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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048985/commentary-impact-of-meningococcal-group-b-omv-vaccines-beyond-their-brief
#1
Helen Petousis-Harris
Meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccines have been used widely in Cuba, New Zealand, and Brazil. They are immunogenic and initially assessed largely by their ability to induce serum bactericidal activity. Measures of efficacy indicate good protection against homologous strains in older children and adults. Effectiveness appears broader than predicted by immunogenicity and efficacy studies. The recent discovery that meningococcal group B OMVs may protect against the related Neisseria species N.gonorrhoeae suggests more to these interesting antigen collections than meets the eye...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935471/prevalence-and-decay-of-maternal-pneumococcal-and-meningococcal-antibodies-a-meta-analysis-of-type-specific-decay-rates
#2
Merryn Voysey, Andrew J Pollard, Manish Sadarangani, Thomas R Fanshawe
BACKGROUND: At the time of an infant's initial vaccination at age ∼2 to 3months, some infants already have maternal antibodies against vaccine antigens and these can suppress the immune response to vaccination. Modelling the effects of maternal antibody and the timing of infant doses on the antibody response to vaccination, requires estimates of the rate of maternal antibody decay. Decay rates are not well characterised in the medical literature. We investigated variation in the prevalence of maternal anti-capsular pneumococcal and meningococcal antibodies in infants in 14 countries, and estimated type-specific half-lives...
October 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796795/investigation-of-correlates-of-protection-against-pharyngeal-carriage-of-neisseria-meningitidis-genogroups-w-and-y-in-the-african-meningitis-belt
#3
Laura V Cooper, Rahamatou Moustapha Boukary, Abraham Aseffa, Wude Mihret, Jean-Marc Collard, Doumagoum Daugla, Abraham Hodgson, Cheikh Sokhna, Babatunji Omotara, Samba Sow, Stephen Laryea Quaye, Kanny Diallo, Olivier Manigart, Martin C J Maiden, Helen Findlow, Ray Borrow, James M Stuart, Brian M Greenwood, Caroline L Trotter
BACKGROUND: Serum bactericidal antibody titres that correlate with protection against invasive meningococcal disease have been characterised. However, titres that are associated with protection against acquisition of pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis are not known. METHODS: Sera were obtained from the members of a household in seven countries of the African meningitis belt in which a pharyngeal carrier of N. meningitidis had been identified during a cross-sectional survey...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774810/preparedness-of-adolescents-departing-from-athens-international-airport-to-africa-or-asia-a-five-year-airport-based-prospective-study
#4
Helena C Maltezou, Androula Pavli, Kalliopi Theodoridou, Eleftherios Bournousouzis, Athanasios Minitsios, Panos Katerelos, Ioanna Lymperi, Maria Theodoridou
BACKGROUND: The number of adolescents who travel has increased. We estimated the preparedness of adolescents (12-18 years) departing from Athens to Africa and Asia. METHODS: An airport-based survey was conducted from 2011 to 2015. RESULTS: Sixty-eight adolescents participated; 27/68 (40%) had the Greek nationality. Their main destinations were the Indian subcontinent (37%) and South-East Asia (32%). Most adolescents planned to stay for <1 month (69%) or for 1-3 months (22%)...
August 1, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770496/serogroup-b-meningococcus-outbreaks-prevalence-and-the-case-for-standard-vaccination
#5
REVIEW
James Grogan, Karen Roos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores the history of serogroup B meningitis outbreaks in American universities and the rise of the monovalent serogroup B meningococcus vaccines (MenB). RECENT FINDINGS: Serogroup B meningitis represents 30% of American meningococcal infections and had no commercially available vaccine in the USA until 2013 when the FDA made an expanded allowance for importation of the MenB-4C vaccine for outbreaks at two American universities. Infections of Neisseria meningitidis, notably meningococcal meningitis represent a continued, lethal threat to the pediatric and adolescent populations and those with primary or acquired complement component deficiencies, largely mitigated by the quadrivalent meningococcal conjugated vaccine against serogroups A, C, W, and Y (MenACWY)...
September 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737301/vaccine-preventable-admissions-to-an-irish-paediatric-intensive-care
#6
Y Doyle, M Healy, C McMahon, S Crowe
In the Republic of Ireland, the schedule of state-funded immunisation for children is comprehensive and includes diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, pneumococcus, hepatitis B, meningococcus C, haemophilus B, polio, measles, rubella and mumps. Varicella and meningococcal B vaccines are commercially available but are not currently funded by the government. Each of the illnesses preventable by these vaccines can cause substantial morbidity, and rarely mortality, in infants and children. Our PICU continues to see serious illness due to avoidable infection...
