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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139535/contribution-of-cranial-neural-crest-cells-to-mouse-skull-development
#1
Taofen Wu, Guiqian Chen, Fei Tian, Hong-Xiang Liu
The mammalian skull vault is a highly regulated structure that evolutionally protects brain growth during vertebrate development. It consists of several membrane bones with different tissue origins (e.g. neural crest-derived frontal bone and mesoderm-derived parietal bone). Although membrane bones are formed through intramembranous ossification, the neural crest-derived frontal bone has superior capabilities for osteoblast activities and bone regeneration via TGF, BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling pathways. Neural crest (NC) cells are multipotent, and once induced, will follow specific paths to migrate to different locations of the body where they give rise to a diverse array of cell types and tissues...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130157/target-discovery-for-precision-medicine-using-high-throughput-genome-engineering
#2
Xinyi Guo, Poonam Chitale, Neville E Sanjana
Over the past few years, programmable RNA-guided nucleases such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system have ushered in a new era of precision genome editing in diverse model systems and in human cells. Functional screens using large libraries of RNA guides can interrogate a large hypothesis space to pinpoint particular genes and genetic elements involved in fundamental biological processes and disease-relevant phenotypes. Here, we review recent high-throughput CRISPR screens (e.g. loss-of-function, gain-of-function, and targeting noncoding elements) and highlight their potential for uncovering novel therapeutic targets, such as those involved in cancer resistance to small molecular drugs and immunotherapies, tumor evolution, infectious disease, inborn genetic disorders, and other therapeutic challenges...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125517/genetic-epidemiology-of-neural-tube-defects
#3
Philip J Lupo, A J Agopian, Heidi Castillo, Jonathan Castillo, Gerald H Clayton, Nienke P Dosa, Betsy Hopson, David B Joseph, Brandon G Rocque, William O Walker, John S Wiener, Laura E Mitchell
It has been estimated that 60-70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) have a genetic component, but few causative genes have been identified. The lack of information on genes associated with non-syndromic NTDs in humans is especially notable as the "genomic revolution" has led to new tools (e.g., genome-wide genotyping arrays, next-generation sequencing) that are helping to elucidate the full spectrum of genetic variation (from common to rare) contributing to complex traits, including structural birth defects. However, the application of modern genomic approaches to the study of NTDs has lagged behind that of some other common structural birth defects...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120031/histopathological-immunohistochemical-and-stereological-analysis-of-the-effect-of-gingko-biloba-egb761-on-the-hippocampus-of-rats-exposed-to-long-term-cellphone-radiation
#4
Fikret Gevrek
Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate...
November 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116640/strain-diversity-and-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance
#5
Sonia Borrell, Andrej Trauner
Drug resistance is best thought of as an ongoing biological process. Resistant bacteria must emerge, become established and ultimately transmit in order to be relevant to human health. In this context, genetic diversity can influence the rate and likelihood of resistance emerging; it can also modulate the net physiological impact of resistance and the propensity of an organism to improve any defects that arise from it. Combined, these effects can have an impact on a larger scale, with highly transmissible drug-resistant bacterial strains posing a formidable threat to global health...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108429/sources-of-spontaneous-mutagenesis-in-bacteria
#6
Jeremy W Schroeder, Ponlkrit Yeesin, Lyle A Simmons, Jue D Wang
Mutations in an organism's genome can arise spontaneously, that is, in the absence of exogenous stress and prior to selection. Mutations are often neutral or deleterious to individual fitness but can also provide genetic diversity driving evolution. Mutagenesis in bacteria contributes to the already serious and growing problem of antibiotic resistance. However, the negative impacts of spontaneous mutagenesis on human health are not limited to bacterial antibiotic resistance. Spontaneous mutations also underlie tumorigenesis and evolution of drug resistance...
November 6, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097520/evolution-of-life-in-urban-environments
#7
REVIEW
Marc T J Johnson, Jason Munshi-South
Our planet is an increasingly urbanized landscape, with over half of the human population residing in cities. Despite advances in urban ecology, we do not adequately understand how urbanization affects the evolution of organisms, nor how this evolution may affect ecosystems and human health. Here, we review evidence for the effects of urbanization on the evolution of microbes, plants, and animals that inhabit cities. Urbanization affects adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary processes that shape the genetic diversity within and between populations...
