhefzi, Maximilian Kueckelhaus, Nicco Krezdorn, Ericka M Bueno, Edward J Caterson, Julian J Pribaz, Bohdan Pomahac
BACKGROUND: Face transplantation has emerged as a viable option for certain patients in the treatment of devastating facial injuries. However, as with autologous free tissue transfer, the need for secondary revisions in face transplantation also exists. The authors' group has quantified the number of revision operations in their cohort and has assessed the rationale, safety, and outcomes of posttransplantation revisions. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of the authors' seven face transplants was performed from April of 2009 to July of 2015...
October 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Yuelin Zhang, Zhendong Yu, Dan Jiang, Xiaoting Liang, Songyan Liao, Zhao Zhang, Wensheng Yue, Xiang Li, Sin-Ming Chiu, Yuet-Hung Chai, Yingmin Liang, Yenyen Chow, Shuo Han, Aimin Xu, Hung-Fat Tse, Qizhou Lian
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can donate mitochondria and rescue anthracycline-induced cardiomyocyte (CM) damage, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We determined that the superior efficiency of mitochondrial transfer by human induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived MSCs (iPSC-MSCs) compared with bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) is due to high expression of intrinsic Rho GTPase 1 (MIRO1). Further, due to a higher level of TNFαIP2 expression, iPSC-MSCs are more responsive to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced tunneling nanotube (TNT) formation for mitochondrial transfer to CMs, which is regulated via the TNF-α/NF-κB/TNFαIP2 signaling pathway...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Xiang Li, Yuelin Zhang, Yingmin Liang, Yuting Cui, Sze C Yeung, Mary S M Ip, Hung-Fat Tse, Qizhou Lian, Judith C W Mak
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a potential cell-based therapy for pulmonary emphysema in animal models. Our previous study demonstrated that human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iPSC-MSCs) were superior over bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) in attenuating cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airspace enlargement possibly through mitochondrial transfer. This study further investigated the effects of iPSC-MSCs on inflammation, apoptosis, and proliferation in a CS-exposed rat model and examined the effects of the secreted paracrine factor from MSCs as another possible mechanism in an in vitro model of bronchial epithelial cells...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Salim Makhoul, Sine Yener, Iuliia Khomenko, Vittorio Capozzi, Luca Cappellin, Eugenio Aprea, Matteo Scampicchio, Flavia Gasperi, Franco Biasioli
In this study, we demonstrated the suitability of direct injection mass spectrometry headspace analysis for rapid non-invasive quality control of semi-finished dairy ingredients, such as skim milk powder (SMP), whole milk powder (WMP), whey powder (WP) and anhydrous milk fat (AMF), which are widely used as ingredients in the food industry. In this work, for the first time, we applied proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with a time-of-flight (ToF) analyzer for the rapid and non-invasive analysis of volatile compounds in different samples of SMP, WMP, WP and AMF...
September 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Takanobu Mashiko, Szu-Hsien Wu, Jingwei Feng, Koji Kanayama, Kaori Kinoshita, Ataru Sunaga, Mitsunaga Narushima, Kotaro Yoshimura
INTRODUCTION: Condensation of grafted fat has been considered a key for achieving better outcomes after fat grafting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potentials of two mechanical tissue micronizing procedures: squeeze and emulsification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human aspirated fat was centrifuged (centrifuged fat: CF) and fragmented with an automated slicer (squeezed fat: SF). Alternatively, CF was emulsified by repeated transfer between two syringes through a small-hole connecter, then separated by mesh filtration into two portions: residual tissue of emulsified fat (REF) and filtrated fluid of emulsified fat (FEF)...
September 10, 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Antonia F Chen, Meredith Menz, Priscilla K Cavanaugh, Javad Parvizi
PURPOSE: This prospective study was designed to determine whether exposure of intraoperative tissue samples to the operating room environment affects subsequent culture results. METHODS: A prospective study conducted on 125 patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty was conducted from August 2013 to December 2015. During surgery, three samples from the infrapatellar fat pad were obtained. The first sample was obtained using clean instruments and placed directly into a specimen cup (direct)...
October 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Mohammed A Al Sufyani, Abdullah H Al Hargan, Nayf A Al Shammari, Mohannad A Al Sufyani
BACKGROUND: The use of autologous fat transfer for breast augmentation is still controversial due to ongoing concerns regarding its efficacy and safety, most notably, concerns about breast cancer risk and detection. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current knowledge on the safety and efficacy of autologous fat transfer for breast augmentation with focus on clinical techniques, outcome, and complications. METHODS: A thorough search of the literature was conducted using the terms autologous fat transfer, autologous fat grafting, and breast augmentation in the Medline and Embase databases, and relevant English and German language articles were included...
