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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245050/nanog-restores-the-impaired-myogenic-differentiation-potential-of-skeletal-myoblasts-after-multiple-population-doublings
#1
Aref Shahini, Debanik Choudhury, Mohammadnabi Asmani, Ruogang Zhao, Pedro Lei, Stelios T Andreadis
Adult skeletal muscle regeneration relies on the activity of satellite cells residing in the skeletal muscle niche. However, systemic and intrinsic factors decrease the myogenic differentiation potential of satellite cells thereby impairing muscle regeneration. Here we present data showing that late passage C2C12 myoblasts exhibited significantly impaired myogenic differentiation potential that was accompanied by impaired expression of myogenic regulatory factors (Myf5, MyoD, Myogenin, and MRF4) and members of myocyte enhancer factor 2 family...
December 2, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244975/review-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-in-wound-healing-new-therapeutic-targets
#2
B Palmieri, M Vadalà, C Laurino
The restoration of the skin barrier in acute and chronic wounds is controlled by several molecular mechanisms that synergistically regulate cell kinetics, enzymatic functions, and neurovascular activation. These pathways include genetic and epigenetic activation, which modulate physiological wound healing. Our review describes the genetic background of skin repair, namely transcription-independent diffusible damage signals, individual variability, epigenetic mechanism, controlled qualitative traits, post-translational mechanisms, antioxidants, nutrients, DNA modifications, bacteria activation, mitochondrial activity, and oxidative stress...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244246/role-of-rna-modifications-in-brain-and-behavior
#3
REVIEW
Kornel E Schuebel, Yonwoo Jung, David Goldman
Much progress in our understanding of RNA metabolism has been made since the first RNA modification was identified in 1957. To date, more than 100 distinct chemical modifications have been identified, and more await discovery. Many of these modifications are found in non-coding RNAs but recent studies suggest an important role for RNA modification in coding RNAs as well. Here we summarize current knowledge of cellular consequences of RNA modifications, with a special emphasis on neuropsychiatric disorders. We present evidence for the existence of an "RNA code", similar to the histone code, that fine-tunes gene expression in the nervous system by using combinations of different RNA modifications...
December 15, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244184/accumulation-of-long-term-transcriptionally-active-integrated-retroviral-vectors-in-active-promoters-and-enhancers
#4
Filip Šenigl, Dalibor Miklík, Miroslav Auxt, Jirí Hejnar
Most retroviruses preferentially integrate into certain genomic locations and, as a result, their genome-wide integration patterns are non-random. We investigate the epigenetic landscape of integrated retroviral vectors and correlate it with the long-term stability of proviral transcription. Retroviral vectors derived from the avian sarcoma/leukosis virus expressing the GFP reporter were used to transduce the human myeloid lymphoblastoma cell line K562. Because of efficient silencing of avian retrovirus in mammalian cells, only ∼3% of established clones displayed stable proviral expression...
December 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244183/dna-damage-and-epigenetic-alteration-in-soybean-farmers-exposed-to-complex-mixture-of-pesticides
#5
Danieli Benedetti, Barbara Lopes Alderete, Claudia Telles de Souza, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Liana Niekraszewicz, Mónica Cappetta, Wilner Martínez-López, Juliana Da Silva
Exposure to pesticides can trigger genotoxic and mutagenic processes through different pathways. However, epidemiological studies are scarce, and further work is needed to find biomarkers sensitive to the health of exposed populations. Considering that there are few evaluations of soybean farmers, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of human exposure to complex mixtures of pesticides. The alkaline comet assay modified with restriction enzyme (hOGG1: human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase) was used to detect oxidised guanine, and compared with the buccal micronucleus cytome assay, global methylation, haematological parameters, biochemical analyses (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase and butyrylcholinesterase), and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the analysis of inorganic elements...
December 13, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244109/gadd45a-promotes-active-dna-demethylation-of-the-mmp-9-promoter-via-base-excision-repair-pathway-in-ages-treated-keratinocytes-and-in-diabetic-male-rat-skin
#6
Liyan Zhou, Wei Wang, Chuan Yang, Tingting Zeng, Mengdie Hu, Xiaoyi Wang, Na Li, Kan Sun, Chuan Wang, Jing Zhou, Meng Ren, Li Yan
Diabetes elevates matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels in the skin and its keratinocytes, and activated MMP-9 impairs skin wound healing. Epigenetic regulation of the DNA methylation status within the MMP-9 promoter plays an important role in the alteration of MMP-9 expression. Our aim was to investigate the role and mechanism of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45a (GADD45a), a well-known DNA demethylation regulatory protein that mediates DNA methylation, in the regulation of MMP-9 expression. In this study, we showed that GADD45a was markedly upregulated in skin tissues from patients with diabetic foot ulcers, in diabetic rats and in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells exposed to advanced glycation end products (AGEs)...
