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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429801/the-dizzy-patient-don-t-forget-disorders-of-the-central-vestibular-system
#1
REVIEW
Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common complaints in neurology clinics, and they account for about 13% of the patients entering emergency units. In this Review, we focus on central vestibular disorders, which are mostly attributable to acute unilateral lesions of the bilateral vestibular circuitry in the brain. In a tertiary interdisciplinary outpatient dizziness unit, central vestibular disorders, including vestibular migraine, comprise about 25% of the established diagnoses. The signs and symptoms of these disorders can mimic those of peripheral vestibular disorders with sustained rotational vertigo...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427892/contour-adaptation-reduces-the-spreading-of-edge-induced-colors
#2
Andrew J Coia, Michael A Crognale
Brief exposure to flickering achromatic outlines of an area causes a reduction in the brightness contrast of the surface inside the area. This contour adaptation to achromatic contours does not reduce surface contrast when the surface is chromatic (the saturation or colorimetric purity of the surface is maintained). In addition to reducing the brightness of physical luminance contrast, contour adaptation also reduces (or even reverses) the illusory brightness contrast seen in the Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet illusion, in which two physically identical grey areas appear different brightness because of a sharp luminance edge separating them...
April 17, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423412/brief-presentation-enhances-various-simultaneous-contrast-effects
#3
Sae Kaneko, Stuart Anstis, Ichiro Kuriki
Kaneko and Murakami (2012) demonstrated that simultaneous contrast for brightness and color (chromatic saturation) were enhanced by flashing the stimulus very briefly (10 ms). Here we examined whether this effect of duration generalized to other visual features. Tilt illusion and simultaneous hue contrast were both shown to be much stronger with a stimulus duration of 10 ms compared with 500 ms. The similar temporal dynamics for simultaneous contrast across visual features suggest common underlying principles...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420952/motion-induced-position-shifts-activate-early-visual-cortex
#4
Peter J Kohler, Patrick Cavanagh, Peter U Tse
The ability to correctly determine the position of objects in space is a fundamental task of the visual system. The perceived position of briefly presented static objects can be influenced by nearby moving contours, as demonstrated by various illusions collectively known as motion-induced position shifts. Here we use a stimulus that produces a particularly strong effect of motion on perceived position. We test whether several regions-of-interest (ROIs), at different stages of visual processing, encode the perceived rather than retinotopically veridical position...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419720/illusory-hand-ownership-in-a-patient-with-personal-neglect-for-the-upper-limb-but-no-somatoparaphenia
#5
Roberta Ronchi, Lukas Heydrich, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
The symptoms of patients with left personal neglect are characterized by inattention towards contralesional (left) body parts while at the same time explicitly ascertaining ownership for the neglected hemibody. It is currently unknown if personal neglect is associated with more subtle or implicit disturbances of own body perception and body ownership as measured with the rubber hand illusion. In this study, we report data from a patient with a right hemispheric lesion and personal neglect, without associated somatosensory deficits...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419116/weak-experiences-sufficient-for-creating-illusory-figures-that-influence-perception-of-actual-lines
#6
Simon Hviid Del Pin, Kristian Sandberg, Bo Martin Bibby, Morten Overgaard
The question of whether conscious experience is best viewed as graded or dichotomous has received much scientific attention in recent years as the answer is relevant not only to models of consciousness, but also to the examination of neural markers of consciousness in patients and infants. Although some studies have found evidence of graded perception, it is unclear whether such perception is simply composed of individual stimulus features perceived in an all-or-none manner. Here, we examined whether the Kanizsa triangle (an illusory figure that is supposedly only perceived when all its parts are visible) has an impact on line length discrimination across four degrees of subjective visibility...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417617/indocyanine-green-videoangiography-the-thin-border-between-a-useful-tool-and-an-illusion-of-safety
#7
Giacomo Pavesi, Andrea Prontera, Alberto Feletti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416095/self-and-other-agency-in-people-with-passivity-first-rank-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#8
Kyran T Graham-Schmidt, Mathew T Martin-Iverson, Flavie A V Waters
Individuals with passivity (first-rank) symptoms report that their actions, thoughts and sensations are influenced or controlled by an external (non-self) agent. Passivity symptoms are closely linked to schizophrenia and related disorders yet they remain poorly understood. One dominant framework posits a role for deficits in the sense of agency. An important question is whether deficits in self-agency can be differentiated from other-agency in schizophrenia and passivity symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate self- and other-agency in 51 people with schizophrenia (n=20 current, 10 past, 21 no history of passivity symptoms), and 48 healthy controls...