May 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666760/vaccination-coverage-among-social-and-healthcare-workers-in-ten-countries-of-samu-social-international-sites
#7
Esaie Marshall, Dominique Salmon, Nadia Bousfiha, Yacouba Togola, François Ouedraogo, Maud Santantonio, Coumba Khadidja Dieng, Suzanne Tartière, Xavier Emmanuelli
BACKGROUND: We aim to determine the vaccination coverage of social and healthcare workers in International sites of Samusocial, providing emergency care to homeless people, and to assess factors associated with having received necessary doses at adulthood. METHODS: Data on immunization coverage of social and healthcare workers were provided by a cross-sectional survey, conducted from February to April 2015 among 252 Samusocial workers in 10 countries. Vaccination status and characteristics of participants were collected through a self-administered questionnaire...
June 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599793/a-cross-reacting-material-crm197-conjugate-vaccine-induces-diphtheria-toxin-neutralizing-antibody-response-in-children-and-adolescents-infected-or-not-with-hiv
#8
Giselle P Silva, Rafaela S Santos, Wânia F Pereira-Manfro, Bianca Ferreira, Daniella M Barreto, Ana Cristina C Frota, Cristina B Hofer, Lucimar G Milagres
Anti-diphtheria antibody levels decrease with aging, and frequent booster vaccinations are required to maintain herd immunity. We analyzed the diphtheria toxin neutralizing antibody (DT-Nab) response induced by a conjugate vaccine (meningococcal C polysaccharide-CRM197) in HIV-vertically infected (HI) children and adolescents and healthy controls (HC) with matched age. We report the association of DT-Nab with the bactericidal antibodies to serogroup C meningococcus (MenC). Before vaccination, 21 HI patients (50%) had no protection against diphtheria (≤0...
June 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581267/characterization-of-oropharyngeal-carriage-isolates-of-neisseria-meningitidis-in-healthy-korean-adolescents-in-2015
#9
Han Wool Kim, Soyoung Lee, Daeho Kwon, Jihei Cha, Jong Gyun Ahn, Kyung Hyo Kim
The meningococcus carriage rate is age-dependent, with a high prevalence in adolescents and young adults. This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the oropharyngeal carriage rate of meningococcus among healthy Korean adolescents and its relationship with several population characteristics. The survey was conducted from April to May 2015 among 1,460 first-year high-school students in 9 high schools located in Gyeonggi province, Korea. Each student answered a short questionnaire assessing risk factors for carriage, and posterior pharyngeal wall swab samples were obtained...
July 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580917/crystal-structures-of-human-fabs-targeting-the-bexsero-meningococcal-vaccine-antigen-nhba
#10
Martina Maritan, Roberta Cozzi, Paola Lo Surdo, Daniele Veggi, Matthew James Bottomley, Enrico Malito
Neisserial heparin-binding antigen (NHBA) is a surface-exposed lipoprotein from Neisseria meningitidis and is a component of the meningococcus B vaccine Bexsero. As part of a study to characterize the three-dimensional structure of NHBA and the molecular basis of the human immune response to Bexsero, the crystal structures of two fragment antigen-binding domains (Fabs) isolated from human monoclonal antibodies targeting NHBA were determined. Through a high-resolution analysis of the organization and the amino-acid composition of the CDRs, these structures provide broad insights into the NHBA epitopes recognized by the human immune system...
June 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569760/strength-of-neisseria-meningitidis-binding-to-endothelial-cells-requires-highly-ordered-cd147-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-clusters-assembled-by-alpha-actinin-4
#11
Nawal Maïssa, Valentina Covarelli, Sébastien Janel, Beatrice Durel, Nandi Simpson, Sandra C Bernard, Liliana Pardo-Lopez, Haniaa Bouzinba-Ségard, Camille Faure, Mark G H Scott, Mathieu Coureuil, Philippe C Morand, Frank Lafont, Xavier Nassif, Stefano Marullo, Sandrine Bourdoulous
Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) is an invasive bacterial pathogen that colonizes human vessels, causing thrombotic lesions and meningitis. Establishment of tight interactions with endothelial cells is crucial for meningococci to resist haemodynamic forces. Two endothelial receptors, CD147 and the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), are sequentially engaged by meningococci to adhere and promote signalling events leading to vascular colonization, but their spatiotemporal coordination is unknown. Here we report that CD147 and β2AR form constitutive hetero-oligomeric complexes...
June 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545446/whole-genome-sequencing-reveals-within-host-genetic-changes-in-paired-meningococcal-carriage-isolates-from-ethiopia
#12
Guro K Bårnes, Ola Brønstad Brynildsrud, Bente Børud, Bereket Workalemahu, Paul A Kristiansen, Demissew Beyene, Abraham Aseffa, Dominique A Caugant
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal colonization is a prerequisite for transmission and disease, but the bacterium only very infrequently causes disease while asymptomatic carriage is common. Carriage is highly dynamic, showing a great variety across time and space within and across populations, but also within individuals. The understanding of genetic changes in the meningococcus during carriage, when the bacteria resides in its natural niche, is important for understanding not only the carriage state, but the dynamics of the entire meningococcal population...
