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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920388/human-drivers-of-ecological-and-evolutionary-dynamics-in-emerging-and-disappearing-infectious-disease-systems
#1
REVIEW
Mary A Rogalski, Camden D Gowler, Clara L Shaw, Ruth A Hufbauer, Meghan A Duffy
Humans have contributed to the increased frequency and severity of emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to wild and domestic species, as well as human health. This review examines major pathways by which humans influence parasitism by altering (co)evolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites on ecological timescales. There is still much to learn about these interactions, but a few well-studied cases show that humans influence disease emergence every step of the way. Human actions significantly increase dispersal of host, parasite and vector species, enabling greater frequency of infection in naive host populations and host switches...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920382/adaptation-to-fragmentation-evolutionary-dynamics-driven-by-human-influences
#2
REVIEW
Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Anna L Hargreaves, Dries Bonte, Hans Jacquemyn
Fragmentation-the process by which habitats are transformed into smaller patches isolated from each other-has been identified as a major threat for biodiversity. Fragmentation has well-established demographic and population genetic consequences, eroding genetic diversity and hindering gene flow among patches. However, fragmentation should also select on life history, both predictably through increased isolation, demographic stochasticity and edge effects, and more idiosyncratically via altered biotic interactions...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920381/harvest-induced-evolution-insights-from-aquatic-and-terrestrial-systems
#3
REVIEW
Anna Kuparinen, Marco Festa-Bianchet
Commercial and recreational harvests create selection pressures for fitness-related phenotypic traits that are partly under genetic control. Consequently, harvesting can drive evolution in targeted traits. However, the quantification of harvest-induced evolutionary life history and phenotypic changes is challenging, because both density-dependent feedback and environmental changes may also affect these changes through phenotypic plasticity. Here, we synthesize current knowledge and uncertainties on six key points: (i) whether or not harvest-induced evolution is happening, (ii) whether or not it is beneficial, (iii) how it shapes biological systems, (iv) how it could be avoided, (v) its importance relative to other drivers of phenotypic changes, and (vi) whether or not it should be explicitly accounted for in management...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920374/urban-driven-phenotypic-changes-empirical-observations-and-theoretical-implications-for-eco-evolutionary-feedback
#4
REVIEW
Marina Alberti, John Marzluff, Victoria M Hunt
Emerging evidence that cities drive micro-evolution raises the question of whether rapid urbanization of Earth might impact ecosystems by causing systemic changes in functional traits that regulate urban ecosystems' productivity and stability. Intraspecific trait variation-variation in organisms' morphological, physiological or behavioural characteristics stemming from genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity-has significant implications for ecological functions such as nutrient cycling and primary productivity...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905217/to-crispr-and-beyond-the-evolution-of-genome-editing-in-stem-cells
#5
Kuang-Yui Chen, Paul S Knoepfler
The goal of editing the genomes of stem cells to generate model organisms and cell lines for genetic and biological studies has been pursued for decades. There is also exciting potential for future clinical impact in humans. While recent, rapid advances in targeted nuclease technologies have led to unprecedented accessibility and ease of gene editing, biology has benefited from past directed gene modification via homologous recombination, gene traps and other transgenic methodologies. Here we review the history of genome editing in stem cells (including via zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases and CRISPR-Cas9), discuss recent developments leading to the implementation of stem cell gene therapies in clinical trials and consider the prospects for future advances in this rapidly evolving field...
December 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893151/anomalies-in-human-sex-determination-provide-unique-insights-into-the-complex-genetic-interactions-of-early-gonad-development
#6
REVIEW
Anu Bashamboo, Caroline Eozenou, Sandra Rojo, Ken McElreavey
Human sex-determination (SD) involves complex mutually antagonistic genetic interactions of testis- and ovary-determining pathways. For many years both male and female sex-determination was considered to be regulated by a linear cascade of pro-male and pro-female genes respectively, however it has become clear that male and female development is achieved through the repression of the alternative state. A gene determining the formation of a testis may function by repressing the female state and vice-versa. Uniquely in development, SD is achieved by suppression of the alternate fate and maintained in adulthood by a mutually antagonistic double-repressive pathway...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888126/understanding-the-complex-evolution-of-rapidly-mutating-viruses-with-deep-sequencing-beyond-the-analysis-of-viral-diversity
#7
REVIEW
Preston Leung, Auda A Eltahla, Andrew R Lloyd, Rowena A Bull, Fabio Luciani
With the advent of affordable deep sequencing technologies, detection of low frequency variants within genetically diverse viral populations can now be achieved with unprecedented depth and efficiency. The high-resolution data provided by next generation sequencing technologies is currently recognised as the gold standard in estimation of viral diversity. In the analysis of rapidly mutating viruses, longitudinal deep sequencing datasets from viral genomes during individual infection episodes, as well as at the epidemiological level during outbreaks, now allow for more sophisticated analyses such as statistical estimates of the impact of complex mutation patterns on the evolution of the viral populations both within and between hosts...
