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neural engineering

Deepak Bhere, Rajiv Kumar Khajuria, William T Hendriks, Antara Bandyopadhyay, Tugba Bagci-Onder, Khalid Shah
Stem cells are emerging as promising treatment strategies for several brain disorders and pathologies including brain tumors. In this study, we explored the potential of creating induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived therapeutic NSCs (ipNSC) by using either unmodified or gene-modified somatic cells and tested their fate and therapeutic efficacies in vitro and in vivo. We show that cells engineered in somatic state lose transgene-expression during the neural induction process, which is partially restored by HDAC inhibitor (i) treatment whereas cells engineered at the ipNSC state have sustained expression of transgenes...
February 16, 2018: Stem Cells
Eduardo Anitua, María Troya, Mar Zalduendo
The field of tissue engineering is emerging as a multidisciplinary area with promising potential for regenerating new tissues and organs. This approach requires the involvement of three essential components: stem cells, scaffolds and growth factors. To date, dental pulp stem cells have received special attention because they represent a readily accessible source of stem cells. Their high plasticity and multipotential capacity to differentiate into a large array of tissues can be explained by its neural crest origin, which supports applications beyond the scope of oral tissues...
February 12, 2018: Cytotherapy
Shoma Tsubota, Kenji Kadomatsu
Neuroblastoma is an embryonal malignancy that affects normal development of the adrenal medulla and paravertebral sympathetic ganglia in early childhood. Extensive studies have revealed the molecular characteristics of human neuroblastomas, including abnormalities at genome, epigenome and transcriptome levels. However, neuroblastoma initiation mechanisms and even its origin are long-standing mysteries. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge about normal development of putative neuroblastoma sources, namely sympathoadrenal lineage of neural crest cells and Schwann cell precursors that were recently identified as the source of adrenal chromaffin cells...
February 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Valéria Ferreira-Silva, Fernando L Primo, Munira M A Baqui, Danielle A R Magalhães, Maristela D Orellana, Andrielle Castilho-Fernandes, Mario C Cruz, Niehls O S Câmara, Dimas T Covas, Antonio C Tedesco
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neural protein expression pattern of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) treated with forskolin (free-form/FF). The study investigated forskolin's capacity to enhance intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by activating adenylate cyclase and probably by inducing neuron-like cells in vitro. In addition, because nanotechnology is a growing field of tissue engineering, we also assessed the action of a new system called the nanostructured-forskolin (NF) to examine the improvement of drug delivery...
February 13, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
C O'Rourke, A G E Day, C Murray-Dunning, L Thanabalasundaram, J Cowan, L Stevanato, N Grace, G Cameron, R A L Drake, J Sinden, J B Phillips
Artificial tissues constructed from therapeutic cells offer a promising approach for improving the treatment of severe peripheral nerve injuries. In this study the effectiveness of using CTX0E03, a conditionally immortalised human neural stem cell line, as a source of allogeneic cells for constructing living artificial nerve repair tissue was tested. CTX0E03 cells were differentiated then combined with collagen to form engineered neural tissue (EngNT-CTX), stable aligned sheets of cellular hydrogel. EngNT-CTX sheets were delivered within collagen tubes to repair a 12 mm sciatic nerve injury model in athymic nude rats...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manuel Tardaguila, Lorena de la Fuente, Cristina Marti, Cécile Pereira, Francisco Jose Pardo-Palacios, Hector Del Risco, Marc Ferrell, Maravillas Mellado, Marissa Macchietto, Kenneth Verheggen, Mariola Edelmann, Iakes Ezkurdia, Jesus Vazquez, Michael Tress, Ali Mortazavi, Lennart Martens, Susana Rodriguez-Navarro, Victoria Moreno-Manzano, Ana Conesa
High-throughput sequencing of full-length transcripts using long reads has paved the way for the discovery of thousands of novel transcripts, even in well-annotated mammalian species. The advances in sequencing technology have created a need for studies and tools that can characterize these novel variants. Here, we present SQANTI, an automated pipeline for the classification of long-read transcripts that can assess the quality of data and the preprocessing pipeline using 47 unique descriptors. We apply SQANTI to a neuronal mouse transcriptome using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) long reads and illustrate how the tool is effective in characterizing and describing the composition of the full-length transcriptome...
