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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792115/using-machine-learning-to-advance-personality-assessment-and-theory
#1
Wiebke Bleidorn, Christopher James Hopwood
Machine learning has led to important advances in society. One of the most exciting applications of machine learning in psychological science has been the development of assessment tools that can powerfully predict human behavior and personality traits. Thus far, machine learning approaches to personality assessment have focused on the associations between social media and other digital records with established personality measures. The goal of this article is to expand the potential of machine learning approaches to personality assessment by embedding it in a more comprehensive construct validation framework...
May 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791004/stories-after-disaster-survival-preparing-heeding-warnings-and-self-reliance
#2
Timothy S Killian, Zola K Moon, Charleen C McNeill, Joanna Person-Michener, M E Betsy Garrison
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine the content of stories told by people personally impacted by disasters. DESIGN: Semistructured, qualitative interviews. SETTING: Northwest part of a mid-south state. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen disaster survivors who were recruited through their attendance at an emergency preparedness-related fair. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Interview schedule based on previous research using the family resilience framework...
March 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790930/a-machine-learning-recommender-system-to-tailor-preference-assessments-to-enhance-person-centered-care-among-nursing-home-residents
#3
Gerald C Gannod, Katherine M Abbott, Kimberly Van Haitsma, Nathan Martindale, Alexandra Heppner
Background and Objectives: Nursing homes (NHs) using the Preferences for Everyday Living Inventory (PELI-NH) to assess important preferences and provide person-centered care find the number of items (72) to be a barrier to using the assessment. Research Design and Methods: Using a sample of n = 255 NH resident responses to the PELI-NH, we used the 16 preference items from the MDS 3.0 Section F to develop a machine learning recommender system to identify additional PELI-NH items that may be important to specific residents...
May 21, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790805/climbing-the-ladder-from-neuron-to-brain-in-harold-atwood-s-laboratory
#4
J Martin Wojtowicz
Twenty years spent in one laboratory is sufficient to build a legacy of publications and a body of work to make an impact. However, the impact of our work was highest at the personal level, and time spent in Harold Atwood's laboratory was not a culmination of my career but rather a crucial path toward learning and maturing as a researcher. During that time, I experienced discoveries and lessons that shaped the next steps of my career. This article is written in gratitude for wonderful experiences and describes a few highlights that were especially memorable and influential...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790107/the-role-of-pharmacogenomics-in-bipolar-disorder-moving-towards-precision-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Claudia Pisanu, Urs Heilbronner, Alessio Squassina
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and disabling psychiatric condition with a severe socioeconomic impact. BD is treated with mood stabilizers, among which lithium represents the first-line treatment. Lithium alone or in combination is effective in 60% of chronically treated patients, but response remains heterogenous and a large number of patients require a change in therapy after several weeks or months. Many studies have so far tried to identify molecular and genetic markers that could help us to predict response to mood stabilizers or the risk for adverse drug reactions...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790057/are-youth-sport-talent-identification-and-development-systems-necessary-and-healthy
#6
Fieke Rongen, Jim McKenna, Stephen Cobley, Kevin Till
Talent identification and development systems (TIDS) are commonly used in professional sport to convert youth athletes into sporting stars of the future. Acknowledging that only a few athletes can "make it," the necessity and healthiness of TIDS have recently been questioned based on their increased professionalism, high training, and competition volumes, but limited effectiveness. In this short communication, we suggest that the key issues associated with TIDS are not due to their overall concept, but with how they are designed and implemented...
