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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806716/efficient-hardware-implementation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-external-globus-pallidus-oscillation-system-and-its-dynamics-investigation
#1
Shuangming Yang, Xile Wei, Jiang Wang, Bin Deng, Chen Liu, Haitao Yu, Huiyan Li
Modeling and implementation of the nonlinear neural system with physiologically plausible dynamic behaviors are considerably meaningful in the field of computational neuroscience. This study introduces a novel hardware platform to investigate the dynamical behaviors within the nonlinear subthalamic nucleus-external globus pallidus system. In order to reduce the implementation complexities, a hardware-oriented conductance-based subthalamic nucleus (STN) model is presented, which can reproduce accurately the dynamical characteristics of biological conductance-based STN cells...
July 26, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803915/neural-crest-cell-implantation-restores-enteric-nervous-system-function-and-alters-the-gastrointestinal-transcriptome-in-human-tissue-engineered-small-intestine
#2
Christopher R Schlieve, Kathryn L Fowler, Matthew Thornton, Sha Huang, Ibrahim Hajjali, Xiaogang Hou, Brendan Grubbs, Jason R Spence, Tracy C Grikscheit
Acquired or congenital disruption in enteric nervous system (ENS) development or function can lead to significant mechanical dysmotility. ENS restoration through cellular transplantation may provide a cure for enteric neuropathies. We have previously generated human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from human intestinal organoids (HIOs). However, HIO-TESI fails to develop an ENS. The purpose of our study is to restore ENS components derived exclusively from hPSCs in HIO-TESI...
August 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802102/pnipaam-co-jeffamine-%C3%A2-pnj-scaffolds-as-in%C3%A2-vitro-models-for-niche-enrichment-of-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells
#3
John M Heffernan, James B McNamara, Sabine Borwege, Brent L Vernon, Nader Sanai, Shwetal Mehta, Rachael W Sirianni
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common adult primary brain tumor, and the 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. GBM malignancy is driven in part by a population of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) that exhibit indefinite self-renewal capacity, multipotent differentiation, expression of neural stem cell markers, and resistance to conventional treatments. GSCs are enriched in specialized niche microenvironments that regulate stem phenotypes and support GSC radioresistance. Therefore, identifying GSC-niche interactions that regulate stem phenotypes may present a unique target for disrupting the maintenance and persistence of this treatment resistant population...
May 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802043/an-engineered-orco-mutation-produces-aberrant-social-behavior-and-defective-neural-development-in-ants
#4
Hua Yan, Comzit Opachaloemphan, Giacomo Mancini, Huan Yang, Matthew Gallitto, Jakub Mlejnek, Alexandra Leibholz, Kevin Haight, Majid Ghaninia, Lucy Huo, Michael Perry, Jesse Slone, Xiaofan Zhou, Maria Traficante, Clint A Penick, Kelly Dolezal, Kaustubh Gokhale, Kelsey Stevens, Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda, Roberto Bonasio, Laurence J Zwiebel, Shelley L Berger, Jürgen Liebig, Danny Reinberg, Claude Desplan
Ants exhibit cooperative behaviors and advanced forms of sociality that depend on pheromone-mediated communication. Odorant receptor neurons (ORNs) express specific odorant receptors (ORs) encoded by a dramatically expanded gene family in ants. In most eusocial insects, only the queen can transmit genetic information, restricting genetic studies. In contrast, workers in Harpegnathos saltator ants can be converted into gamergates (pseudoqueens) that can found entire colonies. This feature facilitated CRISPR-Cas9 generation of germline mutations in orco, the gene that encodes the obligate co-receptor of all ORs...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798841/microfluidic-engineering-of-neural-stem-cell-niches-for-fate-determination
#5
Yachen Wang, Jingyun Ma, Na Li, Liang Wang, Liming Shen, Yu Sun, Yajun Wang, Jingyuan Zhao, Wenjuan Wei, Yan Ren, Jing Liu
Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has great therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases and central nervous system injuries. Successful NSC replacement therapy requires precise control over the cellular behaviors. However, the regulation of NSC fate is largely unclear, which severely restricts the potential clinical applications. To develop an effective model, we designed an assembled microfluidic system to engineer NSC niches and assessed the effects of various culture conditions on NSC fate determination...
January 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795726/a-hollow-fiber-system-for-simple-generation-of-human-brain-organoids
#6
Yujuan Zhu, Li Wang, Fangchao Yin, Yue Yu, Yaqing Wang, Hui Liu, Hui Wang, Ning Sun, Haitao Liu, Jianhua Qin
3D organoids exhibit near-physiological morphogenesis and histology relying on the self-organization of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), representing a new class of in vitro model for studying developmental biology and diseases. An engineered approach is highly desirable to generate sufficient organoids in a simple and efficient manner. Herein, we present a new strategy for the simple formation of massive human brain organoids from hiPSCs within a hollow fiber reactor system by combining fiber materials with the developmental biology principle...
