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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038510/lure-and-kill-yeast-interfering-rna-larvicides-targeting-neural-genes-in-the-human-disease-vector-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#1
Limb K Hapairai, Keshava Mysore, Yingying Chen, Elizabeth I Harper, Max P Scheel, Alexandra M Lesnik, Longhua Sun, David W Severson, Na Wei, Molly Duman-Scheel
New mosquito control strategies are vitally needed to address established arthropod-borne infectious diseases such as dengue and yellow fever and emerging diseases such as Zika and chikungunya, all of which are transmitted by the disease vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. In this investigation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) was engineered to produce short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) corresponding to the Aedes aegypti orthologs of fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 2 (fez2) and leukocyte receptor cluster (lrc) member, two genes identified in a recent screen for A...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030801/deep-arm-ear-ecg-image-learning-for-highly-wearable-biometric-human-identification
#2
Qingxue Zhang, Dian Zhou
In this study, to advance smart health applications which have increasing security/privacy requirements, we propose a novel highly wearable ECG-based user identification system, empowered by both non-standard convenient ECG lead configurations and deep learning techniques. Specifically, to achieve a super wearability, we suggest situating all the ECG electrodes on the left upper-arm, or behind the ears, and successfully obtain weak but distinguishable ECG waveforms. Afterwards, to identify individuals from weak ECG, we further present a two-stage framework, including ECG imaging and deep feature learning/identification...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028608/establishment-of-nerve-growth-factor-gradients-on-aligned-chitosan-polylactide-alginate-fibers-for-neural-tissue-engineering-applications
#3
Hua Wu, Jiaoyan Liu, Qing Fang, Bo Xiao, Ying Wan
Nerve conduits containing aligned fibrous fillers with gradiently distributed signal molecules are essential for long-gap nerve repair. This study was to develop an approach for establishing nerve growth factor (NGF) gradients onto the aligned chitosan-polylactide (CH-PLA) fibers. CH-PLA containing 37wt% of PLA was spun into fibers using a wet-spinning technique. CH-PLA fibers showed much higher wet-state tensile strength, enhanced degradation tolerance and significantly lower swelling degree in comparison to chitosan fibers...
October 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025149/segment-convolutional-neural-networks-seg-cnns-for-classifying-relations-in-clinical-notes
#4
Yuan Luo, Yu Cheng, Özlem Uzuner, Peter Szolovits, Justin Starren
We propose Segment Convolutional Neural Networks (Seg-CNNs) for classifying relations from clinical notes. Seg-CNNs use only word-embedding features without manual feature engineering. Unlike typical CNN models, relations between 2 concepts are identified by simultaneously learning separate representations for text segments in a sentence: preceding, concept1, middle, concept2, and succeeding. We evaluate Seg-CNN on the i2b2/VA relation classification challenge dataset. We show that Seg-CNN achieves a state-of-the-art micro-average F-measure of 0...
August 31, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018170/temperature-activated-ion-channels-in-neural-crest-cells-confer-maternal-fever-associated-birth-defects
#5
Mary R Hutson, Anna L Keyte, Miriam Hernández-Morales, Eric Gibbs, Zachary A Kupchinsky, Ioannis Argyridis, Kyle N Erwin, Kelly Pegram, Margaret Kneifel, Paul B Rosenberg, Pavle Matak, Luke Xie, Jörg Grandl, Erica E Davis, Nicholas Katsanis, Chunlei Liu, Eric J Benner
Birth defects of the heart and face are common, and most have no known genetic cause, suggesting a role for environmental factors. Maternal fever during the first trimester is an environmental risk factor linked to these defects. Neural crest cells are precursor populations essential to the development of both at-risk tissues. We report that two heat-activated transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, TRPV1 and TRPV4, were present in neural crest cells during critical windows of heart and face development...
October 10, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017508/on-neuromechanical-approaches-for-the-study-of-biological-and-robotic-grasp-and-manipulation
#6
REVIEW
Francisco J Valero-Cuevas, Marco Santello
Biological and robotic grasp and manipulation are undeniably similar at the level of mechanical task performance. However, their underlying fundamental biological vs. engineering mechanisms are, by definition, dramatically different and can even be antithetical. Even our approach to each is diametrically opposite: inductive science for the study of biological systems vs. engineering synthesis for the design and construction of robotic systems. The past 20 years have seen several conceptual advances in both fields and the quest to unify them...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993773/targeting-malignant-brain-tumors-with-antibodies
#7
REVIEW
Rok Razpotnik, Neža Novak, Vladka Čurin Šerbec, Uros Rajcevic
Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain delivery platforms for antibodies have been studied such as liposomes, nanoparticle-based systems, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), and cell-based approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988991/bifunctional-hydrogels-containing-the-laminin-motif-ikvav-promote%C3%A2-neurogenesis
#8
Aleeza Farrukh, Felipe Ortega, Wenqiang Fan, Nicolás Marichal, Julieta I Paez, Benedikt Berninger, Aránzazu Del Campo, Marcelo J Salierno
Engineering of biomaterials with specific biological properties has gained momentum as a means to control stem cell behavior. Here, we address the effect of bifunctionalized hydrogels comprising polylysine (PL) and a 19-mer peptide containing the laminin motif IKVAV (IKVAV) on embryonic and adult neuronal progenitor cells under different stiffness regimes. Neuronal differentiation of embryonic and adult neural progenitors was accelerated by adjusting the gel stiffness to 2 kPa and 20 kPa, respectively. While gels containing IKVAV or PL alone failed to support long-term cell adhesion, in bifunctional gels, IKVAV synergized with PL to promote differentiation and formation of focal adhesions containing β1-integrin in embryonic cortical neurons...