November 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093185/studying-emotion-in-invertebrates-what-has-been-done-what-can-be-measured-and-what-they-can-provide
#8
REVIEW
Clint J Perry, Luigi Baciadonna
Until recently, whether invertebrates might exhibit emotions was unknown. This possibility has traditionally been dismissed by many as emotions are frequently defined with reference to human subjective experience, and invertebrates are often not considered to have the neural requirements for such sophisticated abilities. However, emotions are understood in humans and other vertebrates to be multifaceted brain states, comprising dissociable subjective, cognitive, behavioural and physiological components. In addition, accumulating literature is providing evidence of the impressive cognitive capacities and behavioural flexibility of invertebrates...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068398/precision-nutrition-and-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-a-case-for-personalized-supplementation-approaches-for-the-prevention-and-management-of-human-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Floyd H Chilton, Rahul Dutta, Lindsay M Reynolds, Susan Sergeant, Rasika A Mathias, Michael C Seeds
BACKGROUND: Dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) 18 carbon (18C-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes) to biologically-active long chain (LC; >20)-PUFAs by numerous cells and tissues. These n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFAs and their metabolites (ex, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids) play critical signaling and structural roles in almost all physiologic and pathophysiologic processes...
October 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058560/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-a-review-of-antimicrobial-resistance-mechanisms-and-perspectives-of-human-and-animal-health
#10
Mohamed O Ahmed, Keith E Baptiste
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are both of medical and public health importance associated with serious multidrug-resistant infections and persistent colonization. Enterococci are opportunistic environmental inhabitants with a remarkable adaptive capacity to evolve and transmit antimicrobial-resistant determinants. The VRE gene operons show distinct genetic variability and apparently continued evolution leading to a variety of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and various environmental and livestock reservoirs for the most common van genes...
October 23, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029851/arresting-evolution
#11
REVIEW
James J Bull, Jeffrey E Barrick
Evolution in the form of selective breeding has long been harnessed as a useful tool by humans. However, rapid evolution can also be a danger to our health and a stumbling block for biotechnology. Unwanted evolution can underlie the emergence of drug and pesticide resistance, cancer, and weeds. It makes live vaccines and engineered cells inherently unreliable and unpredictable, and therefore potentially unsafe. Yet, there are strategies that have been and can possibly be used to stop or slow many types of evolution...
October 10, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024387/ethnic-and-population-differences-in-the-genetic-predisposition-to-human-obesity
#12
REVIEW
C Stryjecki, A Alyass, D Meyre
Obesity rates have escalated to the point of a global pandemic with varying prevalence across ethnic groups. These differences are partially explained by lifestyle factors in addition to genetic predisposition to obesity. This review provides a comprehensive examination of the ethnic differences in the genetic architecture of obesity. Using examples from evolution, heritability, admixture, monogenic and polygenic studies of obesity, we provide explanations for ethnic differences in the prevalence of obesity...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993289/sirt1-and-parp1-as-epigenome-safeguards-and-micrornas-as-sasp-associated-signals-in-cellular-senescence-and-aging
#13
REVIEW
Seyedhossein Hekmatimoghaddam, Ali Dehghani Firoozabadi, Mohamad Reza Zare-Khormizi, Fatemeh Pourrajab
Cellular senescence (CS) is underlying mechanism of organism aging and is closely interconnected with age-related diseases (ARDs). Thus, any attempt that influences CS, may be undertaken to reverse or inhibit senescence, whereby could prolong healthy life span. Until now, two main proposes are epigenetic and genetic modifications of cell fate. The first one concerns rejuvenation through effective reprogramming in cells undergoing senescence, or derived from very old or progeroid patients, by which is effective in vitro in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
November 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985206/clonal-evolution-in-leukemia
#14
REVIEW
Adolfo A Ferrando, Carlos López-Otín
Human leukemias are liquid malignancies characterized by diffuse infiltration of the bone marrow by transformed hematopoietic progenitors. The accessibility of tumor cells obtained from peripheral blood or through bone marrow aspirates, together with recent advances in cancer genomics and single-cell molecular analysis, have facilitated the study of clonal populations and their genetic and epigenetic evolution over time with unprecedented detail. The results of these analyses challenge the classic view of leukemia as a clonal homogeneous diffuse tumor and introduce a more complex and dynamic scenario...
