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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145190/charles-bonnet-syndrome-and-other-hallucinatory-phenomena
#1
François Boller, Daniel S Birnbaum, Nicoletta Caputi
Descriptions of hallucinatory phenomena have figured prominently since the beginning of recorded history. Jean Etienne Esquirol (1772-1840) is usually credited for having introduced the term in 1817, differentiating between hallucinations and illusions. Both are wrong perceptions, but in illusions, an external stimulus is always present whereas hallucinations are perceptions that occur in the absence of corresponding sensory stimuli. They occur in a variety of conditions but more often in the mentally ill, especially in schizophrenia where hallucinations, particularly auditory hallucinations represent for many, such as Henri Ey one of the cardinal features...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136409/neural-representation-of-form-contingent-color-filling-in-in-the-early-visual-cortex
#2
Sang Wook Hong, Frank Tong
Perceptual filling-in exemplifies the constructive nature of visual processing. Color, a prominent surface property of visual objects, can appear to spread to neighboring areas that lack any color. We investigated cortical responses to a color filling-in illusion that effectively dissociates perceived color from the retinal input (van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009). Observers adapted to a star-shaped stimulus with alternating red- and cyan-colored points to elicit a complementary afterimage. By presenting an achromatic outline that enclosed one of the two afterimage colors, perceptual filling-in of that color was induced in the unadapted central region...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124373/-the-chignon-mastopexy-a-double-glandular-suspended-flaps-for-an-auto-augmentation-effect
#3
Bouraoui Kotti
BACKGROUND: Many mastopexy techniques have been described in the literature focusing on the new nipple areolar complex position and the breast deflation treatment, but only few of them detailed the glandular volume redistribution to avoid the use of implants. We describe a mastopexy procedure that brings the maximum of the volume to the central part of the breast. We compare the procedure to a "chignon" hair style way to vulgarize the technique and simplify its comprehension. METHODS: Breast volume is reshaped by the use of a vertical mastopexy and two deepithelized glandular flaps sutured for the first one to the pectoralis major fascia and for the second one to the contralateral flap...
November 9, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122723/the-neuronal-network-involved-in-self-attribution-of-an-artificial-hand-a-lesion-network-symptom-mapping-study
#4
Max Wawrzyniak, Julian Klingbeil, Daniel Zeller, Dorothee Saur, Joseph Classen
The feeling of body-ownership can be experimentally manipulated using the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. Participants experience a sense of ownership over an artificial hand when their hidden real hand and the visible artificial hand are synchronously stroked. Using lesion masks and behavioral data from a previous study on RHI failure in acute stroke patients, we here employed lesion network-symptom-mapping (LNSM) based on normative functional connectome data to identify lesion-dependent network connectivity related to the experience of self-attribution of an artificial hand in the RHI paradigm...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118835/classic-cases-revisited-oxygen-in-court-and-the-problem-of-therapeutic-illusion
#5
Piotr Szawarski
Medical science attempts to inform clinical practice. Law is concerned with causality. Intersection of law and medicine at times highlights the shortcomings in the medical approach to causality. Evidence-based medicine is only as good as the process of gathering evidence and this is inherently imperfect as suggested by philosophers. There is a risk of attributing a causal relationship when there is none, which can result in a false belief about an intervention. False beliefs can become entrenched forming a dogma...
August 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117288/dynamic-network-communication-in-the-human-functional-connectome-predicts-perceptual-variability-in-visual-illusion
#6
Zhiwei Wang, Kristina Zeljic, Qinying Jiang, Yong Gu, Wei Wang, Zheng Wang
Ubiquitous variability between individuals in visual perception is difficult to standardize and has thus essentially been ignored. Here we construct a quantitative psychophysical measure of illusory rotary motion based on the Pinna-Brelstaff figure (PBF) in 73 healthy volunteers and investigate the neural circuit mechanisms underlying perceptual variation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We acquired fMRI data from a subset of 42 subjects during spontaneous and 3 stimulus conditions: expanding PBF, expanding modified-PBF (illusion-free) and expanding modified-PBF with physical rotation...
