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Head & neck cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470550/the-pregnane-x-receptor-pxr-and-the-nuclear-receptor-corepressor-2-ncor2-modulate-cell-growth-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Juan Pablo Rigalli, Matthias Reichel, Tasmin Reuter, Guillermo Nicolás Tocchetti, Gerhard Dyckhoff, Christel Herold-Mende, Dirk Theile, Johanna Weiss
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most frequent cancer worldwide. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor regulating several target genes associated with cancer malignancy. We here demonstrated a significant effect of PXR on HNSCC cell growth, as evidenced in PXR knock-down experiments. PXR transcriptional activity is more importantly regulated by the presence of coactivators and corepressors than by PXR protein expression. To date, there is scarce information on the regulation of PXR in HNSCC and on its role in the pathogenesis of this disease...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470184/impact-of-3d-virtual-planning-on-reconstruction-of-mandibular-and-maxillary-surgical-defects-in-head-and-neck-oncology
#2
Max J H Witjes, Rutger H Schepers, Joep Kraeima
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the advances in 3D virtual planning for mandibular and maxillary reconstruction surgical defects with full prosthetic rehabilitation. The primary purpose is to provide an overview of various techniques that apply 3D technology safely in primary and secondary reconstructive cases of patients suffering from head and neck cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Methods have been developed to overcome the problem of control over the margin during surgery while the crucial decision with regard to resection margin and planning of osteotomies were predetermined by virtual planning...
February 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469078/barriers-affecting-adherence-to-radiation-treatment-and-strategies-to-overcome-those-barriers
#3
R Rangarajan, K Jayaraman
BACKGROUND: The WHO defines adherence as the extent to which a patient's behavior coincides with recommendations from a health-care provider. Nonadherence to cancer treatment has a major impact on the therapeutic outcome. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the prevalence of nonadherence to radiation regimen and to analyze the factors that affect adherence to cancer treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients receiving radiation treatment in our hospital were screened for adherence to appointment keeping and to the prescribed radiation regimen and patients who had unplanned treatment breaks during treatment were interviewed...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469077/carboplatin-based-concurrent-chemoradiation-therapy-in-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-who-are-unfit-for-cisplatin-therapy
#4
V Noronha, V Sharma, A Joshi, V M Patil, S G Laskar, K Prabhash
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin-based chemoradiation (CTRT) is the standard of care in locally advanced head and neck cancers. Limited treatment options are available in patients unfit for cisplatin. AIMS: This audit was carried out to study the toxicities, tolerance, and outcomes of carboplatin-based CTRT in patients who are not eligible for cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 63 locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated between January 2011 and October 2015 were administered carboplatin-based CTRT...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468910/definitive-re-irradiation-using-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-in-cancers-of-the-head-and-neck-focusing-on-rare-tumors
#5
Hiroshi Doi, Kenji Uemoto, Norihisa Masai, Daisaku Tatsumi, Hiroya Shiomi, Ryoong-Jin Oh
PURPOSE: To analyze the outcomes following re-irradiation for local recurrence of rare head and neck tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 11 patients who had received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for recurrent tumors in the head and neck except for laryngopharynx. RESULTS: Primary tumor sites included the maxillary sinus, nasal cavity, and external ear canal in six, three, and two patients, respectively...
February 22, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468660/spatiotemporal-homogeneity-and-distinctness-of-the-t-cell-receptor-%C3%AE-chain-repertoires-in-epstein-barr-virus-associated-primary-and-metastatic-nasopharyngeal-carcinomas
#6
Yih-Lin Chung, Mei-Ling Wu
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoepithelioma. The aim of the present study was to characterize the homogeneity and distinctness of the T-cell repertoires within and between primary and metastatic NPCs. We used ultra-deep sequencing of the hypervariably rearranged antigen-binding CDR3 regions of T-cell receptor beta (TCRbeta ) to comprehensively profile the T-cell repertoires in NPC patients receiving definitive chemoradiotherapy with long-term follow-up. We observed not only various spatially heterogeneous patient-specific TCRbeta clone compositions that changed with time but also several commonly enriched TCRbeta subclones that were constantly shared between primary NPCs in the head and neck regions, locally recurrent tumors after treatment, and later-developed distant metastatic tumors in the liver, lung and bone...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468275/-the-innate-immune-system-in-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-immune-modulation-by-hpv
#7
REVIEW
S Wagner, H Böckmann, S Gattenlöhner, J P Klussmann, C Wittekindt
Based on clinical and experimental data, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) have been recognized as a distinct entity of head and neck cancers. However, outside of clinical trials, HPV status currently has no impact on treatment. The natural replication cycle of HPV takes place in epithelial cells, and is thus spatially separated from cytotoxic immune cells in the epidermis. Dendritic cells (Langerhans cells, LC), however, are frequent in this upper dermal layer...
