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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227287/creating-a-graft-friendly-environment-for-stem-cells-in-diseased-brains
#1
Robert Yl Tsai
Most of the adult CNS lacks regenerative activity in terms of both neuron birth and neurite outgrowth. While this regeneration-unfriendly environment of the adult CNS may preserve the existing neuronal circuitry that takes years to develop in higher organisms, it also poses a major obstacle for CNS repair later in life. In this issue of the JCI, Song et al. report on their development of a strategy that uses region-specific and molecularly engineered astrocytes to turn an unfavorable brain environment into a favorable one for engrafted neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC/NPCs)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227284/cografting-astrocytes-improves-cell-therapeutic-outcomes-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-model
#2
Jae-Jin Song, Sang-Min Oh, Oh-Chan Kwon, Noviana Wulnansari, Hyun-Seob Lee, Mi-Yoon Chang, Eunsoo Lee, Woong Sun, Sang-Eun Lee, Sunghoe Chang, Heeyoung An, C Justin Lee, Sang-Hun Lee
Transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is a potential therapy for treating neurodegenerative disorders, but this approach has faced many challenges and limited success, primarily because of inhospitable host brain environments that interfere with enriched neuron engraftment and function. Astrocytes play neurotrophic roles in the developing and adult brain, making them potential candidates for helping with modification of hostile brain environments. In this study, we examined whether astrocytic function could be utilized to overcome the current limitations of cell-based therapies in a murine model of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is characterized by dopamine (DA) neuron degeneration in the midbrain...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223312/bioprinting-for-neural-tissue-engineering
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie Knowlton, Shivesh Anand, Twisha Shah, Savas Tasoglu
Bioprinting is a method by which a cell-encapsulating bioink is patterned to create complex tissue architectures. Given the potential impact of this technology on neural research, we review the current state-of-the-art approaches for bioprinting neural tissues. While 2D neural cultures are ubiquitous for studying neural cells, 3D cultures can more accurately replicate the microenvironment of neural tissues. By bioprinting neuronal constructs, one can precisely control the microenvironment by specifically formulating the bioink for neural tissues, and by spatially patterning cell types and scaffold properties in three dimensions...
December 6, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220306/improving-spiking-dynamical-networks-accurate-delays-higher-order-synapses-and-time-cells
#4
Aaron R Voelker, Chris Eliasmith
Researchers building spiking neural networks face the challenge of improving the biological plausibility of their model networks while maintaining the ability to quantitatively characterize network behavior. In this work, we extend the theory behind the neural engineering framework (NEF), a method of building spiking dynamical networks, to permit the use of a broad class of synapse models while maintaining prescribed dynamics up to a given order. This theory improves our understanding of how low-level synaptic properties alter the accuracy of high-level computations in spiking dynamical networks...
December 8, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215076/a-novel-electroactive-agarose-aniline-pentamer-platform-as-a-potential-candidate-for-neural-tissue-engineering
#5
Payam Zarrintaj, Behnaz Bakhshandeh, Iraj Rezaeian, Behnam Heshmatian, Mohammad Reza Ganjali
Neuronal disorder is an important health challenge due to inadequate natural regeneration, which has been responded by tissue engineering, particularly with conductive materials. A bifunctional electroactive scaffold having agarose biodegradable and aniline pentamer (AP) conductive parts was designed that exhibits appropriate cell attachment/compatibility, as detected by PC12 cell seeding. The developed carboxyl-capped aniline-pentamer improved agarose cell adhesion potential, also the conductivity of scaffold was in the order 10-5 S/cm reported for cell membrane...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214379/dual-contribution-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-employed-for-tissue-engineering-of-peripheral-nerves-trophic-activity-and-differentiation-into-connective-tissue-cells
#6
F Evaristo-Mendonça, A Carrier-Ruiz, R de Siqueira-Santos, R M P Campos, B Rangel, T H Kasai-Brunswick, V T Ribeiro-Resende
Adult peripheral nerves in vertebrates can regrow their axons and re-establish function after crush lesion. However, when there is extensive loss of a nerve segment, due to an accident or compressive damage caused by tumors, regeneration is strongly impaired. In order to overcome this problem, bioengineering strategies have been employed, using biomaterials formed by key cell types combined with biodegradable polymers. Many of these strategies are successful, and regenerated nerve tissue can be observed 12 weeks after the implantation...
December 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213189/spikinglab-modelling-agents-controlled-by-spiking-neural-networks-in-netlogo
#7
Cristian Jimenez-Romero, Jeffrey Johnson
The scientific interest attracted by Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) has lead to the development of tools for the simulation and study of neuronal dynamics ranging from phenomenological models to the more sophisticated and biologically accurate Hodgkin-and-Huxley-based and multi-compartmental models. However, despite the multiple features offered by neural modelling tools, their integration with environments for the simulation of robots and agents can be challenging and time consuming. The implementation of artificial neural circuits to control robots generally involves the following tasks: (1) understanding the simulation tools, (2) creating the neural circuit in the neural simulator, (3) linking the simulated neural circuit with the environment of the agent and (4) programming the appropriate interface in the robot or agent to use the neural controller...
