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Luther Elliott, Andrew Golub, Alexander Bennett
This study examines the temporal relationship between prescription opioid (PO) and heroin use among veterans in New York City. Drawing on survey data from a convenience sample of 214 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND)-era opioid-using military veterans, analyses demonstrate substantial cohort-level variation. Most notably, heroin use prior to PO initiation and prior to military enlistment was reported more frequently among the cohorts born prior to 1970 and after 1984...
2018: Military Behavioral Health
Holly Sairsingh, Phyllis Solomon, Amy Helstrom, Dan Treglia
Objective: Women are serving in the armed forces and deployed to areas of conflict in increasing numbers. Problems such as depressive symptoms and risks related to combat exposure can have negative effects on adjustment following service; understanding the relationship between these problems may contribute to strategies providers can use to facilitate healthy adjustment after deployment. The purpose of this study is to examine social factors as they relate to mental health adjustment, namely depressive symptoms among female veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan as part of Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OND)...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Timothy A Mitchener, Noel E Dickens, John W Simecek
Background: Few studies have examined the causes or mechanisms of oral-maxillofacial (OMF) injury among deployed military populations. This study reports causes of OMF injuries to U.S. Department of Defense personnel deployed to Afghanistan in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) or to Iraq in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation New Dawn (OND). This study provides follow-on analysis of a previous report of OMF injury rates among U.S. military personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
David Blanco-Canitrot, Jesús M Alvarado, Daniel Ondé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
S B Norman, M Haller, Hyungjin Myra Kim, C B Allard, K E Porter, M B Stein, M R Venners, C C Authier, S A M Rauch
Trauma related guilt, a distressing emotion associated with negative cognitions regarding one's actions or inaction during a traumatic event, is common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that trauma related guilt cognitions would partially explain the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and functioning. The sample consisted of 254 combat veterans or active duty military personnel who served in Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) who consented to participate in a larger PTSD treatment study...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jing Peng, Hui Zhang, Peidong Liu, Min Chen, Bing Xue, Rui Wang, Jifei Shou, Juanfeng Qian, Zhikang Zhao, Yanmeng Xing, Hongbo Liu
IL-23 and IL-27 are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). However, changes in these cytokines during the dynamic pathological and recovery processes of GBS are not well described. In the present study, plasma was collected from 83 patients with various stages of GBS, 70 patients with central nervous system demyelinating diseases,70 patients with other neurological diseases (OND) and 70 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Serum levels of IL-23, IL-27, and Campylobacter jejuni (CJ) IgM were assessed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wen Chin Foo, Yuet Mei Khong, Rajeev Gokhale, Sui Yung Chan
Orodispersible films (ODF) have clinical potential as extemporaneous pharmacy preparations for individualized pharmacotherapy. However, the conventional method of ODF preparation using a film applicator may limit its application, due to content uniformity challenges arising from viscosity changes of the casting solution and varied operator manipulation. This study proposes the unit-dose (UD) plate as an alternative to the film applicator for compounding individual ODFs. Using a design-of-experiments approach, we developed an extemporaneous ODF formulation for an antiemetic drug, ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate (OND), at a clinically relevant dose...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Paula L Castro-Chapman, Scott P Orr, John Berg, Suzanne L Pineles, Jessica Yanson, Kristen Salomon
For over three decades, there has been considerable research documenting increased physiological reactivity to trauma-related stimuli as a characteristic feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study explored the potential for physiological assessment to aid in defining and validating screening criteria for the presence of significant PTSD-related symptoms in a sample of OEF/OIF/OND Veterans seeking care in a VA post-deployment health clinic. Heart rate reactivity scores during the imagining phase of the script-driven imagery paradigm were compared across groups of individuals with and without probable PTSD diagnoses, as defined by PCL-IV cutoff scores ranging from 40 to 60...
