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In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper describes the background to the context of PRM services and comprises the following: - Epidemiological Aspects of Functioning and Disability - Ethical Aspects and Human Rights - Rehabilitation and Health Systems - Economic Burden of Disability - Effects of Lack of Rehabilitation Health care service planning accounts for the burden of disability among society and the chapter describes the justification for specialist rehabilitation, the background of PRM and why making a functional diagnosis and a management plan based on function is its core competence...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jennifer Oates
AIM: The aim of this article is to present selected findings from a doctoral study on the subjective well-being and subjective experience of mental health problems in UK mental health nurses. Here the concept of 'nurses' well-being' is explored. METHOD: Data were drawn from a survey of 237 mental health nurses about their mental health and well-being and from interviews with 27 mental health nurses with personal experience of mental health problems and high subjective well-being...
March 22, 2018: Nursing Management (Harrow)
Peter Fine, Chris Louca, Albert Leung
This study aimed to explore the relationship between participating in a learning experience and the ensuing changes in confidence. A self-selected group of General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) entered a five-year, part-time postgraduate master's training programme in restorative dentistry. Confidence in communication with patients and technical skills were measured at the start of the programme by questionnaire and at the conclusion of the programme by questionnaire and personal interview. A total of 72 clinicians started the programme; 27% ( n = 20) completed the master's degree...
April 26, 2017: Dent J (Basel)
José M Tomás, Laura Galiana, Irene Fernández
The aim of current research is to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the SF-8, overcoming previous shortcomings. A double line of analyses was used: competitive structural equations models to establish factorial validity, and Item Response theory to analyze item psychometric characteristics and information. 593 people aged 60 years or older, attending long life learning programs at the University were surveyed. Their age ranged from 60 to 92 years old. 67.6% were women. The survey included scales on personality dimensions, attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors related to aging...
March 22, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Isra Black, Ásgeir Rúnar Helgason
BACKGROUND: Morbidity arising from unprepared bereavement is a problem that affects close personal relations of individuals at the end-of-life. The bereavement studies literature demonstrates that a lack of preparedness for a loved one's death is a risk factor for secondary psychological morbidity among survivors. Short awareness time of death negatively correlates to preparedness for bereavement. The absence of disclosure of end-of-life diagnosis and prognosis to close personal relations ('death talk') between patients and loved ones, or health professionals and loved ones, may contribute to short awareness time of death...
March 21, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Inti A Brazil, Christoph D Mathys, Arne Popma, Sylco S Hoppenbrouwers, Moran D Cohn
BACKGROUND: Psychopathy has repeatedly been linked to disturbed associative learning from aversive events (i.e., threat conditioning). Optimal threat conditioning requires the generation of internal representations of stimulus-outcome contingencies and the rate with which these may change. Because mental representations are imperfect, there will always be uncertainty about the accuracy of representations in the brain (i.e., representational uncertainty). However, it remains unclear 1) to what extent threat conditioning is susceptible to different types of uncertainty in representations about contingencies during the acquisition phase and 2) how representational uncertainty relates to psychopathic features...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Minji Jeon, Sunkyu Kim, Sungjoon Park, Heewon Lee, Jaewoo Kang
BACKGROUND: Drug combination therapy, which is considered as an alternative to single drug therapy, can potentially reduce resistance and toxicity, and have synergistic efficacy. As drug combination therapies are widely used in the clinic for hypertension, asthma, and AIDS, they have also been proposed for the treatment of cancer. However, it is difficult to select and experimentally evaluate effective combinations because not only is the number of cancer drug combinations extremely large but also the effectiveness of drug combinations varies depending on the genetic variation of cancer patients...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Marina Del Rios, Josiah Han, Alejandra Cano, Victor Ramirez, Gabriel Morales, Teri L Campbell, Terry Vanden Hoek
Introduction: The implementation of creative new strategies to increase layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation may improve resuscitation in priority populations. As more communities implement laws requiring CPR training in high schools, there is potential for a multiplier effect and reach into priority communities with low bystander-CPR rates. Methods: We investigated the feasibility, knowledge acquisition, and dissemination of a high school-centered, CPR video self-instruction program with a "pay-it-forward" component in a low-income, urban, predominantly Black neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois with historically low bystander-CPR rates...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Robert S Wilson, Ana W Capuano, Lei Yu, Jingyun Yang, Namhee Kim, Sue E Leurgans, Melissa Lamar, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
Retest learning impacts estimates of cognitive aging, but its bases are uncertain. Here, we test the hypothesis that dementia-related neurodegeneration impairs retest learning. Older persons without cognitive impairment at enrollment (n = 567) had annual cognitive testing for a mean of 11 years, died, and had a neuropathologic examination to quantify 5 neurodegenerative pathologies. Change point models were used to divide cognitive trajectories into an early retest sensitive component and a later component less sensitive to retest...