2017: Neural Computing & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211649/hearing-shapes-event-related-potentials-reveal-the-time-course-of-auditory-visual-sensory-substitution
#8
Christian Graulty, Orestis Papaioannou, Phoebe Bauer, Michael A Pitts, Enriqueta Canseco-Gonzalez
In auditory-visual sensory substitution, visual information (e.g., shape) can be extracted through strictly auditory input (e.g., soundscapes). Previous studies have shown that image-to-sound conversions that follow simple rules [such as the Meijer algorithm; Meijer, P. B. L. An experimental system for auditory image representation. Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 39, 111-121, 1992] are highly intuitive and rapidly learned by both blind and sighted individuals. A number of recent fMRI studies have begun to explore the neuroplastic changes that result from sensory substitution training...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209191/conduction-delay-learning-model-for-unsupervised-and-supervised-classification-of-spatio-temporal-spike-patterns
#9
Takashi Matsubara
Precise spike timing is considered to play a fundamental role in communications and signal processing in biological neural networks. Understanding the mechanism of spike timing adjustment would deepen our understanding of biological systems and enable advanced engineering applications such as efficient computational architectures. However, the biological mechanisms that adjust and maintain spike timing remain unclear. Existing algorithms adopt a supervised approach, which adjusts the axonal conduction delay and synaptic efficacy until the spike timings approximate the desired timings...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207038/interaction-of-ipsc-derived-neural-stem-cells-on-poly-l-lactic-acid-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-possible-use-in-neural-tissue-engineering
#10
Chengkai Lin, Chang Liu, Liangming Zhang, Zhi Huang, Peipei Zhao, Ruiqiang Chen, Mao Pang, Zhenxiang Chen, Liumin He, Chunxiao Luo, Limin Rong, Bin Liu
Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing technological area for the regeneration and reconstruction of damage to the central nervous system. By combining seed cells with appropriate biomaterial scaffolds, tissue engineering has the ability to improve nerve regeneration and functional recovery. In the present study, mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with the non-integrating episomal vectors pCEP4-EO2S-ET2K and pCEP4-miR-302-367 cluster, and differentiated into neural stem cells (NSCs) as transplanting cells...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205171/engineered-core-shell-magnetic-nanoparticle-for-mr-dual-modal-tracking-and-safe-magnetic-manipulation-of-ependymal-cells-in-live-rodents
#11
Yung-Kang Peng, Cathy N P Lui, Yu-Wei Chen, Shang-Wei Chou, Pi-Tai Chou, Ken K L Yung, S C Edman Tsang
Tagging recognition group(s) on superparamagnetic iron oxide is known to aid localisation (imaging), stimulation and separation of biological entities using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic agitation/separation (MAS) techniques. Despite the wide applicability of iron oxide nanoparticles in T 2-weighted MRI and MAS, the quality of the images and safe manipulation of the exceptionally delicate neural cells in a live brain are currently the key challenges. Here, we demonstrate the engineered manganese oxide clusters-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticle as an MR dual-modal contrast agent for neural stem cells (NSCs) imaging and magnetic manipulation in live rodents...
December 5, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204424/3-d-bioprinting-of-neural-tissue-for-applications-in-cell-therapy-and-drug-screening
#12
REVIEW
Michaela Thomas, Stephanie M Willerth
Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals in North America and cost the health-care industry billions of dollars for treatment. Current treatment options for degenerative diseases focus on physical rehabilitation or drug therapies, which temporarily mask the effects of cell damage, but quickly lose their efficacy. Cell therapies for the central nervous system remain an untapped market due to the complexity involved in growing neural tissues, controlling their differentiation, and protecting them from the hostile environment they meet upon implantation...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203425/tgf%C3%AE-1-transduction-enhances-immunomodulatory-capacity-of-neural-stem-cells-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#13
Chong Xie, Xing Li, Xiajun Zhou, Zezhi Li, Yuan Zhang, Li Zhao, Yong Hao, Guang-Xian Zhang, Yangtai Guan
Bone marrow-derived neural stem cells (BM-NSCs) have therapeutic effect on EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. However, the beneficial effect is suboptimal due to the limited immunomodulatory capacity of these cells. In this study, we engineered BM-NSCs with inducible TGFβ1, a potent immunosuppressive cytokine, to enhance their anti-inflammatory capacity. We found that i.v. injected TGFβ1-BM-NSCs more effectively suppressed clinical severity, inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system of EAE mice...