December 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243911/neurodegenerative-disease-proteinopathies-are-connected-to-distinct-histone-post-translational-modification-landscapes
#7
Karen Chen, Seth A Bennett, Navin Rana, Huda Yousuf, Mohamed Said, Sadiqa Taaseen, Natalie Mendo, Steven Marc Meltser, Mariana Torrente
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are devastating neurodegenerative diseases involving the progressive degeneration of neurons. No cure is available for patients diagnosed with these diseases. A prominent feature for both ALS and PD is the accumulation of protein inclusions in the cytoplasm of degenerating neurons; however, the particular protein comprising these inclusions varies. The RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are most notable in ALS, while α-synuclein aggregates into Lewy bodies in PD...
December 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243883/aspects-of-silver-tolerance-in-bacteria-ir-spectral-changes-and-epigenetic-clues
#8
Rafig Gurbanov, Nihal Simsek Ozek, Sinem Tunçer, Feride Severcan, Ayse Gul Gozen
In this study, the molecular profile changes leading to the adaptation of bacteria to survive and grow at inhibitory silver concentration were explored. The profile obtained through infrared (IR)-based measurements indicated extensive changes in all biomolecular components, which were supported by chemometric techniques. The changes in biomolecular profile were prominent including nucleic acids. The changes in nucleic acid region (1350-950 cm-1 ) were encountered as a clue for conformational change in DNA. Further analysis of DNA by IR spectroscopy revealed changes in the backbone and sugar conformations...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243873/a-comprehensive-review-of-genetic-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-that-regulate-bdnf-expression-and-function-with-relevance-to-major-depressive-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Benjamin Hing, Leela Sathyaputri, James B Potash
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder that affects behavior and impairs cognition. A gene potentially important to this disorder is the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as it is involved in processes controlling neuroplasticity. Various mechanisms exist to regulate BDNF's expression level, subcellular localization, and sorting to appropriate secretory pathways. Alterations to these processes by genetic factors and negative stressors can dysregulate its expression, with possible implications for MDD...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242641/ubiquitin-ligases-in-oncogenic-transformation-and-cancer-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Daniela Senft, Jianfei Qi, Ze'ev A Ronai
The cellular response to external stress signals and DNA damage depends on the activity of ubiquitin ligases (E3s), which regulate numerous cellular processes, including homeostasis, metabolism and cell cycle progression. E3s recognize, interact with and ubiquitylate protein substrates in a temporally and spatially regulated manner. The topology of the ubiquitin chains dictates the fate of the substrates, marking them for recognition and degradation by the proteasome or altering their subcellular localization or assembly into functional complexes...
December 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242626/stable-transgenerational-epigenetic-inheritance-requires-a-dna-methylation-sensing-circuit
#11
Ben P Williams, Mary Gehring
Epigenetic states are stably propagated in eukaryotes. In plants, DNA methylation patterns are faithfully inherited over many generations but it is unknown how the dynamic activities of cytosine DNA methyltransferases and 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases interact to maintain epigenetic homeostasis. Here we show that a methylation-sensing gene regulatory circuit centered on a 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase gene is required for long-term epigenetic fidelity in Arabidopsis. Disrupting this circuit causes widespread methylation losses and abnormal phenotypes that progressively worsen over generations...
December 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242551/ezh2-phosphorylation-state-determines-its-capacity-to-maintain-cd8-t-memory-precursors-for-antitumor-immunity
#12
Shan He, Yongnian Liu, Lijun Meng, Hongxing Sun, Ying Wang, Yun Ji, Janaki Purushe, Pan Chen, Changhong Li, Jozef Madzo, Jean-Pierre Issa, Jonathan Soboloff, Ran Reshef, Bethany Moore, Luca Gattinoni, Yi Zhang
Memory T cells sustain effector T-cell production while self-renewing in reaction to persistent antigen; yet, excessive expansion reduces memory potential and impairs antitumor immunity. Epigenetic mechanisms are thought to be important for balancing effector and memory differentiation; however, the epigenetic regulator(s) underpinning this process remains unknown. Herein, we show that the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 controls CD8+ T memory precursor formation and antitumor activity. Ezh2 activates Id3 while silencing Id2, Prdm1 and Eomes, promoting the expansion of memory precursor cells and their differentiation into functional memory cells...
December 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242529/decitabine-a-dna-demethylating-agent-promotes-differentiation-via-notch1-signaling-and-alters-immune-related-pathways-in-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#13
Swathi Ramakrishnan, Qiang Hu, Nithya Krishnan, Dan Wang, Evelyn Smit, Victoria Granger, Monika Rak, Kristopher Attwood, Candace Johnson, Carl Morrison, Roberto Pili, Gurkamal Chatta, Khurshid Guru, Geraldine Gueron, Lacey McNally, Jianmin Wang, Anna Woloszynska-Read
Aberrant DNA methylation observed in cancer can provide survival benefits to cells by silencing genes essential for anti-tumor activity. DNA-demethylating agents such as Decitabine (DAC)/Azacitidine (AZA) activate otherwise silenced tumor suppressor genes, alter immune response and epigenetically reprogram tumor cells. In this study, we show that non-cytotoxic nanomolar DAC concentrations modify the bladder cancer transcriptome to activate NOTCH1 at the mRNA and protein level, increase double-stranded RNA sensors and CK5-dependent differentiation...