January 11, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Satoshi Yamamoto, Douglas S DeWitt, Donald S Prough
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most frequent causes of combat casualties in Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Enduring Freedom (OEF), and New Dawn (OND). Although less common than combat-related blast exposure, there have been significant numbers of blast injuries in civilian populations in the United States. Current United States Department of Defense (DoD) ICD-9 derived diagnoses of TBI in the DoD Health Care System show that, for 2016, severe and moderate TBIs accounted for just 0.7% and 12.9%, respectively, of the total of 13,634 brain injuries, while mild TBIs (mTBIs) accounted for 86% of the total...
January 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lorenzo Gaetani, Kina Höglund, Lucilla Parnetti, Fani Pujol-Calderon, Bruno Becker, Paolo Eusebi, Paola Sarchielli, Paolo Calabresi, Massimiliano Di Filippo, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light (NfL) is a reliable marker of neuro-axonal damage in different neurological disorders that is related to disease severity. To date, all recent studies performed in human CSF have used the same enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To confirm the large body of evidence for NfL, we developed a new ELISA method and here we present the performance characteristics of this new ELISA for CSF NfL in different neurological disorders...
January 23, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Laura J Grande, Meghan E Robinson, Lauren J Radigan, Laura K Levin, Catherine B Fortier, William P Milberg, Regina E McGlinchey
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between close proximity to detonated blast munitions and cognitive functioning in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans. METHODS: A total of 333 participants completed a comprehensive evaluation that included assessment of neuropsychological functions, psychiatric diagnoses and history of military and non-military brain injury. Participants were assigned to a Close-Range Blast Exposure (CBE) or Non-Close-Range Blast Exposure (nonCBE) group based on whether they had reported being exposed to at least one blast within 10 meters...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Juliane Klehmet, Stefanie Märschenz, Klemens Ruprecht, Benjamin Wunderlich, Thomas Büttner, Rico Hiemann, Dirk Roggenbuck, Andreas Meisel
BACKGROUND: Unlike for acute immune-mediated neuropathies (IN), anti-ganglioside autoantibody (aGAAb) testing has been recommended for only a minority of chronic IN yet. Thus, we used a multiplex semi-quantitative line immunoassay (LIA) to search for aGAAb in chronic-inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and its clinical variants. METHODS: Anti-GAAb to 11 gangliosides and sulfatide (SF) were investigated by LIA in 61 patients with IN (27 typical CIDP, 12 distal-acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy, 6 multifocal-acquired demyelinating sensory/motor polyneuropathy, 10 sensory CIDP, 1 focal CIDP and 5 multifocal-motoric neuropathy), 40 with other neuromuscular disorders (OND) (15 non-immune polyneuropathies, 25 myasthenia gravis), 29 with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 54 healthy controls (HC)...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Yeshwant Kurhe, Radhakrishnan Mahesh
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is an important risk factor for depression as more than half of the obese population is susceptible for depression at double rate. Our earlier studies reported the antidepressant potential of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (OND) in depression associated obesity using behavioral tasks. The present research work is aimed to evaluate the effect of OND on depression associated with obesity with special emphasis on biochemical and molecular mechanisms such as hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), hippocampal histological examination and immunohistochemical expression of p53 proteins...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Katherine M Iverson, Nina A Sayer, Mark Meterko, Kelly Stolzmann, Pradeep Suri, Katelyn Gormley, Marjorie Nealon Seibert, Kun Yan, Terri K Pogoda
Many female veterans have deployed to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND), and some experience traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although TBI is increasingly recognized as an important health issue for female OEF/OIF/OND veterans, there is little attention to stressful experiences that may exacerbate health problems or hinder recovery among veterans who may have experienced TBI. Lifetime intimate partner violence (IPV) is common among general samples of female veterans...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Kathleen F Pagulayan, Holly Rau, Renee Madathil, Madeleine Werhane, Steven P Millard, Eric C Petrie, Brett Parmenter, Sarah Peterson, Scott Sorg, Rebecca Hendrickson, Cindy Mayer, James S Meabon, Bertrand R Huber, Murray Raskind, David G Cook, Elaine R Peskind
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prospective and retrospective memory abilities in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) Veterans with and without a self-reported history of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: Sixty-one OEF/OIF/OND Veterans, including Veterans with a self-reported history of blast-related mTBI (mTBI group; n=42) and Veterans without a self-reported history of TBI (control group; n=19) completed the Memory for Intentions Test, a measure of prospective memory (PM), and two measures of retrospective memory (RM), the California Verbal Learning Test-II and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised...