December 1, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196443/modelling-glioblastoma-tumour-host-cell-interactions-using-adult-brain-organotypic-slice-co-culture
#14
Maria Angeles Marques-Torrejon, Ester Gangoso, Steven M Pollard
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive incurable brain cancer. The cells that fuel the growth of tumours resemble neural stem cells found in the developing and adult mammalian forebrain. These are referred to as GBM stem cells (GSCs). Similar to neural stem cells, GSCs exhibit a variety of phenotypic states: dormant, quiescent, proliferative and differentiating. How environmental cues within the brain influence these distinct states is not well understood. Laboratory models of GBM can be generated using either genetically engineered mouse models, or via intracranial transplantation of cultured tumour initiating cells (mouse or human)...
December 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196189/pd-l1-inflammation-non-coding-rnas-and-neuroblastoma-immuno-oncology-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Palanisamy Nallasamy, Srinivas Chava, Sumit S Verma, Shruti Mishra, Santhi Gorantla, Don W Coulter, Siddappa N Byrareddy, Surinder K Batra, Subash C Gupta, Kishore B Challagundla
Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric solid tumor of neural crest origin. The current treatment options for neuroblastoma produce severe side effects. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), chronic inflammation, and non-coding RNAs are known to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. Cancer cells and the surrounding cells in the tumor microenvironment express PD-L1. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a co-receptor expressed predominantly by T cells. The binding of PD-1 to its ligands, PD-L1 or PD-L2, is vital for the physiologic regulation of the immune system...
November 28, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193204/engineered-agrin-attenuates-the-severity-of-experimental-autoimmune-myasthenia-gravis
#16
Zhiguo Li, Minshu Li, Kristofer Wood, Steffan Hettwer, Suraj A Muley, Fu-Dong Shi, Qiang Liu, Shafeeq S Ladha
Introduction-Agrin is essential for the formation and maintenance of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). NT-1654 is a C-terminal fragment of mouse neural agrin. In this study, we determined the effects of NT-1654 on the severity of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Methods-EAMG was induced in female Lewis rats by immunization with the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (tAChR) and complete Freund's adjuvant. NT-1654 was dissolved in PBS and injected daily s.c. into tAChR immunized rats during the first 10 days after immunization, and then every other day for the following 20 days...
November 28, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192282/functionalized-gold-nanorod-nanocomposite-system-to-modulate-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-neural-like-progenitors
#17
Karrer M Alghazali, Steven D Newby, Zeid A Nima, Rabab N Hamzah, Fumiya Watanabe, Shawn E Bourdo, Thomas J Masi, Stacy M Stephenson, David E Anderson, Madhu S Dhar, Alexandru S Biris
A 2D multifunctional nanocomposite system of gold nanorods (AuNRs) was developed. Gold nanorods were functionalized via polyethylene glycol with a terminal amine, and, were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, ultra violet-visible and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Zeta-potential. The system was cytocompatible to and maintained the integrity of Schwann cells. The neurogenic potential of adipose tissue - derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was evaluated in vitro...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190779/manifold-absolute-pressure-estimation-using-neural-network-with-hybrid-training-algorithm
#18
Mohd Taufiq Muslim, Hazlina Selamat, Ahmad Jais Alimin, Mohamad Fadzli Haniff
In a modern small gasoline engine fuel injection system, the load of the engine is estimated based on the measurement of the manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor, which took place in the intake manifold. This paper present a more economical approach on estimating the MAP by using only the measurements of the throttle position and engine speed, resulting in lower implementation cost. The estimation was done via two-stage multilayer feed-forward neural network by combining Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm, Bayesian Regularization (BR) algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186323/an-attention-based-bilstm-crf-approach-to-document-level-chemical-named-entity-recognition
#19
Ling Luo, Zhihao Yang, Pei Yang, Yin Zhang, Lei Wang, Hongfei Lin, Jian Wang
Motivation: In biomedical research, chemical is an important class of entities, and chemical named entity recognition (NER) is an important task in the field of biomedical information extraction. However, most popular chemical NER methods are based on traditional machine learning and their performances are heavily dependent on the feature engineering. Moreover, these methods are sentence-level ones which have the tagging non-consistency problem. Results: In this paper, we propose a neural network approach, i...
November 24, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182723/extreme-learning-machines-for-reverse-engineering-of-gene-regulatory-networks-from-expression-time-series
#20
M Rubiolo, D H Milone, G Stegmayer
Motivation: The reconstruction of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from genes profiles has a growing interest in bioinformatics for understanding the complex regulatory mechanisms in cellular systems. GRNs explicitly represent the cause-effect of regulation among a group of genes and its reconstruction is today a challenging computational problem. Several methods were proposed, but most of them require different input sources to provide an acceptable prediction. Thus, it is a great challenge to reconstruct a GRN only from temporal gene-expression data...
November 22, 2017: Bioinformatics
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