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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458070/the-epigenetic-alterations-of-endogenous-retroelements-in-aging
#1
REVIEW
Maurizio Cardelli
Endogenous retroelements, transposons that mobilize through RNA intermediates, include some of the most abundant repetitive sequences of the human genome, such as Alu and LINE-1 sequences, and human endogenous retroviruses. Recent discoveries demonstrate that these mobile genetic elements not only act as intragenomic parasites, but also exert regulatory roles in living cells. The risk of genomic instability represented by endogenous retroelements is normally counteracted by a series of epigenetic control mechanisms which include, among the most important, CpG DNA methylation...
February 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457966/combined-treatment-with-valproic-acid-and-5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-synergistically-inhibits-human-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-growth-and-migration
#2
Wenjin Xi, Xu Chen, Jinbo Sun, Wei Wang, Yi Huo, Guoxu Zheng, Jieheng Wu, Yufang Li, Angang Yang, Tao Wang
BACKGROUND Histone acetylation and DNA methylation are important mammalian epigenetic modifications that participate in the regulation of gene expression. Because dysregulation of histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferases are hallmarks of malignancy, they have become promising therapeutic targets. In this study, we explored the anti-tumor activity of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) and 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines 786-O and 769-P...
February 19, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457866/epigenetic-effects-of-metformin-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-clinical-implications
#3
REVIEW
S C Bridgeman, G C Ellison, P E Melton, P Newsholme, Cds Mamotte
There is a growing body of evidence that links epigenetic modifications to type 2 diabetes. Researchers have more recently investigated effects of commonly used medications, including those prescribed for diabetes, on epigenetic processes. This work reviews the influence of the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin on epigenomics, microRNA levels and subsequent gene expression and potential clinical implications. Metformin may influence the activity of numerous epigenetic modifying enzymes, mostly via modulating the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
February 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457784/hiv-latency-is-reversed-by-acss2-driven-histone-crotonylation
#4
Guochun Jiang, Don Nguyen, Nancie M Archin, Steven A Yukl, Gema Méndez-Lagares, Yuyang Tang, Maher M Elsheikh, George R Thompson, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor, David M Margolis, Joseph K Wong, Satya Dandekar
Eradication of HIV-1 (HIV) is hindered by stable viral reservoirs. Viral latency is epigenetically regulated. While the effects of histone acetylation and methylation at the HIV long-terminal repeat (LTR) have been described, our knowledge of the proviral epigenetic landscape is incomplete. We report that a previously unrecognized epigenetic modification of the HIV LTR, histone crotonylation, is a regulator of HIV latency. Reactivation of latent HIV was achieved following the induction of histone crotonylation through increased expression of the crotonyl-CoA-producing enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457549/the-ghost-in-the-machine-lysenko-s-ghost-epigenetics-and-russia-by-loren-grahamharvard-university-press-cambridge-ma-2016
#5
David Haig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457330/modeling-suicide-in-bipolar-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Gin S Malhi, Tim Outhred, Pritha Das, Grace Morris, Amber Hamilton, Zola Mannie
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a multicausal human behavior, with devastating and immensely distressing consequences. Its prevalence is estimated to be 20-30 times greater in patients with bipolar disorders than in the general population. The burden of suicide and its high prevalence in bipolar disorders make it imperative that our current understanding be improved to facilitate prediction of suicide and its prevention. In this review, we provide a new perspective on the process of suicide in bipolar disorder, in the form of a novel integrated model that is derived from extant knowledge and recent evidence...
February 19, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457186/recognition-of-shorter-and-longer-trimethyllysine-analogues-by-epigenetic-reader-proteins
#7
Abbas H K Al Temimi, Roman Belle, Kiran Kumar, Jordi Poater, Peter Betlem, Bas J G E Pieters, Robert S Paton, F Matthias Bickelhaupt, Jasmin Mecinović
Histone Nε -lysine methylation is a widespread posttranslational modification that is specifically recognised by a diverse class of Nε -methyllysine binding reader proteins. Combined thermodynamic data, molecular dynamics simulations, and quantum chemical studies reveal that reader proteins efficiently bind trimethylornithine and trimethylhomolysine, the simplest Nε -trimethyllysine analogues that differ in the length of the side chain.
