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Mauro Frigeri, Marica Brnic-Bontognali, Valeria Galetti, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Alexandre Bodmer
Fasting concomitantly with oncology treatments (chemotherapy mainly) induces a growing interest among patients following overmediatisation of recent discoveries. The goal of this article is to provide updated information about this approach. According to preclinical studies, fasting may be a way to increase the therapeutic index of major oncology treatments. However, clinical data is based on small exploratory studies only and the results of larger scale studies are not yet available. The approach of fasting during chemotherapy can and should neither be recommended nor implemented in standard care...
May 16, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Daniela Rabellino, Dalila Burin, Sherain Harricharan, Chantelle Lloyd, Paul A Frewen, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
Traumatic experiences have been linked to the development of altered states of consciousness affecting bodily perception, including alterations in body ownership and in sense of agency, the conscious experience of the body as one's own and under voluntary control. Severe psychological trauma and prolonged distress may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Together, symptoms of derealization and, related specifically to the sense of body ownership and agency, of depersonalization (where parts of the body or the entire body itself is perceived as detached and out of control), constitute the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jessica E Morgan, Bob Phillips, Lesley A Stewart, Karl Atkin
OBJECTIVES: A systematic review of paediatric low-risk febrile neutropenia found that outpatient care is safe, with low rates of treatment failure. However, this review, and a subsequent meta-ethnography, suggested that early discharge of these patients may not be acceptable to key stakeholders. This study aimed to explore experiences and perceptions of patients, parents and healthcare professionals involved in paediatric febrile neutropenia care in the UK. SETTING: Three different centres within the UK, purposively selected from a national survey on the basis of differences in their service structure and febrile neutropenia management...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Vilayanur Ramachandran, Chaipat Chunharas, Zeve Marcus, Timothy Furnish, Albert Lin
AL's leg was amputated resulting in phantom-limb pain (PLP). (1) When a volunteer placed her foot on or near the phantom - touching it evoked organized sensations in corresponding locations on AL's phantom. (2) Mirror-visual-feedback (MVF) relieved PLP, as did, "phantom massage". (3) Psilocybin-MVF pairing produced synergistic effects, complete elimination of PLP, and reduction in paroxysmal episodes. (4) Touching the volunteer's leg where AL previously had external fixators, evoked sensation of nails boring through the leg...
May 15, 2018: Neurocase
Silvia Serino, Federica Scarpina, Antonios Dakanalis, Anouk Keizer, Elisa Pedroli, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Alice Chirico, Valentina Catallo, Daniele di Lernia, Giuseppe Riva
A growing body of evidence demonstrated that it is feasible to induce ownership over an artificial body to alter bodily experience. However, several uncharted aspects about full-body illusion applications need to be tackled before a complete exploitation of these methods in clinical practice. This work is devoted to explore possible individual age-related differences in shaping changes in body representations induced with a full-body illusion. A total of 40 women were divided into two different age groups according to the median of the variable age...
May 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Sofia Lavrenteva, Ikuya Murakami
In the retinal image of the natural world, edges and shapes can be defined by first-order attributes, such as luminance, and second-order attributes, such as contrast and texture. Previous studies have suggested that, in the human visual system, these attributes are initially detected separately and integrated later. Thus, comparing the strength of different geometrical optical illusions in stimuli, in which different elements are defined by the same or different attributes, is helpful to investigate at which stage the underlying mechanism of the illusion is located...
May 11, 2018: Vision Research
Jessica L Parker, Christopher W Robinson
The study examined individual contributions of visual and auditory information on multisensory integration across the life span. In the experiment, children, young adults, and older adults participated in a variant of the Sound-Induced Flash Illusion where participants had to either ignore beeps and report how many flashes they saw or ignore flashes and report how many beeps they heard. Collapsed across age, auditory input had a stronger effect on visual processing than vice versa. However, relative contributions of auditory and visual information interacted with age, with young adults showing evidence of auditory dominance (only auditory input affected visual processing), whereas, multisensory integration effects were more symmetrical in children and older adults...
May 2018: Psychology and Aging
Isabella Pasqualini, Maria Laura Blefari, Tej Tadi, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
The environment shapes our experience of space in constant interaction with the body. Architectonic interiors amplify the perception of space through the bodily senses; an effect also known as embodiment. The interaction of the bodily senses with the space surrounding the body can be tested experimentally through the manipulation of multisensory stimulation and measured via a range of behaviors related to bodily self-consciousness. Many studies have used Virtual Reality to show that visuotactile conflicts mediated via a virtual body or avatar can disrupt the unified subjective experience of the body and self...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Silvia Convento, Daniele Romano, Angelo Maravita, Nadia Bolognini
In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), the feeling that a fake hand belongs to oneself can be induced by the simultaneous, congruent touch of the fake visible hand and one's own hidden hand. This condition is also associated with a recalibration of the perceived location of the real hand. A cortical network, including premotor and temporo-parietal areas, has been proposed as the basis of the RHI. However, the causal contribution of these areas to the discrete illusory components remains unclear. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to assess the contribution of the right premotor cortex (rPMc) and the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) to the RHI and explored the role of these areas in modulating the subjective experience of embodiment and the misperception of the hand position...