April 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410476/fear-reactivity-to-cognitive-dyscontrol-via-novel-head-mounted-display-perceptual-illusion-exercises
#9
Daniel W Capron, Aaron M Norr, Brian J Albanese, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC), refer to fears of mental catastrophe or losing control over mental processes. Recent findings show that ASCC are related to suicide risk, mood disorders and trauma-related disorders. Using controlled experimental psychopathology paradigms could be one heretofore unutilized method of increasing understanding of ASCC. Our goal was to test fear reactivity to four head-mounted display perceptual illusion challenges designed to bring on feelings of cognitive dyscontrol (i...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402278/correlated-high-expression-of-fxr-and-sp1-of-the-cancer-cells-confers-a-poor-prognosis-for-pancreatic-cancer-a-study-based-on-tcga-and-tissue-microarray
#10
Hai Hu, Lei-Lei Wu, Ting Han, Meng Zhuo, Wang Lei, Jiu-Jie Cui, Feng Jiao, Li-Wei Wang
Bile acids (BAs) was critical in the initiation and progression of various tumors. However, their prognostic significance in pancreatic cancer was still illusive. In the present study, the expression and biological significance of FXR, a major receptor of BAs, in the lethal disease were evaluated in mRNA and protein levels. We found that FXR protein was elevated in the cancerous tissues, which was significantly higher than the adjacent tissues (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, our data showed that FXR was positively correlated with primary tumor location (p = 0...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392764/eye-tracking-reveals-that-the-strength-of-the-vertical-horizontal-illusion-increases-as-the-retinal-image-becomes-more-stable-with-fixation
#11
Philippe A Chouinard, Hayden J Peel, Oriane Landry
The closer a line extends toward a surrounding frame, the longer it appears. This is known as a framing effect. Over 70 years ago, Teodor Künnapas demonstrated that the shape of the visual field itself can act as a frame to influence the perceived length of lines in the vertical-horizontal illusion. This illusion is typically created by having a vertical line rise from the center of a horizontal line of the same length creating an inverted T figure. We aimed to determine if the degree to which one fixates on a spatial location where the two lines bisect could influence the strength of the illusion, assuming that the framing effect would be stronger when the retinal image is more stable...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391207/evaluation-of-wearable-haptic-systems-for-the-fingers-in-augmented-reality-applications
#12
Maurizio Maisto, Claudio Pacchierotti, Francesco Chinello, Gionata Salvietti, Alessandro De Luca, Domenico Prattichizzo
Although Augmented Reality (AR) has been around for almost five decades, only recently we have witnessed AR systems and applications entering in our everyday life. Representative examples of this technological revolution are the smartphone games "Pok´emon GO" and "Ingress" or the Google Translate real-time sign interpretation app. Even if AR applications are already quite compelling and widespread, users are still not able to physically interact with the computer-generated reality. In this respect, wearable haptics can provide the compelling illusion of touching the superimposed virtual objects without constraining the motion or the workspace of the user...
April 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388483/illusions-of-integration-are-subjectively-impenetrable-phenomenological-experience-of-lag-1-percepts-during-dual-target-rsvp
#13
Luca Simione, Elkan G Akyürek, Valentina Vastola, Antonino Raffone, Howard Bowman
We investigated the relationship between different kinds of target reports in a rapid serial visual presentation task, and their associated perceptual experience. Participants reported the identity of two targets embedded in a stream of stimuli and their associated subjective visibility. In our task, target stimuli could be combined together to form more complex ones, thus allowing participants to report temporally integrated percepts. We found that integrated percepts were associated with high subjective visibility scores, whereas reports in which the order of targets was reversed led to a poorer perceptual experience...
April 4, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387001/pareidolic-illusions-of-a-patient-with-suspected-late-onset-sleep-related-epilepsy
#14
Masahiko Takaya, Masahiko Atsumi, Kazunari Ishii, Osamu Shirakawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383958/ad-hoc-categories-and-false-memories-memory-illusions-for-categories-created-on-the-spot
#15
Jerônimo C Soro, Mário B Ferreira, Gün R Semin, André Mata, Paula Carneiro
Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment 1 revealed considerable levels of false recognitions of critical words from ad hoc categories. False recognitions occurred even when the lists were presented without an organizing theme (i...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374306/sarah-s-richardson-sex-itself-the-search-for-male-and-female-in-the-human-genome-chicago-and-london-university-of-chicago-press-2013-vii%C3%A2-%C3%A2-311pp-illus-48-00-27-00-paperback
#16
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374284/the-scope-of-formal-explanation
#17
Sandeep Prasada
The existence of multiple modes of explanation means that a crucial step in the process of generating explanations has to be selecting a particular mode. The present article identifies the key conceptual, as well as some pragmatic and epistemological, considerations that license the use of the formal mode of explanation, and thus that enter into the process of selecting and generating a formal explanation. Formal explanations explain the presence of certain properties in an instance of a kind by reference to the kind of thing it is (e...
April 3, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362898/dynamic-modulation-of-illusory-and-physical-target-size-on-separate-and-coordinated-eye-and-hand-movements
#18
Christine M Gamble, Joo-Hyun Song
In everyday behavior, two of the most common visually guided actions-eye and hand movements-can be performed independently, but are often synergistically coupled. In this study, we examine whether the same visual representation is used for different stages of saccades and pointing, namely movement preparation and execution, and whether this usage is consistent between independent and naturalistic coordinated eye and hand movements. To address these questions, we used the Ponzo illusion to dissociate the perceived and physical sizes of visual targets and measured the effects on movement preparation and execution for independent and coordinated saccades and pointing...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360849/embodied-medicine-mens-sana-in-corpore-virtuale-sano
#19
Giuseppe Riva, Silvia Serino, Daniele Di Lernia, Enea Francesco Pavone, Antonios Dakanalis
Progress in medical science and technology drastically improved physicians' ability to interact with patient's physical body. Nevertheless, medicine still addresses the human body from a Hippocratic point of view, considering the organism and its processes just as a matter of mechanics and fluids. However, the interaction between the cognitive neuroscience of bodily self-consciousness (BSC), fundamentally rooted in the integration of multisensory bodily inputs, with virtual reality (VR), haptic technologies and robotics is giving a new meaning to the classic Juvenal's latin dictum "Mens sana in corpore sano" (a healthy mind in a healthy body)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356412/dynamic-masquerade-with-morphing-three-dimensional-skin-in-cuttlefish
#20
Deanna Panetta, Kendra Buresch, Roger T Hanlon
Masquerade is a defence tactic in which a prey resembles an inedible or inanimate object thus causing predators to misclassify it. Most masquerade colour patterns are static although some species adopt postures or behaviours to enhance the effect. Dynamic masquerade in which the colour pattern can be changed is rare. Here we report a two-step sensory process that enables an additional novel capability known only in cuttlefish and octopus: morphing three-dimensional physical skin texture that further enhances the optical illusions created by coloured skin patterns...
March 2017: Biology Letters
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