February 15, 2018: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467336/frameshift-events-predict-anti-pd-1-l1-response-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#8
Glenn J Hanna, Patrick Lizotte, Megan Cavanaugh, Frank C Kuo, Priyanka Shivdasani, Alexander Frieden, Nicole G Chau, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Jochen H Lorch, Ravindra Uppaluri, Laura E MacConaill, Robert I Haddad
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors have efficacy in treating squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), but objective response rates are low. PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) expression alone is not considered a robust predictor of response and additional biomarkers are needed. This 3-year observational cohort followed 126 SCCHN patients treated with anti-PD-1/L1 therapy. Prior to treatment, 81 (64%) had targeted massively parallel tumor sequencing. Of these, 42 (52%) underwent fluorescence-activated cell sorting and PD-L1 immunohistochemistry for tumor immunoprofiling...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466887/access-to-anti-cancer-drugs-in-india-is-there-a-need-to-revise-reimbursement-policies
#9
Gertruud Haitsma, Himanshu Patel, Parthasarathi Gurumurthy, Maarten J Postma
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the access of Indian cancer patients to optimum cancer care under selected government schemes by reviewing reimbursement schemes for cancer care in India. METHODS: All cancer care reimbursement schemes in India were identified and three highly utilized schemes (VAS, RAS, CMCHS) were selected. Quality of breast, colorectal, lung, head & neck, and gastric cancer care was reviewed with respect to NCCN guidelines...
February 22, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465316/orbital-invasion-routes-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancers-and-survival-outcomes
#10
Yusuf Dundar, Richard Cannon, Richard Wiggins, Marcus M Monroe, Luke O Buchmann, Jason P Hunt
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Overall non-melanoma head and neck skin cancer has a good prognosis; however, rarely patients have an aggressive variant which results in orbital invasion via perineural spread or direct extension. Despite these consequences, there are limited published studies defining this clinical entity. The main objectives of the current study are to describe orbital invasion patterns of non-melanoma head and neck skin cancers and their impact on survival. METHODS: Retrospective case series from a tertiary-care, academic institution performed between 2004 and 2014...
February 21, 2018: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464975/pembrolizumab-and-its-use-in-the-treatment-of-recurrent-or-metastatic-head-and-neck-cancer
#11
Siddharth Sheth, Jared Weiss
Until recently, palliative options for the treatment of platinum-refractory recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC) have been cytotoxic chemotherapy and EGFR inhibitors. These agents offer limited efficacy with substantial toxicity. The development of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors has challenged the standard treatment. Pembrolizumab is a potent and highly selective humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction between PD-1, an immune checkpoint receptor and its ligands PD-L1 and -2...
February 21, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464112/phase-i-study-of-tomuzotuximab-a-glycoengineered-therapeutic-antibody-against-the-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-patients-with-advanced-carcinomas
#12
Walter Fiedler, Sara Cresta, Henning Schulze-Bergkamen, Sara De Dosso, Jens Weidmann, Anna Tessari, Hans Baumeister, Antje Danielczyk, Bruno Dietrich, Steffen Goletz, Alfredo Zurlo, Marc Salzberg, Cristiana Sessa, Luca Gianni
Background: Changes in glycosylation of the constant domain (Fc) of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) enhance antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity independently of downstream effects following receptor blockade by the antibody, thus extending their indication. We investigated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and antitumour activity of tomuzotuximab, an IgG1 glycoengineered mAb against the epidermal growth factor receptor with enhanced tumour cytotoxicity in a phase I dose-escalation study (NTC01222637)...