November 22, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883184/epigenetics-in-reactive-and-reparative-cardiac-fibrogenesis-the-promise-of-epigenetic-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Asish K Ghosh, Rahul Rai, Panagiotis Flevaris, Douglas E Vaughan
Epigenetic changes play a pivotal role in the development of a wide spectrum of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and intellectual disabilities. Cardiac fibrogenesis is a common pathophysiological process seen during chronic and stress-induced accelerated cardiac aging. While adequate production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is necessary for post-injury wound healing, excessive synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix protein in the stressed or injured hearts causes decreased or loss of lusitropy that leads to cardiac failure...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867146/genomics-disclose-the-influence-of-human-specific-genetic-variation-on-the-evolution-and-development-of-cerebral-cortex
#9
Pu Maomao, Yao Jun, Cao Xin
Cerebral cortex, whose complexity of structure and function has derived from human specific genetic variation, is the most advanced nerve center of human, controlling the cognitive ability which distinguishes human from any other creatures. Using genomics technology, molecular mechanisms of cerebral cortex development and evolution have been disclosed. In this review, we summarize how genomics technologies are used in exploring the influence of human specific genetic variation on cerebral cortex development and evolution, including the genomics methods to study the gene expression differences among the cerebral cortex of human beings, chimpanzee and other mammals; as well as the role of the significant non-coding regulatory sequences-human accelerated regions (HARs) in the process of brain development...
November 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846491/going-global-by-adapting-local-a-review-of-recent-human-adaptation
#10
REVIEW
Shaohua Fan, Matthew E B Hansen, Yancy Lo, Sarah A Tishkoff
The spread of modern humans across the globe has led to genetic adaptations to diverse local environments. Recent developments in genomic technologies, statistical analyses, and expanded sampled populations have led to improved identification and fine-mapping of genetic variants associated with adaptations to regional living conditions and dietary practices. Ongoing efforts in sequencing genomes of indigenous populations, accompanied by the growing availability of "-omics" and ancient DNA data, promises a new era in our understanding of recent human evolution and the origins of variable traits and disease risks...
October 7, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821149/understanding-rare-and-common-diseases-in-the-context-of-human-evolution
#11
REVIEW
Lluis Quintana-Murci
The wealth of available genetic information is allowing the reconstruction of human demographic and adaptive history. Demography and purifying selection affect the purge of rare, deleterious mutations from the human population, whereas positive and balancing selection can increase the frequency of advantageous variants, improving survival and reproduction in specific environmental conditions. In this review, I discuss how theoretical and empirical population genetics studies, using both modern and ancient DNA data, are a powerful tool for obtaining new insight into the genetic basis of severe disorders and complex disease phenotypes, rare and common, focusing particularly on infectious disease risk...
November 7, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796109/animal-adapted-members-of-the-i-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-i-complex-endemic-to-the-southern-african-subregion
#12
Charlene Clarke, Paul Van Helden, Michele Miller, Sven Parsons
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cause tuberculosis (TB) in both animals and humans. In this article, three animal-adapted MTC strains that are endemic to the southern African subregion - that is, Mycobacterium suricattae, Mycobacterium mungi, and the dassie bacillus - are reviewed with a focus on clinical and pathological presentations, geographic distribution, genotyping methods, diagnostic tools and evolution. Moreover, factors influencing the transmission and establishment of TB pathogens in novel host populations, including ecological, immunological and genetic factors of both the host and pathogen, are discussed...
