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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423326/rapid-molecular-profiling-of-defined-cell-types-using-viral-trap
#1
Alexander R Nectow, Maria V Moya, Mats I Ekstrand, Awni Mousa, Kelly L McGuire, Caroline E Sferrazza, Bianca C Field, Gabrielle S Rabinowitz, Kirsty Sawicka, Yupu Liang, Jeffrey M Friedman, Nathaniel Heintz, Eric F Schmidt
Translational profiling methodologies enable the systematic characterization of cell types in complex tissues, such as the mammalian brain, where neuronal isolation is exceptionally difficult. Here, we report a versatile strategy for profiling CNS cell types in a spatiotemporally restricted fashion by engineering a Cre-dependent adeno-associated virus expressing an EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein (AAV-FLEX-EGFPL10a) to access translating mRNAs by translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP). We demonstrate the utility of this AAV to target a variety of genetically and anatomically defined neural populations expressing Cre recombinase and illustrate the ability of this viral TRAP (vTRAP) approach to recapitulate the molecular profiles obtained by bacTRAP in corticothalamic neurons across multiple serotypes...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422080/study-on-temperature-and-synthetic-compensation-of-piezo-resistive-differential-pressure-sensors-by-coupled-simulated-annealing-and-simplex-optimized-kernel-extreme-learning-machine
#2
Ji Li, Guoqing Hu, Yonghong Zhou, Chong Zou, Wei Peng, Jahangir Alam Sm
As a high performance-cost ratio solution for differential pressure measurement, piezo-resistive differential pressure sensors are widely used in engineering processes. However, their performance is severely affected by the environmental temperature and the static pressure applied to them. In order to modify the non-linear measuring characteristics of the piezo-resistive differential pressure sensor, compensation actions should synthetically consider these two aspects. Advantages such as nonlinear approximation capability, highly desirable generalization ability and computational efficiency make the kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) a practical approach for this critical task...
April 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419590/cracking-the-neural-code-treating-paralysis-and-the-future-of-bioelectronic-medicine
#3
C Bouton
The human nervous system is a vast network carrying not only sensory and movement information, but also information to and from our organs, intimately linking it to our overall health. Scientists and engineers have been working for decades to tap into this network and 'crack the neural code' by decoding neural signals and learning how to 'speak' the language of the nervous system. Progress has been made in developing neural decoding methods to decipher brain activity and bioelectronic technologies to treat rheumatoid arthritis, paralysis, epilepsy and for diagnosing brain-related diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414976/glucose-sensitive-self-healing-hydrogel-as-sacrificial-materials-to-fabricate-vascularized-constructs
#4
Ting-Chen Tseng, Fu-Yu Hsieh, Patrick Theato, Yen Wei, Shan-Hui Hsu
A major challenge in tissue engineering is the lack of proper vascularization. Although various approaches have been used to build vascular network in a tissue engineering construct, there remain some drawbacks. Herein, a glucose-sensitive self-healing hydrogel are employed as sacrificial materials to fabricate branched tubular channels within a construct. The hydrogel composes of mainly reversibly crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and dithiothreitol with borax as the glucose-sensitive motif. The hydrogel is injectable and mechanically strong after injection...
April 9, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412403/a-further-development-of-the-qnar-model-to-predict-the-cellular-uptake-of-nanoparticles-by-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#5
Feng Luan, Lili Tang, Lihong Zhang, Shuang Zhang, Maykel Cruz Monteagudo, M Natália D S Cordeiro
Nanotechnology has led to the development of new nanomaterials with unique properties and a wide variety of applications. In the present study, we focused on the cellular uptake of a group of nanoparticles with a single metal core by pancreatic cancer cells, which has been studied by Yap et al. (Rsc Advances, 2012, 2 (2):8489-8496) using classification models. In this work, the development of a further Quantitative Nanostructure-Activity Relationship (QNAR) model was performed by linear multiple linear regression (MLR) and nonlinear artificial neural network (ANN) techniques to accurately predict the cellular uptake values of these compounds by dividing them into three groups...
April 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411207/transdifferentiation-as-a-mechanism-of-treatment-resistance-in-a-mouse-model-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#6
Min Zou, Roxanne Toivanen, Antonina Mitrofanova, Nicolas Floc'h, Sheida Hayati, Yanping Sun, Clementine Le Magnen, Daniel Chester, Elahe A Mostaghel, Andrea Califano, Mark A Rubin, Michael M Shen, Cory Abate-Shen
Current treatments for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CPRC) that target androgen receptor (AR) signaling improve patient survival, yet ultimately fail. Here we provide novel insights into treatment response for the anti-androgen abiraterone by analyses of a genetically-engineered mouse model (GEMM) with combined inactivation of Trp53 and Pten, which are frequently co-mutated in human CRPC. These NPp53 mice fail to respond to abiraterone, and display accelerated progression to tumors resembling treatment-related CRPC with neuroendocrine differentiation (CRPC-NE) in humans...
