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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923963/mistiming-of-thought-and-perception-predicts-delusionality
#1
Adam Bear, Rebecca G Fortgang, Michael V Bronstein, Tyrone D Cannon
The timing of thoughts and perceptions plays an essential role in belief formation. Just as people can experience in-the-moment perceptual illusions, however, they can also be deceived about how events unfold in time. Here, we consider how a particular type of temporal distortion, in which the apparent future influences "earlier" events in conscious awareness, might affect people's most fundamental beliefs about themselves and the world. Making use of a task that has been shown to elicit such reversals in the temporal experience of prediction and observation, we find that people who are more prone to think that they predicted an event that they actually already observed are also more likely to report holding delusion-like beliefs...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901881/sarah-chaney-psyche-on-the-skin-a-history-of-self-harm-london-reaktion-books-2017-pp-315-55-illus-%C3%A2-20-00-hardback-isbn-978-1-78023-750-3
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900301/geometric-phase-generated-optical-illusion
#3
Fuyong Yue, Xiaofei Zang, Dandan Wen, Zile Li, Chunmei Zhang, Huigang Liu, Brian D Gerardot, Wei Wang, Guoxing Zheng, Xianzhong Chen
An optical illusion, such as "Rubin's vase", is caused by the information gathered by the eye, which is processed in the brain to give a perception that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. Metasurfaces are metamaterials of reduced dimensionality which have opened up new avenues for flat optics. The recent advancement in spin-controlled metasurface holograms has attracted considerate attention, providing a new method to realize optical illusions. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a metasurface device to generate an optical illusion...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900289/spatiotemporal-brain-dynamics-of-auditory-temporal-assimilation
#4
Naruhito Hironaga, Takako Mitsudo, Mariko Hayamizu, Yoshitaka Nakajima, Hiroshige Takeichi, Shozo Tobimatsu
Time is a fundamental dimension, but millisecond-level judgments sometimes lead to perceptual illusions. We previously introduced a "time-shrinking illusion" using a psychological paradigm that induces auditory temporal assimilation (ATA). In ATA, the duration of two successive intervals (T1 and T2), marked by three auditory stimuli, can be perceived as equal when they are not. Here, we investigate the spatiotemporal profile of human temporal judgments using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Behavioural results showed typical ATA: participants judged T1 and T2 as equal when T2 - T1 ≤ +80 ms...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900225/the-neural-basis-of-spatial-vision-losses-in-the-dysfunctional-visual-system
#5
Jinfeng Huang, Yifeng Zhou, Caiyuan Liu, Zhongjian Liu, Chunmeng Luan, Tzvetomir Tzvetanov
Human vision relies on correct information processing from the eye to various visual areas. Disturbances in the visual perception of simple features are believed to come from low-level network (e.g., V1) disruptions. In the present study, we modelled monocular losses in spatial vision through plausible multiple network modifications in early visual coding. We investigated perceptual deficits in anisometropic amblyopia and used the monocular tilt illusion as a probe of primary visual cortex orientation coding and inhibitory interactions...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898294/causal-illusions-in-children-when-the-outcome-is-frequent
#6
María Manuela Moreno-Fernández, Fernando Blanco, Helena Matute
Causal illusions occur when people perceive a causal relation between two events that are actually unrelated. One factor that has been shown to promote these mistaken beliefs is the outcome probability. Thus, people tend to overestimate the strength of a causal relation when the potential consequence (i.e. the outcome) occurs with a high probability (outcome-density bias). Given that children and adults differ in several important features involved in causal judgment, including prior knowledge and basic cognitive skills, developmental studies can be considered an outstanding approach to detect and further explore the psychological processes and mechanisms underlying this bias...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891265/altered-bodily-self-consciousness-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Elena Nava, Flavia Mattioli, Chiara Gamberini, Chiara Stampatori, Fabio Bellomi, Chiara Turati, Ruggero Capra, Nadia Bolognini
In this study, we assessed the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on bodily self-consciousness (BSC) using the Rubber Hand Illusion. Patients with MS showed a dissociation between body ownership and self-location: they did report an explicit ownership of the rubber hand, but they did not point towards it, showing a defective ability of localizing body parts in space. This evidence indicates that MS may affect selective components of BSC, whose impairment may contribute to, and even worsen, the functional disability of MS...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887785/bioplausible-multiscale-filtering-in-retino-cortical-processing-as-a-mechanism-in-perceptual-grouping
#8
Nasim Nematzadeh, David M W Powers, Trent W Lewis
Why does our visual system fail to reconstruct reality, when we look at certain patterns? Where do Geometrical illusions start to emerge in the visual pathway? How far should we take computational models of vision with the same visual ability to detect illusions as we do? This study addresses these questions, by focusing on a specific underlying neural mechanism involved in our visual experiences that affects our final perception. Among many types of visual illusion, 'Geometrical' and, in particular, 'Tilt Illusions' are rather important, being characterized by misperception of geometric patterns involving lines and tiles in combination with contrasting orientation, size or position...