September 28, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975768/a-physicochemically-optimized-and-neuroconductive-biphasic-nerve-guidance-conduit-for-peripheral-nerve-repair
#9
Alan J Ryan, William A Lackington, Alan J Hibbitts, Austyn Matheson, Tijna Alekseeva, Anna Stejskalova, Phoebe Roche, Fergal J O'Brien
Clinically available hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have had limited success in treating large peripheral nerve injuries. This study aims to develop a biphasic NGC combining a physicochemically optimized collagen outer conduit to bridge the transected nerve, and a neuroconductive hyaluronic acid-based luminal filler to support regeneration. The outer conduit is mechanically optimized by manipulating crosslinking and collagen density, allowing the engineering of a high wall permeability to mitigate the risk of neuroma formation, while also maintaining physiologically relevant stiffness and enzymatic degradation tuned to coincide with regeneration rates...
October 4, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961089/on-the-verge-of-neuro-motion-chad-bouton-and-his-team-are-developing-breakthrough-neural-decoding-methods-that-help-people-with-paralysis-move-again
#10
Cynthia Weber
Chad Bouton, director of the Center for Bioelectronic Medicine and vice president of advanced engineering at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, which serves as the research arm of one of the largest health systems in the United States, has spent nearly two decades developing innovative medical technology and products that help diagnose and treat conditions including cancer, stroke, diabetes, and paralysis. Last year, in a groundbreaking effort, Bouton and his colleagues published their findings in Nature on neural-decoding methods that helped Ian Burkhart become the first paralyzed person with a brain implant to move again with his own thoughts...
September 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952927/generation-of-a-sox2-reporter-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-using-crispr-sacas9
#11
Diego Balboa, Jere Weltner, Yuval Novik, Solja Eurola, Kirmo Wartiovaara, Timo Otonkoski
SOX2 is an important transcription factor involved in pluripotency maintenance, pluripotent reprogramming and differentiation towards neural lineages. Here we engineered the previously described HEL24.3 hiPSC to generate a SOX2 reporter by knocking-in a T2A fused nuclear tdTomato reporter cassette before the STOP codon of the SOX2 gene coding sequence. CRISPR/SaCas9-mediated stimulation of homologous recombination was utilized to facilitate faithful targeted insertion. This line accurately reports the expression of endogenous SOX2 and therefore constitutes a useful tool to study the SOX2 expression dynamics upon hiPSC culture, differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming...
July 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946919/biosignals-learning-and-synthesis-using-deep-neural-networks
#12
David Belo, João Rodrigues, João R Vaz, Pedro Pezarat-Correia, Hugo Gamboa
BACKGROUND: Modeling physiological signals is a complex task both for understanding and synthesize biomedical signals. We propose a deep neural network model that learns and synthesizes biosignals, validated by the morphological equivalence of the original ones. This research could lead the creation of novel algorithms for signal reconstruction in heavily noisy data and source detection in biomedical engineering field. METHOD: The present work explores the gated recurrent units (GRU) employed in the training of respiration (RESP), electromyograms (EMG) and electrocardiograms (ECG)...
September 25, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937646/effects-of-liposomes-contained-in-thermosensitive-hydrogels-as-biomaterials-useful-in-neural-tissue-engineering
#13
Yusser Olguín, Cristian Campos, Javiera Catalán, Luís Velásquez, Fernando Osorio, Iván Montenegro, Alejandro Madrid, Cristian Acevedo
Advances in the generation of suitable thermosensitive hydrogels for the delivery of cells in neural tissue engineering demonstrate a delicate relationship between physical properties and capabilities to promote cell proliferation and differentiation. To improve the properties of these materials, it is possible to add liposomes for the controlled release of bioactive elements, which in turn can affect the physical and biological properties of the hydrogels. In the present investigation, different hydrogels based on Pluronic F127 have been formulated with the incorporation of chitosan and two types of liposomes of two different sizes...