April 14, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407733/the-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-9-cistrome-in-mouse-hippocampal-neurons-reveals-predominant-transcriptional-repression-via-proximal-promoter-binding
#7
Joseph R Knoedler, Arasakumar Subramani, Robert J Denver
BACKGROUND: Krüppel-like factor 9 (Klf9) is a zinc finger transcription factor that functions in neural cell differentiation, but little is known about its genomic targets or mechanism of action in neurons. RESULTS: We used the mouse hippocampus-derived neuronal cell line HT22 to identify genes regulated by Klf9, and we validated our findings in mouse hippocampus. We engineered HT22 cells to express a Klf9 transgene under control of the tetracycline repressor, and used RNA sequencing to identify genes modulated by Klf9...
April 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406608/functionalized-carbon-nanotube-and-graphene-oxide-embedded-electrically-conductive-hydrogel-synergistically-stimulates-nerve-cell-differentiation
#8
Xifeng Liu, A Lee Miller, Sungjo Park, Brian E Waletzki, Zifei Zhou, Andre Terzic, Lichun Lu
Nerve regeneration after injury is a critical medical issue. In previous work, we have developed an oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) hydrogel incorporated with positive charges as a promising nerve conduit. In this study, we introduced cross-linkable bonds to graphene oxide and carbon nanotube to obtain the functionalized graphene oxide acrylate (GOa) and carbon nanotube poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate (CNTpega). An electrically conductive hydrogel was then fabricated by covalently embedding GOa and CNTpega within OPF hydrogel through chemical cross-linking followed by in situ reduction of GOa in l-ascorbic acid solution...
April 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404872/synthetic-associative-learning-in-engineered-multicellular-consortia
#9
Javier Macia, Blai Vidiella, Ricard V Solé
Associative learning (AL) is one of the key mechanisms displayed by living organisms in order to adapt to their changing environments. It was recognized early as a general trait of complex multicellular organisms but is also found in 'simpler' ones. It has also been explored within synthetic biology using molecular circuits that are directly inspired in neural network models of conditioning. These designs involve complex wiring diagrams to be implemented within one single cell, and the presence of diverse molecular wires become a challenge that might be very difficult to overcome...
April 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401575/new-insights-into-the-neural-differentiation-potential-of-canine-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
D Blecker, M I Elashry, M Heimann, S Wenisch, S Arnhold
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be obtained from different adipose tissue sources within the body. It is an abundant cell pool, easily accessible, suitable for cultivation and expansion in vitro and preparation for therapeutic approaches. Amongst these therapeutic approaches are tissue engineering and nervous system disorders such as spinal cord injuries. For such treatment, ASCs have to be reliably differentiated in to the neuronal direction. Therefore, we investigated the neural differentiation potential of ASCs using protocols with neurogenic inductors such as valproic acid and forskolin, while dog brain tissue served as control...
April 11, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400986/combining-injectable-plasma-scaffold-with-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-for-repairing-infarct-cavity-after-ischemic-stroke
#11
Hongxia Zhang, Fen Sun, Jixian Wang, Luokun Xie, Chenqi Yang, Mengxiong Pan, Bei Shao, Guo-Yuan Yang, Shao-Hua Yang, Qichuan ZhuGe, Kunlin Jin
Stroke survivors are typically left with structural brain damage and associated functional impairment in the chronic phase of injury, for which few therapeutic options exist. We reported previously that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neural stem cells together with Matrigel scaffolding into the brains of rats after focal ischemia reduced infarct volume and improved neurobehavioral performance. Matrigel is a gelatinous protein mixture extracted from mouse sarcoma cells, thus would not be approved for use as a scaffold clinically...
April 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398584/genomic-profiles-of-low-grade-murine-gliomas-evolve-during-progression-to-glioblastoma
#12
Mark Vitucci, David M Irvin, Robert S McNeill, Ralf S Schmid, Jeremy M Simon, Harshil D Dhruv, Marni B Siegel, Andrea M Werneke, Ryan E Bash, Seungchan Kim, Michael E Berens, C Ryan Miller
Background: Gliomas are diverse neoplasms with multiple molecular subtypes. How tumor-initiating mutations relate to molecular subtypes as these tumors evolve during malignant progression remains unclear. Methods: We used genetically engineered mouse models, histopathology, genetic lineage tracing, expression profiling, and copy number analyses to examine how genomic tumor diversity evolves during the course of malignant progression from low- to high-grade disease...
April 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394476/enhanced-self-renewal-and-accelerated-differentiation-of-human-fetal-neural-stem-cells-using-graphene-oxide-nanoparticles
#13
Jin Kim, Kisuk Yang, Jong Seung Lee, Yong Hwa Hwang, Hyun-Ji Park, Kook In Park, Dong Yun Lee, Seung-Woo Cho
Graphene oxide (GO) has received increasing attention in bioengineering fields due to its unique biophysical and electrical properties, along with excellent biocompatibility. The application of GO nanoparticles (GO-NPs) to engineer self-renewal and differentiation of human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) is reported. GO-NPs added to hfNSC culture during neurosphere formation substantially promote cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions in neurospheres. Accordingly, GO-NP-treated hfNSCs show enhanced self-renewal ability and accelerated differentiation compared to untreated cells, indicating the utility of GO in developing stem cell therapies for neurogenesis...