September 8, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884937/a-japanese-population-based-meta-analysis-of-vonoprazan-versus-ppi-for-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-therapy-is-superiority-an-illusion
#9
REVIEW
Shou Quan Dong, Tikka Prabhjot Singh, Xin Wei, Huang Yao, Hong Ling Wang
BACKGROUND: Vonoprazan (VPZ) is a novel acid suppressant that has been used in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapies in recent years. However, the efficacy and safety of VPZ vs proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) in H. pylori eradication therapies remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis in order to assess the efficacy and safety of VPZ vs PPI for H. pylori eradication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to July 10, 2017, for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized clinical studies (NRCTs)...
September 8, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878831/the-mirage-of-long-term-vital-benefice-risk-for-the-beginning-of-life
#10
Ramona Mohora, Decebal Hudita, Silvia-Maria Stoicescu
INTRODUCTION: Cord blood is the "life" of the fetus until birth. After delivery, the newborn is "single" and forced to adapt to live using the latest resources provided by the mother. Those who believe that a newborn is just a miniature independent adult are just trusting one of the illusions of secular medicine. Cord blood contains precious cells, stem, red and white blood cells. T cells as a part of white blood cells prevent infections and other illnesses. Cochrane Database 2013 published a study reporting the role of delayed umbilical cord clamping for the benefit of infants...
January 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878068/a-metacognitive-illusion-in-monkeys
#11
Stephen Ferrigno, Nate Kornell, Jessica F Cantlon
Like humans, monkeys can make accurate judgements about their own memory by reporting their confidence during cognitive tasks. Some have suggested that animals use associative learning to make accurate confidence judgements, while others have suggested animals directly access and estimate the strength of their memories. Here we test a third, non-exclusive possibility: perhaps monkeys, like humans, base metacognitive inferences on heuristic cues. Humans are known to use cues like perceptual fluency (e.g. how easy something is to see) when making metacognitive judgements...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869485/nerve-conduction-studies-as-a-measure-of-disease-progression-objectivity-or-illusion
#12
Giuseppe Lanza, Ana Kosac, Goran Trajkovic, Roger G Whittaker
BACKGROUND: Clinical nerve conduction studies (NCS) are often used as a secondary outcome measure in therapeutic trials, but show a high degree of inter-trial variability even when technical factors known to affect the recorded responses are minimised. This raises the intriguing possibility that some of the observed variability may reflect true changes in nerve activity. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was determine how much variability these factors might produce, and how this might affect the results of commonly used neuropathy rating scales...
2017: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864079/rubber-hand-illusion-increases-pain-caused-by-electric-stimuli
#13
Marta Siedlecka, Nadine Spychała, Marta Łukowska, Karolina Wiercioch, Michał Wierzchoń
The rubber hand illusion (RHI) has been shown to alter the experience of pain, although studies have yielded inconsistent results. In this experiment tested the influence of RHI on the intensity of pain caused by electric stimuli. Electric stimuli were delivered to participants' experimental and control hands before RHI induction (control condition) and afterwards (experimental condition), in a procedure that was double-blind in respect to location and strength of noxious stimulation All hands were covered during the stimulation to avoid the analgesic effect of seeing one's own body part...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859684/sex-differences-in-thermal-detection-and-thermal-pain-threshold-and-the-thermal-grill-illusion-a-psychophysical-study-in-young-volunteers
#14
Beate Averbeck, Lena Seitz, Florian P Kolb, Dieter F Kutz
BACKGROUND: Sex-related differences in human thermal and pain sensitivity are the subject of controversial discussion. The goal of this study in a large number of subjects was to investigate sex differences in thermal and thermal pain perception and the thermal grill illusion (TGI) as a phenomenon reflecting crosstalk between the thermoreceptive and nociceptive systems. The thermal grill illusion is a sensation of strong, but not necessarily painful, heat often preceded by transient cold upon skin contact with spatially interlaced innocuous warm and cool stimuli...