May 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Wolf Schwarz, Dennis Reike
When objects are manually lifted to compare their weight, then smaller objects are judged to be heavier than larger objects of the same physical weights: the classical size-weight illusion (Gregory, 2004). It is also well established that increasing numerical magnitude is strongly associated with increasing physical size: the number-size congruency effect e.g., (Besner & Coltheart Neuropsychologia, 17, 467-472 1979); Henik & Tzelgov Memory & Cognition, 10, 389-395 1982). The present study investigates the question suggested by combining these two classical effects: if smaller numbers are associated with smaller size, and objects of smaller size appear heavier, then are numbered objects (balls) of equal weight and size also judged as heavier when they carry smaller numbers? We present two experiments testing this hypothesis for weight comparisons of numbered (1 to 9) balls of equal size and weight, and report results which largely conform to an interpretation in terms of a new "number-weight illusion"...
May 11, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Araceli Flores, Marsha M Linehan, S Rob Todd, Hunter G Hoffman
Introduction: Paralysis from a spinal cord injury (SCI) increases risk of psychological problems including suicide attempts, substance use disorder, negative emotions (e.g., anger), depression, anxiety, ASD/PTSD. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy® (DBT®) has been shown to be effective for treating similar psychological symptoms in non-SCI patient populations. The current study explored for the first time, the feasibility and clinical potential of using Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) enhanced DBT® Mindfulness skills training to help reduce psychological symptoms (negative emotions and anxiety, ASD/PTSD) of two patients with SCI...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jack Brooks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nicholas J Wade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Perception
Alberta Ipser, Maayan Karlinski, Elliot D Freeman
Sight and sound are out of synch in different people by different amounts for different tasks. But surprisingly, different concurrent measures of perceptual asynchrony correlate negatively (Freeman et al., 2013). Thus, if vision subjectively leads audition in one individual, the same individual might show a visual lag in other measures of audiovisual integration (e.g., McGurk illusion, Stream-Bounce illusion). This curious negative correlation was first observed between explicit temporal order judgments and implicit phoneme identification tasks, performed concurrently as a dual task, using incongruent McGurk stimuli...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Stephen J Ceci, Wendy M Williams
Recent protests on dozens of campuses have led to the cancellation of controversial talks, and violence has accompanied several of these protests. Psychological science provides an important lens through which to view, understand, and potentially reduce these conflicts. In this article, we frame opposing sides' arguments within a long-standing corpus of psychological research on selective perception, confirmation bias, myside bias, illusion of understanding, blind-spot bias, groupthink/in-group bias, motivated skepticism, and naive realism...
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Gordon D Schiff, Elise L Ruan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Benjamin de Haas, D Samuel Schwarzkopf
Face perception is impaired for inverted images, and a prominent example of this is the Thatcher illusion: "Thatcherized" (i.e., rotated) eyes and mouths make a face look grotesque, but only if the whole face is seen upright rather than inverted. Inversion effects are often interpreted as evidence for configural face processing. However, recent findings have led to the alternative proposal that the Thatcher illusion rests on orientation sensitivity for isolated facial regions. Here, we tested whether the Thatcher effect depends not only on the orientation of facial regions but also on their visual-field location...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Britt-Marie Schiller
Illusions are not errors but erroneous beliefs motivated by wishful ideas and fantasies. To disillusion gender is to challenge the traditional Freudian construction that splits masculinity and femininity into agency versus passivity, the first with power, the second without. Disillusioning femininity as impotent frees up potency and power as generativity. Disillusioning masculinity as phallic and omnipotent opens the masculine subject to permeability and vulnerability. Illusions regarding the transgender include the idea that there are only two gender categories and the idea that gender identity is generated solely from an internal sense of self...
April 2018: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Alfred Margulies
One can only be disillusioned if once one lived within illusions-and so disillusionment is always after the fact ( après coup or nachträglich), as illusions come into view even as they are crumbling within. With a crisis of disillusionment-or existential disillusionment-one falls away from a coherence of meaning, revealing a system of intertwined fundamental illusions that had always been lived within and implicit, part of one's being-in-the-world, and that now seem broken, strange, and uncanny. This way of being that one recognizes only retrospectively may be called "illusionment," a state of being apprehended in the very process of its falling apart...
April 2018: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
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