February 19, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456766/letter-to-the-editor-blood-processing-and-sample-storage-have-negligible-effects-on-methylation
#8
Kira Groen, Rodney A Lea, Vicki E Maltby, Rodney J Scott, Jeannette Lechner-Scott
DNA methylation is a dynamic epigenetic mechanism. Researchers aiming to assess archived DNA samples are expressing concern about the effect of technical factors on methylation, as this may confound results. We reviewed recent reports examining this issue in blood samples and concluded that variation in collection, storage, and processing of blood DNA confers negligible effects on both global methylation and methylation status of specific genes. These results are concordant with studies that have investigated the effect of sample storage and processing on methylation in other tissues, such as tumour, sperm, and placenta samples...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456764/integrative-analysis-of-the-epigenetic-basis-of-muscle-invasive-urothelial-carcinoma
#9
Thomas Sanford, Maxwell V Meng, Reema Railkar, Piyush K Agarwal, Sima P Porten
Background: Elucidation of epigenetic alterations in bladder cancer will lead to further understanding of the biology of the disease and hopefully improved therapies. Our aim was to perform an integrative epigenetic analysis of invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder to identify the epigenetic abnormalities involved in the development and progression of this cancer. Methods: Pre-processed methylation data and RNA-seq data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and processed using the R package TCGA-Assembler...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456718/molecular-challenges-of-neuroendocrine-tumors
#10
Parthik Patel, Karina Galoian
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a very heterogeneous group that are thought to originate from the cells of the endocrine and nervous systems. These tumors develop in a number of organs, predominantly in the gastrointestinal and pulmonary systems. Clinical detection and diagnosis are reliable at the late stages when metastatic spread has occurred. However, traditional conventional therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy are not effective. In the majority of cases even surgical resection at that stage is unlikely to produce promising reusults...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456678/association-between-dscr4-gene-methylation-in-plasma-in-early-pregnancy-and-down-s-syndrome
#11
Lingyu Hu, Changju Zhou
Down's syndrome (DS), a chromosomal abnormal genetic disease caused by a local or total copy of chromosome 21, leads to patients suffering from delayed body growth, special facies, mild to moderate mental retardation and other symptoms, seriously affecting the life of patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Down's syndrome critical region 4 ( DSCR4 ) gene methylation in plasma in high-risk pregnant women with DS in early pregnancy (hereinafter referred to as pregnant women in early pregnancy) and DS, in order to screen new epigenetic markers for the clinical diagnosis of DS...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456549/global-dna-methylation-in-the-chestnut-blight-fungus-cryphonectria-parasitica-and-genome-wide-changes-in-dna-methylation-accompanied-with-sectorization
#12
Kum-Kang So, Yo-Han Ko, Jeesun Chun, Jyotiranjan Bal, Junhyun Jeon, Jung-Mi Kim, Jaeyoung Choi, Yong-Hwan Lee, Jin Hoe Huh, Dae-Hyuk Kim
Mutation in CpBck1 , an ortholog of the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica resulted in a sporadic sectorization as culture proceeded. The progeny from the sectored area maintained the characteristics of the sector, showing a massive morphogenetic change, including robust mycelial growth without differentiation. Epigenetic changes were investigated as the genetic mechanism underlying this sectorization...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456534/critical-role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-and-il-2-receptor-signaling-in-foxp3-induction-by-an-inhibitor-of-dna-methylation
#13
Kristin Freudenberg, Nadja Lindner, Sebastian Dohnke, Annette I Garbe, Sonja Schallenberg, Karsten Kretschmer
Under physiological conditions, CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 are generated in the thymus [thymus-derived Foxp3+ Treg (tTregs) cells] and extrathymically at peripheral sites [peripherally induced Foxp3+ Treg (pTreg) cell], and both developmental subsets play non-redundant roles in maintaining self-tolerance throughout life. In addition, a variety of experimental in vitro and in vivo modalities can extrathymically elicit a Foxp3+ Treg cell phenotype in peripheral CD4+ Foxp3- T cells, which has attracted much interest as an approach toward cell-based therapy in clinical settings of undesired immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456488/exploring-the-complexity-of-cortical-development-using-single-cell-transcriptomics
#14
REVIEW
Hyobin Jeong, Vijay K Tiwari
The developing neocortex in the mammalian brain is composed of multiple cell types including apical progenitors (AP), basal progenitors (BP), and neurons that populate three different layers, the ventricular zone (VZ), the subventricular zone (SVZ), and the cortical plate (CP). Despite recent advances, the diversity of the existing cell populations including those which are differentiating and mature, their biogenesis and the underlying gene regulatory mechanisms remain poorly known. Recent studies have taken advantage of the rapidly emerging single-cell technologies to decode the heterogeneity of cell populations at the transcriptome level during cortical development and their molecular details...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456384/tea-polyphenols-and-prevention-of-epigenetic-aberrations-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Arundhati Bag, Niladri Bag