May 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501716/cross-protection-in-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroups-y-and-w-polysaccharides-a-comparative-conformational-analysis
#13
Michelle M Kuttel, Zaheer Timol, Neil Ravenscroft
The capsular polysaccharide is the main virulence factor in meningococcus. The capsular polysaccharides for meningococcal serogroups Y and W are almost identical polymers of hexose-sialic acid, suggesting the possibility of cross-protection between group Y and W vaccines. However, early studies indicated that they elicit different levels of cross-protection. Here we explore the conformations of the meningococcal Y and W polysaccharides with molecular dynamics simulations of three repeating unit oligosaccharide strands...
May 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443987/seroprevalence-of-bactericidal-antibodies-against-serogroup-b-and-c-meningococci-in-a-university-hospital
#14
C A C Gioia, A P S Lemos, M C O Gorla, R Mendoza-Sassi, B S Figueredo, T Ballester, A Von Groll, B Wedig, N V Ethur, L Bragança, P E A Silva, L G Milagres
Meningococcus serogroup B (MenB), clonal complex 32 (cc 32), was the Brazilian epidemic strain of meningococcal disease (MD) in the 1990's. Currently, meningococcus serogroup C (MenC), cc 103, is responsible for most of the cases of the disease in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of bactericidal antibody (SBA) against representative epidemic strains of MenC, (N753/00 strain, C:23:P1.22,14-6, cc103) and MenB, (Cu385/83 strain, B:4,7:P1.15,19, cc32) in students and employees of a university hospital in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil)...
April 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423169/innate-immune-response-to-lipooligosaccharide-pivotal-regulator-of-the-pathobiology-of-invasive-neisseria-meningitidis-infections
#15
REVIEW
Constance M John, Nancy J Phillips, Daniel C Stein, Gary A Jarvis
Infections due to Neisseria meningitidis afflict more than one million people worldwide annually and cause death or disability in many survivors. The clinical course of invasive infections has been well studied, but our understanding of the cause of differences in patient outcomes has been limited because these are dependent on multiple factors including the response of the host, characteristics of the bacteria and interactions between the host and the bacteria. The meningococcus is a highly inflammatory organism, and the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) on the outer membrane is the most potent inflammatory molecule it expresses due to the interactions of the lipid A moiety of LOS with receptors of the innate immune system...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369428/novel-approaches-to-neisseria-meningitidis-vaccine-design
#16
Myron Christodoulides, John Heckels
A range of vaccines is available for preventing life-threatening diseases caused by infection with Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus, Men). Capsule polysaccharide (CPS)-conjugate vaccines are successful prophylactics for serogroup MenA, MenC, MenW and MenY infections, and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines have been used successfully for controlling clonal serogroup MenB infections. MenB vaccines based on recombinant proteins identified by reverse vaccinology (Bexsero™) and proteomics (Trumenba™) approaches have recently been licensed and Bexsero™ has been introduced into the UK infant immunisation programme...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334263/pathogenesis-of-meningococcal-purpura-fulminans
#17
REVIEW
Hervé Lécuyer, Delphine Borgel, Xavier Nassif, Mathieu Coureuil
Purpura fulminans (PF) is a dreadful and frequent complication of Neisseria meningitidis invasive infection, and is associated with a high mortality rate. This syndrome begins with dermal microvessels thrombosis that rapidly lead to hemorrhagic skin necrosis. In this review, we discuss the prothrombotic events occurring during meningococcal infection. Moreover, recent data from an experimental mouse model have highlighted the critical role of the meningococcus adhesion to the endothelium in the development of PF lesions, thus opening new therapeutic perspectives...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325760/neisseria-meningitidis-uses-sibling-small-regulatory-rnas-to-switch-from-cataplerotic-to-anaplerotic-metabolism
#18
Yvonne Pannekoek, Robert A G Huis In 't Veld, Kim Schipper, Sandra Bovenkerk, Gertjan Kramer, Matthijs C Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek, Dave Speijer, Arie van der Ende
Neisseria meningitidis (the meningococcus) is primarily a commensal of the human oropharynx that sporadically causes septicemia and meningitis. Meningococci adapt to diverse local host conditions differing in nutrient supply, like the nasopharynx, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid, by changing metabolism and protein repertoire. However, regulatory transcription factors and two-component systems in meningococci involved in adaptation to local nutrient variations are limited. We identified novel sibling small regulatory RNAs ( Neisseriametabolic switch regulators [NmsRs]) regulating switches between cataplerotic and anaplerotic metabolism in this pathogen...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249054/practice-alert-acip-vaccine-update-2017
#19
Doug Campos-Outcalt
HIV infection is now an indication for meningococcus vaccination and HPV vaccine dosing is simpler for patients ⟨15 years.
March 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187809/management-of-bacterial-central-nervous-system-infections
#20
REVIEW
M C Brouwer, D van de Beek
Bacterial infections of the central nervous system present as a medical emergency, thus requiring rapid diagnosis and immediate treatment. The most prevalent bacterial infections seen in the intensive care unit can be summarized as acute bacterial meningitis, subdural empyema, intracerebral abscess, and ventriculitis, which all commonly involve the brain parenchyma. The infections can either be community-acquired or hospital-acquired, e.g., after neurosurgical intervention, as a complication of severe neurotrauma or related to indwelling cerebrospinal fluid drains...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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