March 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Savita Yadav, Pinaki Chakraborty, Prabhat Mittal, Udit Arora
AIM: Parents sometimes show young children YouTube videos on their smartphones. We studied the interaction of 55 Indian children born between December 2014 and May 2015 who watched YouTube videos when they were 6-24 months old. METHODS: The children were recruited by the researchers using professional and personal contacts and visited by the same two observers at four ages, for at least 10 minutes. The observers recorded the children's abilities to interact with touch screens and identify people in videos and noted what videos attracted them the most...
March 20, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Kimberly S Chiew, Jordan Hashemi, Lee K Gans, Laura Lerebours, Nathaniel J Clement, Mai-Anh T Vu, Guillermo Sapiro, Nicole E Heller, R Alison Adcock
Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Rachael Piltch-Loeb, Elena Savoia, Nasandra Wright, Rahul Gupta, Michael A Stoto
To demonstrate how public health emergency systems can use health systems tools to analyze and learn from critical incidents, we employed a facilitated look-back approach to review the public response to a chemical spill in Charleston, West Virginia. We reviewed official reports, news articles, and other documents; conducted in-person interviews with key public health and emergency response officials and local community stakeholders; and organized a facilitated look-back meeting to identify root causes of the problems that were encountered...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Hubert S Gabryś, Florian Buettner, Florian Sterzing, Henrik Hauswald, Mark Bangert
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether machine learning with dosiomic, radiomic, and demographic features allows for xerostomia risk assessment more precise than normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models based on the mean radiation dose to parotid glands. Material and methods: A cohort of 153 head-and-neck cancer patients was used to model xerostomia at 0-6 months (early), 6-15 months (late), 15-24 months (long-term), and at any time (a longitudinal model) after radiotherapy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Cian Walsh, Patrick Ryan, Daniel Flynn
Background: This article presents a detailed idiographic analysis of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) clinicians' experiences of team consultation meetings. DBT is an evidence-based psychological intervention with a demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Team consultation meetings encompass one of the primary components involved in this treatment model; where DBT clinicians regularly meet to discuss client work and enhance further learning...
2018: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Ying Liu, Brent Logan, Ning Liu, Zhiyuan Xu, Jian Tang, Yanzhi Wang
In this paper, we propose the first deep reinforcement learning framework to estimate the optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes from observational medical data. This framework is more flexible and adaptive for high dimensional action and state spaces than existing reinforcement learning methods to model real life complexity in heterogeneous disease progression and treatment choices, with the goal to provide doctor and patients the data-driven personalized decision recommendations. The proposed deep reinforcement learning framework contains a supervised learning step to predict the most possible expert actions; and a deep reinforcement learning step to estimate the long term value function of Dynamic Treatment Regimes...
August 2017: Healthcare Informatics: the Business Magazine for Information and Communication Systems
Hajime Kanamori, David J Weber, Maria F Gergen, Lauren M DiBiase, Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, William A Rutala
BACKGROUND: Single outbreaks have often been reported in health care settings, but the frequency of outbreaks at a hospital over time has not been described. We examined epidemiologic features of all health care-associated outbreak investigations at an academic hospital during a 5-year period. METHODS: Health care-associated outbreak investigations at an academic hospital (2012-2016) were retrospectively reviewed through data on comprehensive hospital-wide surveillance and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Emily Hill, Marie Y Savundranayagam, Aleksandra Zecevic, Marita Kloseck
Dementia is a syndrome that is progressive, degenerative, and terminal. The palliative care philosophy aims to maximize quality of life for the dying individual and is both beneficial for and underused with persons dying with dementia. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of long-term care staff delivering palliative care to individuals with dementia to determine how care was delivered, to learn which guidelines were used, and whether policies affected the delivery of palliative care...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Ipek Ensari, Julia M Balto, Elizabeth A Hubbard, Lara A Pilutti, Robert W Motl
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that motor and cognitive impairments often co-occur in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is little research on influences of cognitive-motor coupling, particularly depressive symptoms. This study examined depressive symptoms as a moderator and/or confounder of cognitive-motor coupling in persons with MS. METHOD: The sample included 131 persons with MS who were allocated into elevated and nonelevated depressive symptom groups based on a cutoff score of 8 on the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Andrew Leung Luk, Adrian Fai To Yau
Background: Overseas studies suggest that 10-20% of doctors are depressed, 30-45% have burnout, and many report dissatisfaction with work-life balance. A local study on public doctors showed that 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. Young, but moderately experienced doctors who need to work shifts appeared most vulnerable. This study aims to explore the experiences of those public doctors who have managed their work difficulties and maintained professional enthusiasm for references in medical education and continuing professional training...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
A Minguez, M Milh
The objective of this study was to investigate the adaptive functioning of adults who had a slight to moderate intellectual deficiency, in regard of age and intellectual quotient (IQ). Cognitive and adaptive functioning were evaluated using the WAIS and VINELAND scales in 16 adults who accepted to participate in this study. We found a correlation between global IQ and each domain of the adaptive score, mostly communication skills. We also found that there was an age effect on socialization skills. Most skills were learned during infancy and adolescence, especially communication skills, which are highly stable at different ages and highly correlated with IQ...
March 15, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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