Tea polyphenols are secondary metabolites of tea plants and are well known for beneficial health effects. They can protect from a variety of illnesses including cancers. Tea polyphenols can prevent cancer by modulating epigenetic aberrations taking place in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and micro-RNAs. By altering these epimutations, they regulate chromatin dynamics and expression of genes those induce or suppress cancer formation. However, majority of the studies in existing literature are carried out for green tea polyphenols rather than black tea polyphenols despite the fact that black tea is the most commonly consumed form of tea (78%) followed by green tea (20%) and other forms of tea...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456180/ras-regulates-the-transition-from-naive-to-primed-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Anna Altshuler, Mila Verbuk, Swarnabh Bhattacharya, Ifat Abramovich, Roni Haklai, Jacob H Hanna, Yoel Kloog, Eyal Gottlieb, Ruby Shalom-Feuerstein
The transition from naive to primed state of pluripotent stem cells is hallmarked by epithelial-mesenchymal transition, metabolic switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, and changes in the epigenetic landscape. Since these changes are also seen as putative hallmarks of neoplastic cell transformation, we hypothesized that oncogenic pathways may be involved in this process. We report that the activity of RAS is repressed in the naive state of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and that all three RAS isoforms are significantly activated upon early differentiation induced by LIF withdrawal, embryoid body formation, or transition to the primed state...
February 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456083/placeholder-nucleosomes-underlie-germline-to-embryo-dna-methylation-reprogramming
#17
Patrick J Murphy, Shan Fu Wu, Cody R James, Candice L Wike, Bradley R Cairns
The fate and function of epigenetic marks during the germline-to-embryo transition is a key issue in developmental biology, with relevance to stem cell programming and transgenerational inheritance. In zebrafish, DNA methylation patterns are programmed in transcriptionally quiescent cleavage embryos; paternally inherited patterns are maintained, whereas maternal patterns are reprogrammed to match the paternal. Here, we provide the mechanism by demonstrating that "Placeholder" nucleosomes, containing histone H2A variant H2A...
February 9, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456074/histone-deacetylases-hdacs-as-therapeutic-target-for-depressive-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Paulina Misztak, Patrycja Pańczyszyn-Trzewik, Magdalena Sowa-Kućma
Major depressive disorder (MDD) represents approximately 40% of the disability caused by mental illnesses globally. The poorly understood pathophysiology and limited efficiency of pharmacological treatment (based primarily on the principles of the monoaminergic hypothesis) make depression a serious medical, public and socio-economical problem. An increasing number of studies suggest that epigenetic modifications (alterations in gene expression that are not due to changes in DNA sequence) in certain brain regions and neural circuits represent a key mechanism through which environmental factors interact with individual's genetic constitution to affect risk of mental disorders...
August 12, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455658/receptor-tyrosine-kinases-rtks-in-breast-cancer-signaling-therapeutic-implications-and-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Ramesh Butti, Sumit Das, Vinoth Prasanna Gunasekaran, Amit Singh Yadav, Dhiraj Kumar, Gopal C Kundu
Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and driven by aberrant regulation of cell signaling pathways due to the acquisition of genetic and epigenetic changes. An array of growth factors and their receptors is involved in cancer development and metastasis. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) constitute a class of receptors that play important role in cancer progression. RTKs are cell surface receptors with specialized structural and biological features which respond to environmental cues by initiating appropriate signaling cascades in tumor cells...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455645/pyruvate-kinase-m2-fuels-multiple-aspects-of-cancer-cells-from-cellular-metabolism-transcriptional-regulation-to-extracellular-signaling
#20
REVIEW
Ming-Chuan Hsu, Wen-Chun Hung
Originally identified as a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP in the glycolytic pathway, pyruvate kinase M2-type (PKM2) has been shown to exhibit novel biological activities in the nucleus and outside the cells. Although cell-based studies reveal new non-canonical functions of PKM2 in gene transcription, epigenetic modulation and cell cycle progression, the importance of these non-canonical functions in PKM2-mediated tumorigenesis is still under debate because studies in genetically modified mice do not consistently echo the findings observed in cultured cancer cells...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
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