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neural engineering

Jungmin Seo, Jee Hye Wee, Jeong Hoan Park, Pona Park, Jeong-Whun Kim, Sung June Kim
OBJECTIVE: A novel nerve cuff electrode with embedded magnets was fabricated and developed. In this study, a pair of magnets was fully embedded and encapsulated in a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate to utilize magnetic force in order to replace the conventional installing techniques of cuff electrodes. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the magnet-embedded nerve cuff electrode (MENCE). Lastly, several issues pertaining to the MENCE such as the cuff-to-nerve diameter ratio, the force of the magnets, and possible concerns were discussed in the discussion section...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Rachelle T Hassarati, L John R Foster, Rylie A Green
The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH) coated electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
C Vijayakumar, M Ramesh, A Murugesan, N Panneerselvam, D Subramaniam, M Bharathiraja
The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tanit Haddad, Samantha Noel, Benoît Liberelle, Rouwayda El Ayoubi, Abdellah Ajji, Gregory De Crescenzo
In an effort to design biomaterials that may promote repair of the central nervous system, 3-dimensional scaffolds made of electrospun poly lactic acid nanofibers with interconnected pores were fabricated. These scaffolds were functionalized with polyallylamine to introduce amine groups by wet chemistry. Experimental conditions of the amination protocol were thoroughly studied and selected to introduce a high amount of amine group while preserving the mechanical and structural properties of the scaffold. Subsequent covalent grafting of epidermal growth factor was then performed to further tailor these aminated structures...
October 14, 2016: Biomatter
Wen-Juan Lu, Scheffer C G Tseng, Shuangling Chen, Sean Tighe, Yuan Zhang, Xin Liu, Szu-Yu Chen, Chen-Wei Su, Ying-Ting Zhu
Human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) have limited proliferative capacity due to "contact-inhibition" at G1 phase. Such contact-inhibition can be delayed from Day 21 to Day 42 by switching EGF-containing SHEM to LIF/bFGF-containing MESCM through transient activation of LIF-JAK1-STAT3 signaling that delays eventual nuclear translocation of p16(INK4a). Using the latter system, we have reported a novel tissue engineering technique by implementing 5 weekly knockdowns with p120 catenin (p120) and Kaiso siRNAs since Day 7 to achieve effective expansion of HCEC monolayers to a transplantable size with a normal HCEC density, through reprogramming of HCECs into neural crest progenitors by activating p120-Kaiso-RhoA-ROCK-canonical BMP signaling...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Alexey Petrushin, Lorenzo Ferrara, Axel Blau
OBJECTIVE: In light of recent progress in mapping neural function to behavior, we briefly and selectively review past and present endeavors to reveal and reconstruct nervous system function in Caenorhabditis elegans through simulation. APPROACH: Rather than presenting an all-encompassing review on the mathematical modeling of C. elegans, this contribution collects snapshots of pathfinding key works and emerging technologies that recent single- and multi-center simulation initiatives are building on...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Nolan B Skop, Frances Calderon, Cheul H Cho, Chirag D Gandhi, Steven W Levison
Tissue engineering using stem cells is widely used to repair damaged tissues in diverse biological systems; however, this approach has met with less success in regenerating the central nervous system (CNS). In this study we optimized and characterized the surface chemistry of chitosan-based scaffolds for CNS repair. To maintain radial glial cell (RGC) character of primitive neural precursors, fibronectin was adsorbed to chitosan. The chitosan was further modified by covalently linking heparin using genipin, which then served as a linker to immobilize fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), creating a multifunctional film...