August 10, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792773/easy-to-apply-polyoxazoline-based-coating-for-precise-and-long-term-control-of-neural-patterns
#7
Serge Weydert, Stefan Zürcher, Stefanie Tanner, Ning Zhang, Rebecca Ritter, Thomas Peter, Mathias J Aebersold, Greta Thompson-Steckel, Csaba Forró, Markus Rottmar, Flurin Stauffer, Irene A Valassina, Giulia Morgese, Edmondo M Benetti, Samuele Tosatti, János Vörös
Arranging cultured cells in patterns via surface modification is a tool used by biologists to answer questions in a specific and controlled manner. In the past decade, bottom-up neuroscience emerged as a new application, which aims to get a better understanding of the brain via reverse engineering and analyzing elementary circuitry in vitro. Building well-defined neural networks is the ultimate goal. Antifouling coatings are often used to control neurite outgrowth. Because erroneous connectivity alters the entire topology and functionality of minicircuits, the requirements are demanding...
August 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761438/differential-cloud-particles-evolution-algorithm-based-on-data-driven-mechanism-for-applications-of-ann
#8
Wei Li
Computational scientists have designed many useful algorithms by exploring a biological process or imitating natural evolution. These algorithms can be used to solve engineering optimization problems. Inspired by the change of matter state, we proposed a novel optimization algorithm called differential cloud particles evolution algorithm based on data-driven mechanism (CPDD). In the proposed algorithm, the optimization process is divided into two stages, namely, fluid stage and solid stage. The algorithm carries out the strategy of integrating global exploration with local exploitation in fluid stage...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760868/polysialylation-at-early-stages-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-promotes-myelin-repair
#9
Sebastian Werneburg, Hazel L S Fuchs, Iris Albers, Hannelore Burkhardt, Viktoria Gudi, Thomas Skripuletz, Martin Stangel, Rita Gerardy-Schahn, Herbert Hildebrandt
Polysialic acid is a glycan modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM produced by the polysialyltransferases ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4. Polysialic acid has been detected in multiple sclerosis plaques but its beneficial or adverse role in remyelination is elusive. Here, we show that, despite a developmental delay, myelination at the onset and during cuprizone-induced demyelination was unaffected in male Ncam1(-/-) or St8sia2(-/-) mice. However, remyelination, restoration of oligodendrocyte densities and motor recovery after cessation of cuprizone treatment were compromised...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757863/automatic-image-based-plant-disease-severity-estimation-using-deep-learning
#10
Guan Wang, Yu Sun, Jianxin Wang
Automatic and accurate estimation of disease severity is essential for food security, disease management, and yield loss prediction. Deep learning, the latest breakthrough in computer vision, is promising for fine-grained disease severity classification, as the method avoids the labor-intensive feature engineering and threshold-based segmentation. Using the apple black rot images in the PlantVillage dataset, which are further annotated by botanists with four severity stages as ground truth, a series of deep convolutional neural networks are trained to diagnose the severity of the disease...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754648/microtopographical-cues-promote-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-via-transient-mtorc2-activation
#11
Suzanne E Thomson, Chloe Charalambous, Carol-Anne Smith, Penelope M Tsimbouri, Theophile Déjardin, Paul J Kingham, Andrew M Hart, Mathis O Riehle
Despite microsurgical repair, recovery of function following peripheral nerve injury is slow and often incomplete. Outcomes could be improved by an increased understanding of the molecular biology of regeneration and by translation of experimental bioengineering strategies. Topographical cues have been shown to be powerful regulators of the rate and directionality of neurite regeneration, and in this study we investigated the downstream molecular effects of linear micropatterned structures in an organotypic explant model...
July 25, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753740/photopolymerized-micropatterns-with-high-feature-frequencies-overcome-chemorepulsive-borders-to-direct-neurite-growth
#12
Bradley W Tuft, Linjing Xu, Braden Leigh, Daniel Lee, C Allan Guymon, Marlan R Hansen
Developing and regenerating neurites respond to a variety of biophysical and biochemical cues in their microenvironment to reach target cells and establish appropriate synapses. Defining the hierarchal relationship of both types of cues to direct neurite growth carries broad significance for neural development, regeneration, and, in particular, engineering of neural prostheses that improve tissue integration with native neural networks. In this work, chemorepulsive biochemical borders are established on substrates with a range of surface microfeatures to determine the potential of physical cues to overcome conflicting biochemical cues...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752164/in-situ-generation-of-human-brain-organoids-on-a-micropillar-array
#13
Yujuan Zhu, Li Wang, Hao Yu, Fangchao Yin, Yaqing Wang, Haitao Liu, Lei Jiang, Jianhua Qin
Brain organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells can recapitulate the early stages of brain development, representing a powerful in vitro system for modeling brain development and diseases. However, the existing methods for brain organoid formation often require time-consuming procedures, including the initial formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) from hiPSCs, and subsequent neural induction and differentiation companied by multi-steps of cell transfer and encapsulation in a 3D matrix. Herein, we propose a simple strategy to enable in situ formation of massive brain organoids from hiPSCs on a micropillar array without tedious manual procedures...