October 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969617/human-evolution-the-non-coding-revolution
#15
REVIEW
Lucía F Franchini, Katherine S Pollard
What made us human? Gene expression changes clearly played a significant part in human evolution, but pinpointing the causal regulatory mutations is hard. Comparative genomics enabled the identification of human accelerated regions (HARs) and other human-specific genome sequences. The major challenge in the past decade has been to link diverged sequences to uniquely human biology. This review discusses approaches to this problem, progress made at the molecular level, and prospects for moving towards genetic causes for uniquely human biology...
October 2, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968242/huntington-s-disease-and-diabetes-chronological-sequence-of-its-association
#16
María Teresa Montojo, Miguel Aganzo, Nieves González
Although Huntington's disease (HD) is primarily considered a rare neurodegenerative disorder, it has been linked to glucose metabolism alterations and diabetes, as has been described in other neuro syndromes such as Friedreich's ataxia or Alzheimer's disease. This review surveys the existing literature on HD and its potential relationship with diabetes, glucose metabolism-related indexes and pancreas morphology, in humans and in animal's models. The information is reported in chronological sequence. That is, studies performed before and after the identification of the genetic defect underlying HD (CAG: encoding glutamine ≥36 repeats located in exon 1 of the HTT gene) and with the development and evolution of HD animal models...
2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961413/making-sense-of-multifunctional-proteins-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-accessory-and-regulatory-proteins-and-connections-to-transcription
#17
REVIEW
Tyler B Faust, Jennifer M Binning, John D Gross, Alan D Frankel
Viruses are completely dependent upon cellular machinery to support replication and have therefore developed strategies to co-opt cellular processes to optimize infection and counter host immune defenses. Many viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), encode a relatively small number of genes. Viruses with limited genetic content often encode multifunctional proteins that function at multiple stages of the viral replication cycle. In this review, we discuss the functions of HIV-1 regulatory (Tat and Rev) and accessory (Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef) proteins...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948950/a-mini-review-of-bunyaviruses-recorded-in-india
#18
REVIEW
Pragya D Yadav, Gouri Y Chaubal, Anita M Shete, Devendra T Mourya
Newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections are of major public health concern. Bunyaviridae family of viruses comprises a large group of animal viruses. Clinical symptoms exhibited by persons infected by viruses belonging to this family vary from mild-to-severe diseases i.e., febrile illness, encephalitis, haemorrhagic fever and acute respiratory illness. Several arthropods-borne viruses have been discovered and classified at serological level in India in the past. Some of these are highly pathogenic as the recent emergence and spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and presence of antibodies against Hantavirus in humans in India have provided evidences that it may become one of the emerging diseases in this country...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944450/dynamic-spatial-models-of-parasite-transmission-in-wildlife-their-structure-applications-and-remaining-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Lauren A White, James D Forester, Meggan E Craft
Individual differences in contact rate can arise from host, group and landscape heterogeneity and can result in different patterns of spatial spread for diseases in wildlife populations with concomitant implications for disease control in wildlife of conservation concern, livestock and humans. While dynamic disease models can provide a better understanding of the drivers of spatial spread, the effects of landscape heterogeneity have only been modelled in a few well-studied wildlife systems such as rabies and bovine tuberculosis...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943408/epidemiology-of-transmissible-diseases-array-hybridization-and-next-generation-sequencing-as-universal-nucleic-acid-mediated-typing-tools
#20
W Michael Dunne, Hannes Pouseele, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht, Alex van Belkum
The magnitude of interest in the epidemiology of transmissible human diseases is reflected in the vast number of tools and methods developed recently with the expressed purpose to characterize and track evolutionary changes that occur in agents of these diseases over time. Within the past decade a new suite of such tools has become available with the emergence of the so-called "omics" technologies. Among these, two are exponents of the ongoing genomic revolution. Firstly, high-density nucleic acid probe arrays have been proposed and developed using various chemical and physical approaches...
September 21, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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