September 1, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856962/do-delayed-judgments-of-learning-reduce-metamemory-illusions-a-meta-analysis
#15
Karlos Luna, Beatriz Martín-Luengo, Pedro B Albuquerque
Past research has shown that the perceptual characteristics of studied items (e.g., font size) leads to a metamemory illusion, and that delayed JOLs are better predictors of memory performance than immediate JOLs. Here, we tested whether delayed JOLs could reduce or eliminate the effect of perceptual characteristics on JOLs and restudy decisions. We adopted a meta-analytic approach and analysed the results of 28 experiments in which participants studied items presented in either large or small font. JOLs and, sometimes, restudy decisions, were collected either immediately or after a delay...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853037/does-visuomotor-adaptation-contribute-to-illusion-resistant-grasping
#16
Evan Cesanek, Carlo Campagnoli, Jordan A Taylor, Fulvio Domini
Do illusory distortions of perceived object size influence how wide the hand is opened during a grasping movement? Many studies on this question have reported illusion-resistant grasping, but this finding has been contradicted by other studies showing that grasping movements and perceptual judgments are equally susceptible. One largely unexplored explanation for these contradictions is that illusion effects on grasping can be reduced with repeated movements. Using a visuomotor adaptation paradigm, we investigated whether an adaptation model could predict the time course of Ponzo illusion effects on grasping...
August 29, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851953/embodiment-in-a-child-like-talking-virtual-body-influences-object-size-perception-self-identification-and-subsequent-real-speaking
#17
Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Domna Banakou, Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze, Mel Slater
People's mental representations of their own body are malleable and continuously updated through sensory cues. Altering one's body-representation can lead to changes in object perception and implicit attitudes. Virtual reality has been used to embody adults in the body of a 4-year-old child or a scaled-down adult body. Child embodiment was found to cause an overestimation of object sizes, approximately double that during adult embodiment, and identification of the self with child-like attributes. Here we tested the contribution of auditory cues related to one's own voice to these visually-driven effects...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844705/resectable-pancreatic-head-adenocarcinoma-is-r0-resection-an-illusion-genetic-evaluation-of-venous-resection-margin-affirmed-unrecognized-disease
#18
O Turrini, M Gilabert, J Ewald, V Moutardier, J-R Delpero, J-L Iovanna
PURPOSE: To assess the K-ras gene mutation in the histologically negative venous margin of a pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) specimen and its impact on survival. METHOD: From 2007 to 2010, 22 patients underwent R0 PD for resecable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. All specimens were stained and the portal vein (PV) bed was identified by blue ink; a 2mm(3) sample (including the blue ink) was cut from a microscopic free-tumor block. DNA was extracted and assessed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to detect the K-ras gene mutation...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Visceral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843995/what-s-left-of-the-mirror-illusion-when-the-mirror-can-no-longer-be-seen-bilateral-integration-of-proprioceptive-afferents
#19
Marie Chancel, Anne Kavounoudias, Michel Guerraz
Recent data suggest that manipulating the muscle afferents of one arm affects both ipsilateral and contralateral perceptual estimates. Here, we used the mirror paradigm to study the bimanual integration of kinesthetic muscle afferents. The reflection of a moving hand in a mirror positioned in the sagittal plane creates an illusion of symmetrical bimanual movement. Although vision clearly has a role in kinesthesia, its role in the mirror illusion might have been overestimated. Conversely, the role of bimanual integration of muscle afferents might have been underestimated...
August 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842754/chen-s-double-eyelid-fold-illusion-an-eye-size-assimilation-illusion-induced-by-a-supratarsal-fold-in-the-brow-eye-unit-a-preliminary-report
#20
Sheng-Ni Chen, Sheng-Hung Chen, Chen-Chia Chen, Chien-Lin Huang, Hao-Chih Tai, Yong-Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Double eyelidplasty can enhance the eye size and facial attractiveness of Asian individuals with single eyelids. The authors hypothesize that a supratarsal fold can induce an eye size assimilation illusion to enhance eye dimensions and aesthetics, and seek to define the optimum vertical proportion between a supratarsal fold and the eye fissure associated with maximal induction of the size assimilation illusion. METHODS: A photometric study of the replicated photographs of ten female Taiwanese patients after double eyelidplasty was designed...
August 25, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
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