November 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114808/preferential-processing-of-cardinal-over-oblique-orientations-in-human-vision
#7
Gerald Westheimer
The oblique effect-poorer performance when contours are in oblique meridians-is here extended from the discrimination of line-orientation to the tilt illusion and to the detection and contextual induction of curvature. The distinction is made between a contour's susceptibility to contextual perturbation and its capacity to induce such perturbation, for which the oblique effect is only about one half. That the cardinal/oblique superiority is retained for the orientation of illusory borders and for the implicit orientation of shapes lacking explicit rectilinear delineation has implications for its neural substrate...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110638/application-of-the-2016-diagnostic-approach-for-autoimmune-encephalitis-from-lancet-neurology-to-chinese-patients
#8
Lin Li, Lin Sun, Rong Du, Yuanchu Zheng, Feifei Dai, Qiuying Ma, Jiawei Wang
BACKGROUND: A unified clinical approach to diagnose autoimmune encephalitis was published in Lancet Neurology in 2016. Purpose of our study is to examine the feasibility and reasonability of the 2016 "A clinical approach to diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis" in China with a retrospective study. METHODS: We retrospectively collected 95 cases of autoimmune encephalitis and non autoimmune encephalitis cases with detailed clinical data from Beijing Tongren Hospital and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)...
November 6, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109038/movements-and-body-ownership-evidence-from-the-rubber-hand-illusion-after-mechanical-limb-immobilization
#9
Dalila Burin, Francesca Garbarini, Valentina Bruno, Carlotta Fossataro, Cristina Destefanis, Anna Berti, Lorenzo Pia
There is no consensus on whether, and to what extent, actions contribute to constructing awareness of one's own body. Here we investigated at both physiological and behavioral level whether a prolonged limb immobilization affects body ownership. We tested a group of healthy participants, whose left-hand movements were prevented by a cast for one week, and a control group without any movement restriction. In both groups, we measured the strength of the rubber hand illusion (i.e., proprioceptive shift and questionnaire on ownership) and the physiological parameters known to be modulated by short-term arm immobilization (i...
November 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103810/subjective-behavioral-and-physiological-responses-to-the-rubber-hand-illusion-do-not-vary-with-age-in-the-adult-phase
#10
Priscila Palomo, Adrián Borrego, Ausiàs Cebolla, Roberto Llorens, Marcelo Demarzo, Rosa M Baños
The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a perceptual illusion that enables integration of artificial limbs into the body representation through combined multisensory integration. Most previous studies investigating the RHI have involved young healthy adults within a very narrow age range (typically 20-30 years old). The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of age on the RHI. The RHI was performed on 93 healthy adults classified into three groups of age (20-35 years old, N = 41; 36-60 years old, N = 28; and 61-80 years old, N = 24), and its effects were measured with subjective (Embodiment of Rubber Hand Questionnaire), behavioral (proprioceptive drift), and physiological (changes in skin temperature and conductance) measures...
November 3, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102292/less-invasive-screening-for-colorectal-cancer-by-microbiota-analysis-is-it-a-reality-or-an-illusion
#11
Hisashi Onodera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100659/the-sander-parallelogram-illusion-dissociates-action-and-perception-despite-control-for-the-litany-of-past-confounds
#12
Robert L Whitwell, Melvyn A Goodale, Kate E Merritt, James T Enns
The two visual systems hypothesis proposes that human vision is supported by a occipito-temporal network for the conscious visual perception of the world, and a fronto-parietal network for visually-guided, object-directed actions. Two specific claims about the fronto-parietal network's role in sensorimotor control have generated much data and controversy: (1) the network relies primarily on the absolute metrics of target objects, which it rapidly transforms into effector-specific frames of reference to guide the fingers, hands, and limbs, and (2) the network is largely unaffected by scene-based information extracted by the occipito-temporal network for those same targets...
October 5, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094146/dynamic-tilt-illusion-induced-by-continuous-contextual-orientation-alternations
#13
Xiangyong Yuan, Xilei Zhang, Yi Jiang
In the classic tilt illusion, the perceived orientation of a center patch is shifted away from its oriented context. Additionally, a stronger illusion effect is yielded when the center patch is simultaneously rather than asynchronously presented with a constant context for a shorter duration. However, little is known about the temporal characteristic of the tilt illusion in a reverse situation in which a constant center patch is presented throughout while the contexts change. Therefore, we continuously alternated two opposite-oriented contexts and manipulated alternate speeds to examine how the tilt illusion would build up as a function of dynamic contextual alternation...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090370/expectation-information-processing-and-subjective-duration
#14
Rhimmon Simchy-Gross, Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis
In research on psychological time, it is important to examine the subjective duration of entire stimulus sequences, such as those produced by music (Teki, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 2016). Yet research on the temporal oddball illusion (according to which oddball stimuli seem longer than standard stimuli of the same duration) has examined only the subjective duration of single events contained within sequences, not the subjective duration of sequences themselves. Does the finding that oddballs seem longer than standards translate to entire sequences, such that entire sequences that contain oddballs seem longer than those that do not? Is this potential translation influenced by the mode of information processing-whether people are engaged in direct or indirect temporal processing? Two experiments aimed to answer both questions using different manipulations of information processing...