February 9, 2018: Genome Research
Aida Catic, Lejla Gurbeta, Amina Kurtovic-Kozaric, Senad Mehmedbasic, Almir Badnjevic
BACKGROUND: The usage of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for genome-enabled classifications and establishing genome-phenotype correlations have been investigated more extensively over the past few years. The reason for this is that ANNs are good approximates of complex functions, so classification can be performed without the need for explicitly defined input-output model. This engineering tool can be applied for optimization of existing methods for disease/syndrome classification. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses are the most frequent tests used in prenatal diagnostic for the early detection of Turner, Klinefelter, Patau, Edwards and Down syndrome...
February 13, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
Andreea Belu, Mehmet Yilmaz, Elmar Neumann, Andreas Offenhäusser, Gokhan Demirel, Dirk Mayer
Three dimensional, nanostructured surfaces have attracted considerable attention in biomedical research since they have proven to represent a powerful platform to influence cell fate. In particular, nanorods and nanopillars possess great potential for the control of cell adhesion and differentiation, gene and biomolecule delivery, optical and electrical stimulation and recording, as well as cell patterning. Here, we investigate the influence of asymmetric poly(dichloro-p-xylene) (PPX) columnar films on the adhesion and maturation of cortical neurons...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Ulku Selcen Demir, Reza Shahbazi, Semih Calamak, Sukru Ozturk, Merve Gultekinoglu, Kezban Ulubayram
Neurite outgrowth and elongation of neural cells is the most important subject that is considered in nerve tissue engineering. In this regard, aligned nanofibers have taken much attention in terms of providing guidance for newly outgrown neurites. The main objective of this study was to fabricate aligned polyurethane (PU) nanofibers by electrospinning process and decorate them with gold nanoparticles to further investigate the synergistic effects of nanotopography, biological (Nerve Growth Factor, NGF) and electrical stimulations on neurite outgrowth and elongation of PC-12 model cells...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Nicole A Pelot, Warren M Grill
Implanted vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for obesity was recently approved by the FDA. However, its efficacy and mechanisms of action remain unclear. Herein, we synthesize clinical and preclinical effects of VNS on feeding behavior and energy balance and discuss engineering considerations for understanding and improving the therapy. Clinical cervical VNS (≤30 Hz) to treat epilepsy or depression has produced mixed effects on weight loss as a side effect, albeit in uncontrolled, retrospective studies. Conversely, preclinical studies (cervical and subdiaphragmatic VNS) mostly report decreased food intake and either decreased weight gain or weight loss...
February 6, 2018: Brain Research
Lin Ho, Shan-Hui Hsu
3D bioprinting is a technique which enables the direct printing of biodegradable materials with cells into 3D tissue. So far there is no cell reprogramming in situ performed with the 3D bioprinting process. Forkhead box D3 (FoxD3) is a transcription factor and neural crest marker, which was reported to reprogram human fibroblasts into neural crest stem-like cells. In this study, we synthesized a new biodegradable thermo-responsive waterborne polyurethane (PU) gel as a bioink. FoxD3 plasmids and human fibroblasts were co-extruded with the PU hydrogel through the syringe needle tip for cell reprogramming...
February 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Geoffrey Potjewyd, Samuel Moxon, Tao Wang, Marco Domingos, Nigel M Hooper
Neurovascular dysfunction is a central process in the pathogenesis of stroke and most neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The multicellular neurovascular unit (NVU) combines the neural, vascular and extracellular matrix (ECM) components in an important interface whose correct functioning is critical to maintain brain health. Tissue engineering is now offering new tools and insights to advance our understanding of NVU function. Here, we review how the use of novel biomaterials to mimic the mechanical and functional cues of the ECM, coupled with precisely layered deposition of the different cells of the NVU through 3D bioprinting, is revolutionising the study of neurovascular function and dysfunction...
February 5, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
Wangping Hao, Jie Han, Yun Chu, Lei Huang, Jie Sun, Yan Zhuang, Xiaoran Li, Hongwei Ma, Yanyan Chen, Jianwu Dai
Extensive studies have been performed to understand how the mechanical properties of a stem cell's microenvironment influence its behaviors. Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), a well-known biomimetic platform, have been used to mimic the dynamic characteristics of the extracellular matrix (ECM) because of their fluidity. However, the effect of the fluidity of SLBs on stem cell fate is unknown. We constructed SLBs with different fluidities to explore the influence of fluidity on the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs)...