2018: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464041/inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BA-b-prevents-the-acidic-bile-induced-oncogenic-mrna-phenotype-in-human-hypopharyngeal-cells
#13
Dimitra P Vageli, Sotirios G Doukas, Clarence T Sasaki
Bile-containing gastro-duodenal reflux has been clinically considered an independent risk factor in hypopharyngeal carcinogenesis. We recently showed that the chronic effect of acidic bile, at pH 4.0, selectively induces NF- κ B activation and accelerates the transcriptional levels of genes, linked to head and neck cancer, in normal hypopharyngeal epithelial cells. Here, we hypothesize that NF- κ B inhibition is capable of preventing the acidic bile-induced and cancer-related mRNA phenotype, in treated normal human hypopharyngeal cells...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464035/upregulation-of-cell-cycle-genes-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-may-be-antagonized-by-erufosine-s-down-regulation-of-cell-cycle-processes-in-oscc-cells
#14
Shariq S Ansari, Ashwini K Sharma, Michael Zepp, Elizabet Ivanova, Frank Bergmann, Rainer König, Martin R Berger
The TCGA database was analyzed to identify deregulation of cell cycle genes across 24 cancer types and ensuing effects on patient survival. Pan-cancer analysis showed that head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) ranks amongst the top four cancers showing deregulated cell cycle genes. Also, the median gene expression of all CDKs and cyclins in HNSCC patient samples was higher than that of the global gene expression. This was verified by IHC staining of CCND1 from HNSCC patients. When evaluating the quartiles with highest and lowest expression, increased CCND1/CDK6 levels had negative implication on patient survival...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464006/delivery-of-sonic-hedgehog-gene-repressed-irradiation-induced-cellular-senescence-in-salivary-glands-by-promoting-dna-repair-and-reducing-oxidative-stress
#15
Bo Hai, Qingguo Zhao, Michael A Deveau, Fei Liu
Rationale: Irreversible hypofunction of salivary glands or xerostomia is common in head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy even when various new techniques are applied to minimize the irradiation (IR) damage. This condition severely impairs the quality of life of patients and can only be temporarily relieved with current treatments. We found recently that transient expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in salivary glands after IR rescued salivary function, but the underlying mechanisms are not totally clear...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463991/cancer-associated-fibroblast-derived-il-6-promotes-head-and-neck-cancer-progression-via-the-osteopontin-nf-kappa-b-signaling-pathway
#16
Xing Qin, Ming Yan, Xu Wang, Qin Xu, Xiaoning Wang, Xueqin Zhu, Jianbo Shi, Zhihui Li, Jianjun Zhang, Wantao Chen
Osteopontin (OPN), a chemokine-like protein, plays a crucial role in the proliferation and metastasis of various cancers. However, how tumor stroma modulates the expression of neoplastic OPN and the multifaceted roles of OPN in head and neck cancer (HNC) are unclear. In this study, we tried to investigate the bridging role of OPN between tumor stroma and cancer cells. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining and quantitative real-time PCR were used to detect OPN expression in HNC tissues, and the correlations between OPN expression and clinicopathologic features were then analyzed...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463797/induction-of-er-and-mitochondrial-stress-by-the-alkylphosphocholine-erufosine-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#17
Shariq S Ansari, Ashwini K Sharma, Himanshu Soni, Doaa M Ali, Björn Tews, Rainer König, Hansjörg Eibl, Martin R Berger
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an essential role in cell function and survival. Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the lumen of the ER activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), resulting in ER stress and subsequent apoptosis. The alkylphosphocholine erufosine is a known Akt-mTOR inhibitor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In the present study, we evaluate erufosine's role to induce ER and mitochondrial stress leading to autophagy, apoptosis, and ROS induction. The cellular toxicity of erufosine was determined in two OSCC cell lines and gene expression and enrichment analyses were performed...
February 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462183/galanin-is-an-epigenetically-silenced-tumor-suppressor-gene-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#18
Daseul Yoon, Kieun Bae, Min-Kyeong Lee, Jin Hee Kim, Kyong-Ah Yoon
Galanin is a 30 amino-acid active neuropeptide that acts via three G-protein coupled galanin receptors, GALR1, GALR2 and GALR3. Recently, GALR1 was also suggested as a tumor suppressor gene that was frequently silenced in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; moreover, galanin and GALR1 were reported to inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation. However, the exact role of galanin in gastric cancer is unclear. Here, we describe the epigenetic silencing of galanin in human gastric cancer. Five gastric cancer cell lines (SNU-1, SNU-601, SNU-638, KATOIII, and AGS) showed a significant reduction in galanin expression that was restored by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461655/exploring-the-rationale-for-combining-ionizing-radiation-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Megan Morisada, Michael Chamberlin, Clint Allen
BACKGROUND: The ability of radiation to enhance antitumor immunity under specific experimental conditions is well established. Here, we explore preclinical data and the rationale for combining different radiation doses and fractions with immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. METHODS: We conducted a review of the literature. RESULTS: The ability of high-dose or hypofractionated radiation to enhance antitumor immunity resulting in additive or synergistic tumor control when combined with checkpoint blockade is well studied...
February 20, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461649/contextual-and-stress-process-factors-associated-with-head-and-neck-cancer-caregivers-physical-and-psychological-well-being
#20
M-S Paek, C L Nightingale, J A Tooze, B-J Milliron, K E Weaver, K R Sterba
Head and neck cancer (HNC) caregivers are especially vulnerable to poor outcomes because the HNC patients are at high risk for physical and functional impairments. This study examines contextual and stress process variables potentially associated with HNC caregivers' physical and psychological well-being. Patient-caregiver variables included socio-demographics, primary stressors (caregiving, patient clinical characteristics, HNC-related symptoms/dysfunction), secondary stressors (caregiver employment, childcare responsibilities and sleep duration <7 hr), appraisal, and response (physical activity)...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
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