April 26, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780052/the-molecular-basis-of-human-brain-evolution
#13
REVIEW
Wolfgang Enard
Humans are a remarkable species, especially because of the remarkable properties of their brain. Since the split from the chimpanzee lineage, the human brain has increased three-fold in size and has acquired abilities for vocal learning, language and intense cooperation. To better understand the molecular basis of these changes is of great biological and biomedical interest. However, all the about 16 million fixed genetic changes that occurred during human evolution are fully correlated with all molecular, cellular, anatomical and behavioral changes that occurred during this time...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768822/genomics-and-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance
#14
Michael R Gillings, Ian T Paulsen, Sasha G Tetu
Antibiotic resistance arises as a consequence of complex interactions among genes, mobile elements, and their bacterial hosts, coupled with the intense selection pressures imposed by humans in an attempt to control bacterial growth. Understanding the evolution of resistance requires an understanding of interacting cellular and genetic components. Here, we review how DNA analysis has helped reconstruct the origins of the mosaic, multiresistant mobile elements that have spread through pathogens in the last 60 years...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753219/a-comparison-between-bonobos-and-chimpanzees-a-review-and-update
#15
Thibaud Gruber, Zanna Clay
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus) are our closest living relatives, with the human lineage diverging from the Pan lineage only around five to seven Mya, but possibly as early as eight Mya.(1-2) Chimpanzees and bonobos even share genetic similarities with humans that they do not share with each other.(2) Given their close genetic relationship to humans, both Pan species represent crucial living models for reconstructing our last common ancestor (LCA) and identifying uniquely human features...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743609/sva-retrotransposons-as-potential-modulators-of-neuropeptide-gene-expression
#16
Olympia Gianfrancesco, Vivien J Bubb, John P Quinn
Many facets of human behaviour are likely to have developed in part due to evolutionary changes in the regulation of neuropeptide and other brain-related genes. This has allowed species-specific expression patterns and unique epigenetic modulation in response to our environment, regulating response not only at the molecular level, but also contributing to differences in behaviour between individuals. As such, genetic variants or epigenetic changes that may alter neuropeptide gene expression are predicted to play a role in behavioural conditions and psychiatric illness...
October 11, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741408/the-strange-expanding-world-of-animal-hepaciviruses
#17
Alex S Hartlage, John M Cullen, Amit Kapoor
Hepaciviruses and pegiviruses constitute two closely related sister genera of the family Flaviviridae. In the past five years, the known phylogenetic diversity of the hepacivirus genera has absolutely exploded. What was once an isolated infection in humans (and possibly other primates) has now expanded to include horses, rodents, bats, colobus monkeys, cows, and, most recently, catsharks, shedding new light on the genetic diversity and host range of hepaciviruses. Interestingly, despite the identification of these many animal and primate hepaciviruses, the equine hepaciviruses remain the closest genetic relatives of the human hepaciviruses, providing an intriguing clue to the zoonotic source of hepatitis C virus...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738980/genetic-evolution-of-hepatitis-e-virus
#18
Yulin Zhang, Wanyun Gong, Hang Zeng, Ling Wang
Comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of multiple hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates has revealed extensive genomic diversity among them. Recently, a variety of genetically distinct HEV variants have also been isolated and identified from large numbers of animal species, including birds, rabbits, rats, ferrets, bats, cutthroat trout, and camels, among others. Furthermore, it has been reported that recombination in HEV genomes takes place in animals and in human patients. Also, chronic HEV infection in immunocompromised individuals has revealed the presence of viral strains carrying insertions from human genes...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732796/mosquito-vectors-and-the-globalization-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#19
Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Martine M Zilversmit, Daniel E Neafsey, Daniel L Hartl, Carolina Barillas-Mury
Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a devastating public health problem. Recent discoveries have shed light on the origin and evolution of Plasmodium parasites and their interactions with their vertebrate and mosquito hosts. P. falciparum malaria originated in Africa from a single horizontal transfer between an infected gorilla and a human, and became global as the result of human migration. Today, P. falciparum malaria is transmitted worldwide by more than 70 different anopheline mosquito species. Recent studies indicate that the mosquito immune system can be a barrier to malaria transmission and that the P...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729493/the-evolutionary-origin-and-genetic-makeup-of-domestic-horses
#20
REVIEW
Pablo Librado, Antoine Fages, Charleen Gaunitz, Michela Leonardi, Stefanie Wagner, Naveed Khan, Kristian Hanghøj, Saleh A Alquraishi, Ahmed H Alfarhan, Khaled A Al-Rasheid, Clio Der Sarkissian, Mikkel Schubert, Ludovic Orlando
The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction...
October 2016: Genetics
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