January 30, 2018: Biomaterials
Bosun Hwang, Jiwoo You, Thomas Vaessen, Inez Myin-Germeys, Cheolsoo Park, Byoung-Tak Zhang
BACKGROUND: Stress recognition using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals requires the intractable long-term heart rate variability (HRV) parameter extraction process. This study proposes a novel deep learning framework to recognize the stressful states, the Deep ECGNet, using ultra short-term raw ECG signals without any feature engineering methods. METHODS: The Deep ECGNet was developed through various experiments and analysis of ECG waveforms. We proposed the optimal recurrent and convolutional neural networks architecture, and also the optimal convolution filter length (related to the P, Q, R, S, and T wave durations of ECG) and pooling length (related to the heart beat period) based on the optimization experiments and analysis on the waveform characteristics of ECG signals...
February 8, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Xu Li, Chuanlei Yang, Yinyan Wang, Hechun Wang
To achieve a much more extensive intake air flow range of the diesel engine, a variable-geometry compressor (VGC) is introduced into a turbocharged diesel engine. However, due to the variable diffuser vane angle (DVA), the prediction for the performance of the VGC becomes more difficult than for a normal compressor. In the present study, a prediction model comprising an elliptical equation and a PLS (partial least-squares) model was proposed to predict the performance of the VGC. The speed lines of the pressure ratio map and the efficiency map were fitted with the elliptical equation, and the coefficients of the elliptical equation were introduced into the PLS model to build the polynomial relationship between the coefficients and the relative speed, the DVA...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Payam Zarrintaj, Aleksandra M Urbanska, Saman Seyed Gholizadeh, Vahabodin Goodarzi, Mohammad Reza Saeb, Masoud Mozafari
An innovative drug-loaded colloidal hydrogel was synthesized for applications in neural interfaces in tissue engineering by reacting carboxyl capped aniline dimer and gelatin molecules. Dexamethasone was loaded into the gelatin-aniline dimer solution as a model drug to form an in situ drug-loaded colloidal hydrogel. The conductivity of the hydrogel samples fluctuated around 10-5 S/cm which appeared suitable for cellular activities. Cyclic voltammetry was used for electroactivity determination, in which 2 redox states were observed, suggesting that the short chain length and steric hindrance prevented the gel from achieving a fully oxidized state...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mehdi Jorfi, Carla D'Avanzo, Rudolph E Tanzi, Doo Yeon Kim, Daniel Irimia
Neurospheroids are commonly used for in vitro disease modeling and drug screening. However, the heterogeneity in size of the neurospheroids mixtures available through current methods limits their utility when employed for basic mechanistic studies of neurodegenerative diseases or screening for new interventions. Here, we generate neurospheroids from immortalized neural progenitor cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells that are uniform in size, into large-scale arrays. In proof of concept experiments, we validate the neurospheroids array as a sensitive and robust tool for screening compounds over extended time...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jian-Xin Shen, Da-Shan Shang, Yi-Sheng Chai, Shou-Guo Wang, Bao-Gen Shen, Young Sun
Artificial synaptic devices that mimic the functions of biological synapses have drawn enormous interest because of their potential in developing brain-inspired computing. Current studies are focusing on memristive devices in which the change of the conductance state is used to emulate synaptic behaviors. Here, a new type of artificial synaptic devices based on the memtranstor is demonstrated, which is a fundamental circuit memelement in addition to the memristor, memcapacitor, and meminductor. The state of transtance (presented by the magnetoelectric voltage) in memtranstors acting as the synaptic weight can be tuned continuously with a large number of nonvolatile levels by engineering the applied voltage pulses...
February 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Phillip Kang, Sanjay Kumar, David Schaffer
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a valuable cell source for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug screening applications. Analogous to other stem cells, NSCs are tightly regulated by their microenvironmental niche, and prior work utilizing NSCs as a model system with engineered biomaterials has offered valuable insights into how biophysical inputs can regulate stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation. In this review, we highlight recent exciting studies with innovative material platforms that enable narrow stiffness gradients, mechanical stretching, temporal stiffness switching, and three-dimensional culture to study NSCs...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Seyed Majid Azimi, Dominik Britz, Michael Engstler, Mario Fritz, Frank Mücklich
The inner structure of a material is called microstructure. It stores the genesis of a material and determines all its physical and chemical properties. While microstructural characterization is widely spread and well known, the microstructural classification is mostly done manually by human experts, which gives rise to uncertainties due to subjectivity. Since the microstructure could be a combination of different phases or constituents with complex substructures its automatic classification is very challenging and only a few prior studies exist...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
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