July 28, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751148/vision-for-navigation-what-can-we-learn-from-ants
#14
Paul Graham, Andrew Philippides
The visual systems of all animals are used to provide information that can guide behaviour. In some cases insects demonstrate particularly impressive visually-guided behaviour and then we might reasonably ask how the low-resolution vision and limited neural resources of insects are tuned to particular behavioural strategies. Such questions are of interest to both biologists and to engineers seeking to emulate insect-level performance with lightweight hardware. One behaviour that insects share with many animals is the use of learnt visual information for navigation...
July 24, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744952/effects-of-free-radical-initiators-on-polyethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate-hydrogel-properties-and-biocompatibility
#15
Thomas S Wilems, Xi Lu, Yuki Kurosu, Zara Kahn, Hyun Ju Lim, Laura A Smith Callahan
Many studies have utilized Irgacure 2959 photopolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels for tissue engineering application development. Due to the limited penetration of ultraviolet light through tissue, Irgacure 2959 polymerized hydrogels are not suitable for use in tissues where material injection is desirable, such as the spinal cord. To address this, several free radical initiators (thermal initiator VA044, ammonium persulfate/TEMED reduction-oxidation reaction, and Fenton chemistry) are evaluated for their effects on the material and mechanical properties of PEG hydrogels compared to Irgacure 2959...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743085/direct-electrodeposition-of-graphene-enhanced-conductive-polymer-on-microelectrode-for-biosensing-application
#16
Ming-Hao Wang, Bo-Wen Ji, Xiao-Wei Gu, Hong-Chang Tian, Xiao-Yang Kang, Bin Yang, Xiao-Lin Wang, Xiang Chen, Cheng-Yu Li, Jing-Quan Liu
Engineering of neural interface with nanomaterials for high spatial resolution neural recording and stimulation is still hindered by materials properties and modification methods. Recently, poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has been widely used as an electrode-tissue interface material for its good electrochemical property. However, cracks and delamination of PEDOT film under pulse stimulation are found which restrict its long-term applications. This paper develops a flexible electrochemical method about the co-deposition of graphene with PEDOT on microelectrode sites to enhance the long-term stability and improve the electrochemical properties of microelectrode...
July 13, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740258/mechanically-stable-fibrin-scaffolds-promote-viability-and-induce-neurite-outgrowth-in-neural-aggregates-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Meghan Robinson, Sarah Douglas, Stephanie Michelle Willerth
Recent work demonstrated that 3D fibrin scaffolds function as an effective substrate for engineering tissues from pluripotent stem cells. However, the rapid degradation rate of fibrin remains a major limitation when differentiating human pluripotent stem cells for tissue engineering applications. The addition of crosslinking agents, such as genipin, during the polymerization process increases scaffold stability while decreasing the degradation rate of fibrin. Genipin crosslinking alters the physical characteristics of the fibrin scaffolds, which influences the behaviour of the differentiating cells seeded inside...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734802/co-transplantation-of-mesenchymal-and-neural-stem-cells-and-overexpressing-stromal-derived-factor-1-for-treating-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Andrew N Stewart, Griffin Kendziorski, Zachary M Deak, Dara J Brown, Matthew N Fini, Katherine L Copely, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar
Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neuronal stem cells (NSCs) has been used to treat spinal cord injuries (SCI). As a mechanism of therapy, MSCs secrete high amounts of anti-inflammatory cytokines and trophic factors, while NSCs can differentiate into neuronal lineages and aid in tissue replacement. Additionally, the forced overexpression of secreted proteins can enhance the secretome of transplanted cells, which can increase therapeutic efficacy. This study utilized a combinational treatment consisting of MSCs, NSCs, and the forced overexpression of the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) from MSCs (SDF-1-MSCs), to treat a rat model of SCI...
July 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732047/in-vivo-analysis-of-glaucoma-related-features-within-the-optic-nerve-head-using-enhanced-depth-imaging-optical-coherence-tomography
#19
Tiago S Prata, Flavio S Lopes, Vitor G Prado, Izabela Almeida, Igor Matsubara, Syril Dorairaj, Rafael L Furlanetto, Roberto M Vessani, Augusto Paranhos
Structural differences between optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous eyes has been documented, however the association between such parameters in patients with different disease stages is yet to be elucidated. We investigated the relationship between different laminar and prelaminar ONH structures using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI OCT) in a population with and without glaucoma. In this observational case-control study, we prospectively enrolled healthy individuals and glaucomatous patients with different disease stages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726754/identification-of-load-categories-in-rotor-system-based-on-vibration-analysis
#20
Kun Zhang, Zhaojian Yang
Rotating machinery is often subjected to variable loads during operation. Thus, monitoring and identifying different load types is important. Here, five typical load types have been qualitatively studied for a rotor system. A novel load category identification method for rotor system based on vibration signals is proposed. This method is a combination of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), energy feature extraction, and back propagation (BP) neural network. A dedicated load identification test bench for rotor system was developed...
July 20, 2017: Sensors
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