December 14, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242288/a-role-for-mono-methylation-of-histone-h3-k27-in-gene-activity-in-drosophila
#14
Liangjun Wang, Preeti Joshi, Ellen L Miller, LeeAnn Higgins, Matthew Slattery, Jeffrey A Simon
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is a conserved chromatin-modifying enzyme that methylates histone H3 on lysine-27 (K27).  PRC2 can add one, two, or three methyl groups and the fully methylated product, H3-K27me3, is a hallmark of Polycomb-silenced chromatin.  Less is known about functions of K27me1 and K27me2 and the dynamics of flux through these states.  These modifications could serve mainly as intermediates to produce K27me3 or they could each convey distinct epigenetic information.  To investigate this, we engineered a variant of Drosophila melanogaster PRC2 which is converted into a mono-methyltransferase...
December 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242101/epigenetic-silencing-of-evl-mir-342-in-multiple-myeloma
#15
Zhenhai Li, Kwan Yeung Wong, Godfrey Chi-Fung Chan, Wee-Joo Chng, Chor Sang Chim
miR-342-3p, localized to 14q32, is a tumor suppressor miRNA implicated in multiple cancers. As the promoter region of its host gene, EVL, is embedded in a CpG island, we postulated that miR-342-3p is an intronic miRNA co-regulated with its host gene by promoter DNA methylation in multiple myeloma (MM). By methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, verified by quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing, methylation of EVL/miR-342 was absent in all healthy controls (n = 10) and 12 of 15 (80%) human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs), but partially methylated in 3 of 15 (20%) HMCLs, including KMS-12-PE, OCI-MY5, and RPMI-8226R...
November 23, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241278/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-nitric-oxide-pathway-17-%C3%AE-hydroxyprogesterone-caproate-and-recurrent-preterm-birth
#16
Tracy A Manuck, Lisa Smeester, Elizabeth M Martin, Martha S Tomlinson, Christina Smith, Michael W Varner, Rebecca C Fry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241213/antibiotics-induced-obesity-a-mitochondrial-perspective
#17
Melisa J Andrade, Chinchu Jayaprakash, Smitha Bhat, Nikolaos Evangelatos, Angela Brand, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
Antibiotics are the first line of treatment against infections and have contributed immensely to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, extensive use of antibiotics has led to alterations of the gut microbiome, predisposition to various diseases and most importantly, increase in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which poses a major threat to global public health. Another major issue faced worldwide due to unregulated use of antibiotics in children as well as in adults is the influence of metabolism and body weight homeostasis, leading to obesity...
December 15, 2017: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240919/genome-wide-dose-dependent-inhibition-of-histone-deacetylases-studies-reveal-their-roles-in-enhancer-remodeling-and-suppression-of-oncogenic-super-enhancers
#18
Gilson J Sanchez, Phillip A Richmond, Eric N Bunker, Samuel S Karman, Joseph Azofeifa, Aaron T Garnett, Quanbin Xu, Graycen E Wheeler, Cathryn M Toomey, Qinghong Zhang, Robin D Dowell, Xuedong Liu
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are known to alter gene expression by both up- and down-regulation of protein-coding genes in normal and cancer cells. However, the exact regulatory mechanisms of action remain uncharacterized. Here we investigated genome wide dose-dependent epigenetic and transcriptome changes in response to HDACI largazole in a transformed and a non-transformed cell line. Exposure to low nanomolar largazole concentrations (<GI50) predominantly resulted in upregulation of gene transcripts whereas higher largazole doses (≥GI50) triggered a general decrease in mRNA accumulation...
December 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240761/microorganisms-in-the-human-placenta-are-associated-with-altered-cpg-methylation-of-immune-and-inflammation-related-genes
#19
Martha Scott Tomlinson, Paige A Bommarito, Elizabeth M Martin, Lisa Smeester, Raina N Fichorova, Andrew B Onderdonk, Karl C K Kuban, T Michael O'Shea, Rebecca C Fry
Microorganisms in the placenta have been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes as well as neonatal illness. Inflammation in the placenta has been identified as a contributing factor in this association, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The placental epigenome may serve as an intermediate between placental microbes and inflammation, contributing to adverse outcomes in the offspring. In the present study, genome-wide DNA methylation (n = 486,428 CpG sites) of 84 placentas was analyzed in relation to 16 species of placental microorganisms using samples collected from the Extremely Low Gestation Age Newborns (ELGAN) cohort...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240275/metabolic-stress-induces-modifications-in-the-epigenetic-program-of-preimplantation-bovine-embryos
#20
R Tremblay, I Dufort, M A Sirard
The mammalian embryo is sensitive to and adapts to its metabolic environment. The mother's metabolic health and nutrient availability, for example, can modulate the oviductal fluid composition and thus embryo development. In this project, we induced energetic stress in bovine embryos during early culture to observe the epigenetic responses associated with metabolic stress, using a treatment paradigm known to decrease blastocyst rates. Embryos were generated using oocytes from slaughtered cows, and then exposed to an elevated glucose concentration (5 mM versus 0...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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