December 29, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Wen Chin Foo, Effendi Widjaja, Yuet Mei Khong, Rajeev Gokhale, Sui Yung Chan
Extemporaneous oral preparations are routinely compounded in the pharmacy due to a lack of suitable formulations for special populations. Such small-scale pharmacy preparations also present an avenue for individualized pharmacotherapy. Orodispersible films (ODF) have increasingly been evaluated as a suitable dosage form for extemporaneous oral preparations. Nevertheless, as with all other extemporaneous preparations, safety and quality remain a concern. Although the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) recommends analytical testing of compounded preparations for quality assurance, pharmaceutical assays are typically not routinely performed for such non-sterile pharmacy preparations, due to the complexity and high cost of conventional assay methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
J D Kriesel, P J Bhetariya, B K Chan, T Wilson, K F Fischer
Background: Our group has used deep sequencing to identify viral RNA signatures in human brain specimens. We have previously used this method to detect HSV1, GBV-C, and measles virus sequence in brain tissue from deceased donors. Deep sequencing was performed on brain specimens from a cohort of patients who died with progressive forms of MS, revealing evidence of increased expression of some human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) domains. Objectives: Identify RNA sequences and new antigens involved in the pathogenesis of MS...
August 2017: Journal of Emerging Diseases and Virology
Weiwei Cai, Yu Liu
Although on-line chemical cleaning has been extensively employed for maintaining the MBR permeability, little attention has been given to the negative impacts of such prevalent membrane cleaning practice. This study thus comparatively investigated the potential release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from activated sludge upon the exposure to different kinds of frequently-used cleaning reagents, i.e. NaClO, H2O2, HCl and NaOH. It was found that NaClO at 50 and 80 mg L(-1) triggered significant release of DOM, while NaOH strongly promoted soluble nitrogen release...
November 8, 2017: Chemosphere
Jacklynn M Fitzgerald, Stephanie M Gorka, Autumn Kujawa, Julia A DiGangi, Eric Proescher, Justin E Greenstein, Darrin M Aase, Christopher Schroth, Kaveh Afshar, Amy E Kennedy, Greg Hajcak, K Luan Phan
After diagnosis, veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display significant variability in the natural course of illness (Bonanno et al., 2012)). Cross-sectional work reveals that abnormal neural response during emotion reactivity-measured using the late positive potential (LPP)-correlates with PTSD symptom severity; however, whether the LPP during emotional reactivity and regulation predicts symptoms over time is unknown. The current study examined the LPP during emotion reactivity and regulation as predictors of PTSD symptoms over one year in OEF/OIF/OND combat-exposed veterans...
November 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Sheila A M Rauch, Naomi M Simon, H Myra Kim, Ron Acierno, Anthony P King, Sonya B Norman, Margaret R Venners, Katherine Porter, K Luan Phan, Peter W Tuerk, Carolyn Allard, Israel Liberzon, Barbara O Rothbaum, Brian Martis, Murray B Stein, Charles W Hoge
Increased emphasis on mechanisms of treatment effectiveness, biomarker predictors, and objective indicators of treatment response has sparked interest in integrated, translational treatment outcomes trials. The PROlonGed ExpoSure and Sertraline Trial (PROGrESS) is one such randomized controlled trial (RCT) focused on a key question in clinical management of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - the comparative and combined effectiveness of medication and psychotherapy. PROGrESS employs a state of the art trial design to examine psychotherapy and medication effects across three conditions: 1) Prolonged Exposure (PE) plus pill placebo, 2) Sertraline (SERT) plus Enhanced Medication Management (EMM), and 3) Combined treatment (PE/SERT)...
October 29, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
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