May 22, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788752/cue-reactivity-in-behavioral-addictions-a-meta-analysis-and-methodological-considerations
#7
Katrin Starcke, Stephanie Antons, Patrick Trotzke, Matthias Brand
Background and aims Recent research has applied cue-reactivity paradigms to behavioral addictions. The aim of the current meta-analysis is to systematically analyze the effects of learning-based cue-reactivity in behavioral addictions. Methods The current meta-analysis includes 18 studies (29 data sets, 510 participants) that have used a cue-reactivity paradigm in persons with gambling (eight studies), gaming (nine studies), or buying (one study) disorders. We compared subjective, peripheral physiological, electroencephal, and neural responses toward addiction-relevant cues in patients versus control participants and toward addiction-relevant cues versus control cues in patients...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786958/variability-in-student-perceptions-of-mistreatment
#8
Samantha Ellis, Joel Purkiss, Emily Abdoler, Amanda Opaskar, Rajesh S Mangrulkar, Joseph C Kolars, Sally A Santen
BACKGROUND: As medical schools strive to improve the learning environment, it is important to understand medical students' perceptions of mistreatment. The purpose of this study was to explore student interpretations of previously reported mistreatment incidents to better understand how they conceptualise the interactions. METHODS: Medical students were presented with case scenarios of previously reported instances of mistreatment and asked to indicate their agreement as to whether the scenarios demonstrated mistreatment, using a five-point Likert scale (1, strongly disagree; 5, strongly agree)...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786021/developing-and-implementing-a-global-emergency-medicine-course-lessons-learned-from-rwanda
#9
Sojung Yi, Olivier Félix Umuhire, Doris Uwamahoro, Mindi Guptill, Giles N Cattermole
Background: There is a growing demand by medical trainees for meaningful, short-term global emergency medicine (EM) experiences. EM programs in high-income countries (HICs) have forged opportunities for their trainees to access this experience in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, few programs in LMICs have created and managed such courses. As more LMICs establish EM programs, these settings are ideal for developing courses beneficial for all participants. We describe our experience of creating and implementing a short-term global EM course in Rwanda...
September 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785174/communication-in-mental-health-nursing-bachelor-students-appraisal-of-a-blended-learning-training-programme-an-exploratory-study
#10
Merete Furnes, Kari Sofie Kvaal, Sevald Høye
Background: It is important that mental health nursing students at Bachelor level obtain effective communication skills. Many students dread the fact that in the mental health field they will encounter patients and relatives with various backgrounds and personalities. Large classes and limited teaching resources in nursing education are challenging. To prepare students for mental health nursing practice, a communication skills course based on the blended learning method was developed and carried out at two different campuses...
2018: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784007/reporting-to-parents-on-children-s-exposures-to-asthma-triggers-in-low-income-and-public-housing-an-interview-based-case-study-of-ethics-environmental-literacy-individual-action-and-public-health-benefits
#12
Laura J Perovich, Jennifer Liss Ohayon, Elicia Mayuri Cousins, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Phil Brown, Gary Adamkiewicz, Julia Green Brody
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence about the effects of endocrine disruptors on asthma symptoms suggests new opportunities to reduce asthma by changing personal environments. Right-to-know ethics supports returning personal results for these chemicals to participants, so they can make decisions to reduce exposures. Yet researchers and institutional review boards have been reluctant to approve results reports in low-income communities, which are disproportionately affected by asthma. Concerns include limited literacy, lack of resources to reduce exposures, co-occurring stressors, and lack of models for effective reporting...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783942/effect-of-the-patient-education-learning-and-coping-strategies-in-cardiac-rehabilitation-on-return-to-work-at-one-year-a-randomised-controlled-trial-show-lc-rehab
#13
Birgitte Laier Bitsch, Claus Vinther Nielsen, Christina Malmose Stapelfeldt, Vibeke Lynggaard
BACKGROUND: Personal resources are identified as important for the ability to return to work (RTW) for patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) or heart failure (HF) undergoing cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The patient education 'Learning and Coping' (LC) addresses personal resources through a pedagogical approach. This trial aimed to assess effect of adding LC strategies in CR compared to standard CR measured on RTW status at one-year follow-up after CR. METHODS: In an open parallel randomised controlled trial, patients with IHD or HF were block-randomised in a 1:1 ratio to the LC arm (LC plus CR) or the control arm (CR alone) across three Danish hospital units...