April 10, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388393/biomimetic-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-neural-tissue-engineering-and-drug-development
#14
REVIEW
Jing Wu, Lili Xie, William Zhi Yuan Lin, Qiushui Chen
Neural tissue engineering aims to develop functional substitutes for damaged tissues, creating many promising opportunities in regeneration medicine and drug discovery. Biomaterial scaffolds routinely provide nerve cells with a physical support for cell growth and regeneration, yielding 3D extracellular matrix to mimic the in vivo cellular microenvironment. Among the various types of cellular scaffolds for reconstruction, biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds are recognized as appropriate candidates by precisely controlling morphology and shape...
April 4, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377709/the-role-of-architectural-and-learning-constraints-in-neural-network-models-a-case-study-on-visual-space-coding
#15
Alberto Testolin, Michele De Filippo De Grazia, Marco Zorzi
The recent "deep learning revolution" in artificial neural networks had strong impact and widespread deployment for engineering applications, but the use of deep learning for neurocomputational modeling has been so far limited. In this article we argue that unsupervised deep learning represents an important step forward for improving neurocomputational models of perception and cognition, because it emphasizes the role of generative learning as opposed to discriminative (supervised) learning. As a case study, we present a series of simulations investigating the emergence of neural coding of visual space for sensorimotor transformations...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375650/emerging-frontiers-of-neuroengineering-a-network-science-of-brain-connectivity
#16
Danielle S Bassett, Ankit N Khambhati, Scott T Grafton
Neuroengineering is faced with unique challenges in repairing or replacing complex neural systems that are composed of many interacting parts. These interactions form intricate patterns over large spatiotemporal scales and produce emergent behaviors that are difficult to predict from individual elements. Network science provides a particularly appropriate framework in which to study and intervene in such systems by treating neural elements (cells, volumes) as nodes in a graph and neural interactions (synapses, white matter tracts) as edges in that graph...
March 27, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371791/adaptive-neural-tracking-control-for-switched-high-order-stochastic-nonlinear-systems
#17
Xudong Zhao, Xinyong Wang, Guangdeng Zong, Xiaolong Zheng
This paper deals with adaptive neural tracking control design for a class of switched high-order stochastic nonlinear systems with unknown uncertainties and arbitrary deterministic switching. The considered issues are: 1) completely unknown uncertainties; 2) stochastic disturbances; and 3) high-order nonstrict-feedback system structure. The considered mathematical models can represent many practical systems in the actual engineering. By adopting the approximation ability of neural networks, common stochastic Lyapunov function method together with adding an improved power integrator technique, an adaptive state feedback controller with multiple adaptive laws is systematically designed for the systems...
March 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370405/emerging-biofabrication-strategies-for-engineering-complex-tissue-constructs
#18
REVIEW
R Daniel Pedde, Bahram Mirani, Ali Navaei, Tara Styan, Sarah Wong, Mehdi Mehrali, Ashish Thakur, Nima Khadem Mohtaram, Armin Bayati, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Mehdi Nikkhah, Stephanie M Willerth, Mohsen Akbari
The demand for organ transplantation and repair, coupled with a shortage of available donors, poses an urgent clinical need for the development of innovative treatment strategies for long-term repair and regeneration of injured or diseased tissues and organs. Bioengineering organs, by growing patient-derived cells in biomaterial scaffolds in the presence of pertinent physicochemical signals, provides a promising solution to meet this demand. However, recapitulating the structural and cytoarchitectural complexities of native tissues in vitro remains a significant challenge to be addressed...
April 3, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368416/sox2-is-dispensable-for-primary-melanoma-and-metastasis-formation
#19
S M Schaefer, C Segalada, P F Cheng, M Bonalli, V Parfejevs, M P Levesque, R Dummer, S K Nicolis, L Sommer
Tumor initiation and metastasis formation in many cancers have been associated with emergence of a gene expression program normally active in embryonic or organ-specific stem cells. In particular, the stem cell transcription factor Sox2 is not only expressed in a variety of tumors, but is also required for their formation. Melanoma, the most aggressive skin tumor, derives from melanocytes that during development originate from neural crest stem cells. While neural crest stem cells do not express Sox2, expression of this transcription factor has been reported in melanoma...
April 3, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366745/non-overlapping-neural-networks-in-hydra-vulgaris
#20
Christophe Dupre, Rafael Yuste
To understand the emergent properties of neural circuits, it would be ideal to record the activity of every neuron in a behaving animal and decode how it relates to behavior. We have achieved this with the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris, using calcium imaging of genetically engineered animals to measure the activity of essentially all of its neurons. Although the nervous system of Hydra is traditionally described as a simple nerve net, we surprisingly find instead a series of functional networks that are anatomically non-overlapping and are associated with specific behaviors...
March 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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