October 31, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089190/speech-illusions-and-working-memory-performance-in-non-clinical-psychosis
#15
Tina Gupta, Jordan E DeVylder, Randy P Auerbach, Jason Schiffman, Vijay A Mittal
Psychotic disorders are characterized by auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), and research has shown that AVHs are linked to deficits in working memory. Our understanding of AVHs across the psychosis continuum is limited. To date, little research has tested whether hallucination proneness (HP) is linked with abnormalities on experimental multispeaker babble tasks. Few investigations have been conducted to determine how task performance might be linked to cognitive functioning. The objective of the current study is to better understand this empirical gap...
October 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084214/a-systems-level-approach-to-temporal-expression-dynamics-in-drosophila-reveals-clusters-of-long-term-memory-genes
#16
Julianna Bozler, Balint Z Kacsoh, Hao Chen, William E Theurkauf, Zhiping Weng, Giovanni Bosco
The ability to integrate experiential information and recall it in the form of memory is observed in a wide range of taxa, and is a hallmark of highly derived nervous systems. Storage of past experiences is critical for adaptive behaviors that anticipate both adverse and positive environmental factors. The process of memory formation and consolidation involve many synchronized biological events including gene transcription, protein modification, and intracellular trafficking: However, many of these molecular mechanisms remain illusive...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082527/time-touch-and-temperature-affect-perceived-finger-position-and-ownership-in-the-grasp-illusion
#17
Martin E Héroux, Nicolas Bayle, Annie A Butler, Simon C Gandevia
Perceived body position and ownership are fundamental to our ability to sense and interact with the world. Previous work indicates that temporally congruent, repetitive multisensory stimuli are needed to alter the sense of body ownership. In the present study 30 subjects passively grasped an artificial rubber finger with their left index and thumb while their right index finger, located 12 cm below, was lightly clamped. Fingers with varied physical characteristics were also passively grasped to determine how these characteristics influenced perceived body position and ownership...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081899/the-illusion-of-moral-superiority
#18
Ben M Tappin, Ryan T McKay
Most people strongly believe they are just, virtuous, and moral; yet regard the average person as distinctly less so. This invites accusations of irrationality in moral judgment and perception-but direct evidence of irrationality is absent. Here, we quantify this irrationality and compare it against the irrationality in other domains of positive self-evaluation. Participants (N = 270) judged themselves and the average person on traits reflecting the core dimensions of social perception: morality, agency, and sociability...
August 2017: Social Psychological and Personality Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079802/embodiment-in-a-virtual-body-that-speaks-produces-agency-over-the-speaking-but-does-not-necessarily-influence-subsequent-real-speaking
#19
Domna Banakou, Mel Slater
Previous results have shown that body ownership, induced through first-person perspective (1PP) over a virtual body (VB) that moves synchronously with real body movements, can lead to illusory agency over VB utterances even though the participant does not speak. It was also found that when participants later speak they follow the fundamental frequency (FF) of the voice of their VB, indicating a new motor plan for speaking. To eliminate the contribution of veridical agency over the VB movements, we conducted a study where we induced body ownership using visuotactile (VT) synchrony rather than visuomotor...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075665/memristive-stochastic-plasticity-enables-mimicking-of-neural-synchrony-memristive-circuit-emulates-an-optical-illusion
#20
Marina Ignatov, Martin Ziegler, Mirko Hansen, Hermann Kohlstedt
The human brain is able to integrate a myriad of information in an enormous and massively parallel network of neurons that are divided into functionally specialized regions such as the visual cortex, auditory cortex, or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Each of these regions participates as a context-dependent, self-organized, and transient subnetwork, which is shifted by changes in attention every 0.5 to 2 s. This leads to one of the most puzzling issues in cognitive neuroscience, well known as the "binding problem...
October 2017: Science Advances
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