October 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Jung Eun Park, Xian Feng Zhang, Sang-Ho Choi, Junko Okahara, Erika Sasaki, Afonso C Silva
Chronic monitoring of neuronal activity in the living brain with optical imaging techniques became feasible owing to the continued development of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs). Here we report for the first time the successful generation of transgenic marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), an important nonhuman primate model in neurophysiological research, which were engineered to express the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based family of GECIs, GCaMP, under control of either the CMV or the hSyn promoter...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
D Gowanlock R Tervo, Bum-Yeol Hwang, Sarada Viswanathan, Thomas Gaj, Maria Lavzin, Kimberly D Ritola, Sarah Lindo, Susan Michael, Elena Kuleshova, David Ojala, Cheng-Chiu Huang, Charles R Gerfen, Jackie Schiller, Joshua T Dudman, Adam W Hantman, Loren L Looger, David V Schaffer, Alla Y Karpova
Efficient retrograde access to projection neurons for the delivery of sensors and effectors constitutes an important and enabling capability for neural circuit dissection. Such an approach would also be useful for gene therapy, including the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by pathological spread through functionally connected and highly distributed networks. Viral vectors, in particular, are powerful gene delivery vehicles for the nervous system, but all available tools suffer from inefficient retrograde transport or limited clinical potential...
October 6, 2016: Neuron
Sergio Santos, Chia-Yun Lai, Carlo A Amadei, Karim R Gadelrab, Tzu-Chieh Tang, Albert Verdaguer, Victor Barcons, Josep Font, Jaime Colchero, Matteo Chiesa
Here we present the Mendeleev-Meyer Force Project which aims at tabulating all materials and substances in a fashion similar to the periodic table. The goal is to group and tabulate substances using nanoscale force footprints rather than atomic number or electronic configuration as in the periodic table. The process is divided into: (1) acquiring nanoscale force data from materials, (2) parameterizing the raw data into standardized input features to generate a library, (3) feeding the standardized library into an algorithm to generate, enhance or exploit a model to identify a material or property...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Christopher F Adams, Andrew W Dickson, Jan-Herman Kuiper, Divya M Chari
Tissue engineering studies are witnessing a major paradigm shift to cell culture on biomimetic materials that replicate native tissue features from which the cells are derived. Few studies have been performed in this regard for neural cells, particularly in nanomedicine. For example, platforms such as magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proven efficient as multifunctional tools for cell tracking and genetic engineering of neural transplant populations. However, as far as we are aware, all current studies have been conducted using neural cells propagated on non-neuromimetic substrates that fail to represent the mechano-elastic properties of brain and spinal cord microenvironments...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Alianna J Maren
Effective Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) require that the time-varying activation patterns of 2-D neural ensembles be modelled. The cluster variation method (CVM) offers a means for the characterization of 2-D local pattern distributions. This paper provides neuroscientists and BCI researchers with a CVM tutorial that will help them to understand how the CVM statistical thermodynamics formulation can model 2-D pattern distributions expressing structural and functional dynamics in the brain. The premise is that local-in-time free energy minimization works alongside neural connectivity adaptation, supporting the development and stabilization of consistent stimulus-specific responsive activation patterns...