September 22, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937298/probing-the-toxicity-of-nanoparticles-a-unified-in-silico-machine-learning-model-based-on-perturbation-theory
#14
Riccardo Concu, Valeria V Kleandrova, Alejandro Speck-Planche, M Natália D S Cordeiro
Nanoparticles (NPs) are part of our daily life, having a wide range of applications in engineering, physics, chemistry, and biomedicine. However, there are serious concerns regarding the harmful effects that NPs can cause to the different biological systems and their ecosystems. Toxicity testing is an essential step for assessing the potential risks of the NPs, but the experimental assays are often very expensive and usually too slow to flag the number of NPs that may cause adverse effects. In silico models centered on quantitative structure-activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) are alternative tools that have become valuable supports to risk assessment, rationalizing the search for safer NPs...
September 22, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936516/neural-differentiation-on-aligned-fullerene-c60-nanowhiskers
#15
Fu-Yu Hsieh, Lok Kumar Shrestha, Katsuhiko Ariga, Shan-Hui Hsu
Highly-aligned fullerene nanowhiskers (C60 NWs) are prepared by a modified liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method. Neural stem cells on the aligned C60 NWs are oriented and have a high capacity to differentiate into mature neurons. The aligned C60 NWs can serve as a functional scaffold for neural tissue engineering.
October 5, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932678/precise-protein-photolithography-p-3-high-performance-biopatterning-using-silk-fibroin-light-chain-as-the-resist
#16
Wanpeng Liu, Zhitao Zhou, Shaoqing Zhang, Zhifeng Shi, Justin Tabarini, Woonsoo Lee, Yeshun Zhang, S N Gilbert Corder, Xinxin Li, Fei Dong, Liang Cheng, Mengkun Liu, David L Kaplan, Fiorenzo G Omenetto, Guozheng Zhang, Ying Mao, Tiger H Tao
Precise patterning of biomaterials has widespread applications, including drug release, degradable implants, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. Patterning of protein-based microstructures using UV-photolithography has been demonstrated using protein as the resist material. The Achilles heel of existing protein-based biophotoresists is the inevitable wide molecular weight distribution during the protein extraction/regeneration process, hindering their practical uses in the semiconductor industry where reliability and repeatability are paramount...
September 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932181/invasive-intraneural-interfaces-foreign-body-reaction-issues
#17
REVIEW
Fiorenza Lotti, Federico Ranieri, Gianluca Vadalà, Loredana Zollo, Giovanni Di Pino
Intraneural interfaces are stimulation/registration devices designed to couple the peripheral nervous system (PNS) with the environment. Over the last years, their use has increased in a wide range of applications, such as the control of a new generation of neural-interfaced prostheses. At present, the success of this technology is limited by an electrical impedance increase, due to an inflammatory response called foreign body reaction (FBR), which leads to the formation of a fibrotic tissue around the interface, eventually causing an inefficient transduction of the electrical signal...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931749/ethics-in-published-brain-computer-interface-research
#18
Laura Specker Sullivan, Judy Illes
OBJECTIVE: Sophisticated signal processing has opened the doors to more research with human subjects than ever before. The increase in the use of human subjects in research comes with a need for increased human subjects protections. APPROACH: We quantified the presence or absence of ethics language in published reports of BCI studies that involved human subjects and qualitatively characterized ethics statements. MAIN RESULTS: Reports of BCI studies with human subjects that are published in neural engineering and engineering journals are anchored in the rationale of technological improvement...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929517/neural-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-human-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-modified-in-functionalized-self-assembling-peptide-hydrogel-in-vitro
#19
Hongbin Luo, Changsheng Xu, Zhiwei Liu, Lin Yang, Yunda Hong, Guisheng Liu, Huifen Zhong, Xinyi Cai, Xuping Lin, Xiaokun Chen, Changsheng Wang, Nanwen Zhang, Weihong Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biocompatibility and differentiation of human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (hBDNF) gene-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBDNF-rMSCs) in a functionalized self-assembling peptide hydrogel. METHODS: hBDNF were engineered in rMSCs using adenovirus vector and the enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) was used as a reporter gene. MSC-specific surface markers (CD90,CD29 and CD45)were used for identifying rMSCs. Fluorescence microscope was used to detect the transfection of rMSCs...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924210/kinase-inhibitor-screening-using-artificial-neural-networks-and-engineered-cardiac-biowires
#20
Genevieve Conant, Samad Ahadian, Yimu Zhao, Milica Radisic
Kinase inhibitors are often used as cancer targeting agents for their ability to prevent the activation of cell growth and proliferation signals. Cardiotoxic effects have been identified for some marketed kinase inhibitors that were not detected during clinical trials. We hypothesize that more predictive cardiac functional assessments of kinase inhibitors on human myocardium can be established by combining a high-throughput two-dimensional (2D) screening assay and a high-content three-dimensional (3D) engineered cardiac tissue (Biowire(TM)) based assay, and using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs (hiPSC-CMs)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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