May 21, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783256/-psychological-features-of-the-motivation-component-in-the-training-of-doctors-in-the-system-of-postgraduate-education
#14
Svitlana Koshova, Viktoriia Horachuk, Valerii Pishchykov
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Тhe problem of motivating adult learning in postgraduate education has so far been the subject of study primarily in methodological and pedagogical studies. They focus on the analysis of the content side of the motivation of adult learning activities. As for the problem of the dynamics of motivation for adult learning activities, including for doctors in the system of postgraduate medical education with continuous professional development, it has not been sufficiently studied so far...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782369/neuroimaging-in-epilepsy
#15
Meneka Kaur Sidhu, John S Duncan, Josemir W Sander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy neuroimaging is important for detecting the seizure onset zone, predicting and preventing deficits from surgery and illuminating mechanisms of epileptogenesis. An aspiration is to integrate imaging and genetic biomarkers to enable personalized epilepsy treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The ability to detect lesions, particularly focal cortical dysplasia and hippocampal sclerosis, is increased using ultra high-field imaging and postprocessing techniques such as automated volumetry, T2 relaxometry, voxel-based morphometry and surface-based techniques...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781456/how-can-a-personal-connection-build-confidence-in-your-graduate-nursing-journey
#16
Grace Tueffel
I wrapped my bright yellow stethoscope around my neck, pockets heavy with essential nursing tools and my clipboard clenched in my right hand. It was my first shift off orientation on the bone marrow transplantation unit at a teaching hospital in North Carolina. As I listened to the change-of-shift report, I felt my nerves on edge. I repeated "be the best nurse you can be" over and over in my head as I did my best to keep calm on that first day. That is what I remember from the first day and now, a few months later, I can reflect on what I learned and what "be the best nurse you can be" means to me...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781130/compensating-for-an-inattentive-audience
#17
Nicole N Craycraft, Sarah Brown-Schmidt
The common ground that conversational partners share is thought to form the basic context for language use. According to the classic view, inferences about common ground, or mutual knowledge, are guided by beliefs about the physical, cognitive, and attentional states of one's communicative partners. Here, we provide a first test of the attention assumption for common ground, the proposal that common ground for a co-present entity-such as an object or an utterance-can only be formed if a person has evidence that his or her partner has also attended to it...
May 20, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780861/the-relationship-between-recall-of-recently-versus-remotely-encoded-famous-faces-and-amyloidosis-in-clinically-normal-older-adults
#18
Irina Orlovsky, Willem Huijbers, Bernard J Hanseeuw, Elizabeth C Mormino, Trey Hedden, Rachel F Buckley, Molly LaPoint, Jennifer S Rabin, Dorene M Rentz, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling, Kathryn V Papp
Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients exhibit temporally graded memory loss with remote memories remaining more intact than recent memories. It is unclear whether this temporal pattern is observable in clinically normal adults with amyloid pathology (i.e. preclinical AD). Methods: Participants were asked to recall the names of famous figures most prominent recently (famous after 1990) and remotely (famous from 1960-1980) and were provided with a phonemic cue to ensure that memory failure was not purely due to verbal retrieval weaknesses...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780578/towards-the-development-of-day-one-competences-in-veterinary-behaviour-medicine-survey-of-veterinary-professionals-experience-in-companion-animal-practice-in-ireland
#19
Olwen Golden, Alison J Hanlon
Background: Veterinary behaviour medicine should be a foundation subject of the veterinary curriculum because of its wide scope of applications to veterinary practice. Private practitioners are likely to be the primary source of information on animal behaviour for most pet owners, however studies indicate that behavioural issues are not frequently discussed during companion animal consultations and many practitioners lack confidence in dealing with behavioural problems, likely due to poor coverage of this subject in veterinary education...
2018: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780334/an-innovative-framework-for-delivering-psychotherapy-to-patients-with-treatment-resistant-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-rationale-for-interactive-motion-assisted-therapy
#20
Marieke J van Gelderen, Mirjam J Nijdam, Eric Vermetten
Despite an array of evidence-based psychological treatments for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a majority of patients do not fully benefit from the potential of these therapies. In veterans with PTSD, up to two-thirds retain their diagnosis after psychotherapy and often their disorder is treatment-resistant, which calls for improvement of therapeutic approaches for this population. One of the factors hypothesized to underlie low response in PTSD treatment is high behavioral and cognitive avoidance to traumatic reminders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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