September 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
Lauren N Russell, Kyle J Lampe
Millions of people suffer from damage or disease to the nervous system that results in a loss of myelin, such as through a spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. Diminished myelin levels lead to further cell death in which unmyelinated neurons die. In the central nervous system, a loss of myelin is especially detrimental because of its poor ability to regenerate. Cell therapies such as stem or precursor cell injection have been investigated as stem cells are able to grow and differentiate into the damaged cells; however, stem cell injection alone has been unsuccessful in many areas of neural regeneration...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Andrew Agbay, John M Edgar, Meghan Robinson, Tara Styan, Krista Wilson, Julian Schroll, Junghyuk Ko, Nima Khadem Mohtaram, Martin Byung-Guk Jun, Stephanie M Willerth
Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the use of stem cells as a way to treat traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the inhibitory environment present in the injured spinal cord makes it challenging to achieve the survival of these cells along with desired differentiation into the appropriate phenotypes necessary to regain function. Transplanting stem cells along with an instructive biomaterial scaffold can increase cell survival and improve differentiation efficiency. This study reviews the literature discussing different types of instructive biomaterial scaffolds developed for transplanting stem cells into the injured spinal cord...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Susanna Alloisio, Patrizia Garbati, Federica Viti, Silvia Dante, Raffaella Barbieri, Giovanni Arnaldi, Alessia Petrelli, Arianna Gigoni, Paolo Giannoni, Rodolfo Quarto, Mario Nobile, Massimo Vassalli, Aldo Pagano
Recent advances in life sciences suggest that human and rodent cell responses to stimuli might differ significantly. In this context, the results achieved in neurotoxicology and biomedical research practices using neural networks obtained from mouse or rat primary culture of neurons would benefit of the parallel evaluation of the same parameters using fully differentiated neurons with a human genetic background, thus emphasizing the current need of neuronal cells with human origin. In this work, we developed a human functionally active neural network derived by human neuroblastoma cancer cells genetically engineered to overexpress NDM29, a non-coding RNA whose increased synthesis causes the differentiation toward a neuronal phenotype...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Kwaku Dad Abu-Bonsrah, Dongcheng Zhang, Donald F Newgreen
Chickens are an invaluable model for studying human diseases, physiology and especially development, but have lagged in genetic applications. With the advent of Programmable Engineered Nucleases, genetic manipulation has become efficient, specific and rapid. Here, we show that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely edit the chicken genome. We generated HIRA, TYRP1, DICER, MBD3, EZH2, and 6 other gene knockouts in two chicken cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, with no off-target effects detected. We also showed that very large deletions (>75 kb) could be achieved...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wei-Hsiang Huang, Casey J Guenthner, Jin Xu, Tiffany Nguyen, Lindsay A Schwarz, Alex W Wilkinson, Or Gozani, Howard Y Chang, Mehrdad Shamloo, Liqun Luo
Haploinsufficiency of Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1) causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), which is associated with diverse neurodevelopmental and behavioral symptoms as well as obesity. RAI1 encodes a nuclear protein but little is known about its molecular function or the cell types responsible for SMS symptoms. Using genetically engineered mice, we found that Rai1 preferentially occupies DNA regions near active promoters and promotes the expression of a group of genes involved in circuit assembly and neuronal communication...
September 22, 2016: Neuron
Jessica Ratajczak, Annelies Bronckaers, Yörg Dillen, Pascal Gervois, Tim Vangansewinkel, Ronald B Driesen, Esther Wolfs, Ivo Lambrichts, Petra Hilkens
Within the field of tissue engineering, natural tissues are reconstructed by combining growth factors, stem cells, and different biomaterials to serve as a scaffold for novel tissue growth. As adequate vascularization and innervation are essential components for the viability of regenerated tissues, there is a high need for easily accessible stem cells that are capable of supporting these functions. Within the human tooth and its surrounding tissues, different stem cell populations can be distinguished, such as dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human deciduous teeth, stem cells from the apical papilla, dental follicle stem cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells...
2016: Stem Cells International
Helen H Yang, François St-Pierre
UNLABELLED: A longstanding goal in neuroscience is to understand how spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal electrical activity underlie brain function, from sensory representations to decision making. An emerging technology for monitoring electrical dynamics, voltage imaging using genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs), couples the power of genetics with the advantages of light. Here, we review the properties that determine indicator performance and applicability, discussing both recent progress and technical limitations...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
James C Knight, Steve B Furber
While the adult human brain has approximately 8.8 × 10(10) neurons, this number is dwarfed by its 1 × 10(15) synapses. From the point of view of neuromorphic engineering and neural simulation in general this makes the simulation of these synapses a particularly complex problem. SpiNNaker is a digital, neuromorphic architecture designed for simulating large-scale spiking neural networks at speeds close to biological real-time. Current solutions for simulating spiking neural networks on SpiNNaker are heavily inspired by work on distributed high-performance computing...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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