September 9, 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Masashi Ono, Keisuke Takanari, Kazuhiro Toriyama, Shunjiro Yagi, Katsumi Ebisawa, Hisashi Sawamura, Miki Kambe, Kenta Murotani, Yuzuru Kamei
Background A successful free flap transfer is achieved, in part, by having a thorough understanding of vascular anatomy and blood flow dynamics. We previously reported that vascular resistance differs by type of free flap. To test the hypothesis that the difference reflects the proportion of tissue components within free flaps, we calculated blood flow and vascular resistance for free flaps in which we determined the volume of each tissue component. Methods Measurements and calculations were made for 40 free flap transfers performed at our hospital: 7 radial forearm flaps, 14 anterolateral thigh flaps, and 19 rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Jonathan D Diedrich, Erandi Rajagurubandara, Mackenzie K Herroon, Gargi Mahapatra, Maik Hüttemann, Izabela Podgorski
Metabolic adaptation is increasingly recognized as a key factor in tumor progression, yet its involvement in metastatic bone disease is not understood. Bone is as an adipocyte-rich organ, and a major site of metastasis from prostate cancer. Bone marrow adipocytes are metabolically active cells capable of shaping tumor metabolism via lipolysis and lipid transfer. In this study, using in vitro and in vivo models of marrow adiposity, we demonstrate that marrow fat cells promote Warburg phenotype in metastatic prostate cancer cells...
August 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Weiguo Li, Xifu Wang, Frank H Miller, Andrew C Larson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to develop a chemical shift magnetization transfer (CSMT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to provide accurate magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements in the presence of fat. METHODS: Numerical simulations were performed to compare MTR measurements at different echo times (TEs) for voxels with varying fat/water content. The CSMT approach was developed using water fraction estimates to correct for the impact of fat signal upon observed MTR measurements...
August 31, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Eric Swanson
BACKGROUND: Buttock fat transfer is now the preferred method for gluteal augmentation. However, its efficacy has not been well-documented using measurements. METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive patients underwent buttock fat transfer performed by the author. Twenty-one patients returned for measurements ≥3 months after surgery (inclusion rate, 84%). A separate group of 25 patients undergoing cosmetic surgery without buttock fat transfer served as controls. All patients underwent superwet liposuction using total intravenous anesthesia and no prone positioning...
May 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Claudia Stefanutti, Claudia Morozzi, Serafina Di Giacomo, Barbara Sovrano, Dario Mesce, Alberto Grossi
BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare, genetically determined condition of highly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels. If untreated, patients do not typically survive beyond the second decade of life. Traditional lipid-lowering therapies (statins and ezetimibe) are largely ineffective in HoFH patients, and extracorporeal lipoprotein apheresis (LA) forms the mainstay of treatment. Lomitapide is a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor approved for the treatment of HoFH as an adjunct to LA...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Sylvie Rabot, Mathieu Membrez, Florence Blancher, Bernard Berger, Déborah Moine, Lutz Krause, Rodrigo Bibiloni, Aurélia Bruneau, Philippe Gérard, Jay Siddharth, Christian L Lauber, Chieh Jason Chou
The gut microbiota is involved in many aspects of host physiology but its role in body weight and glucose metabolism remains unclear. Here we studied the compositional changes of gut microbiota in diet-induced obesity mice that were conventionally raised or received microbiota transplantation. In conventional mice, the diversity of the faecal microbiota was weakly associated with 1(st) week weight gain but transferring the microbiota of mice with contrasting weight gain to germfree mice did not change obesity development or feed efficiency of recipients regardless whether the microbiota was taken before or after 10 weeks high fat (HF) feeding...
2016: Scientific Reports
S Schiavon, G Cesaro, A Cecchinato, C Cipolat-Gotet, F Tagliapietra, G Bittante
The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of reducing the dietary crude protein content, with or without a supply of protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on the milk fatty acid (FA) yield and recovery in 90 d ripened cheese. Twenty mid-lactation Friesian dairy cows were reared for 4 periods of 3 wk each in groups of 5, following a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Cows were fed 4 different rations, consisting of a combination of the 2 dietary crude protein levels [150 (CP15) or 123 (CP12) g of crude protein/kg of dry matter], with or without a conjugated linoleic acid supply (80 g/d, providing 5...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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