keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Review human evolution genetics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812734/human-behaviour-as-a-long-term-ecological-driver-of-non-human-evolution
#1
REVIEW
Alexis P Sullivan, Douglas W Bird, George H Perry
Due to our intensive subsistence and habitat-modification strategies-including broad-spectrum harvesting and predation, widespread landscape burning, settlement construction, and translocation of other species-humans have major roles as ecological actors who influence fundamental trophic interactions. Here we review how the long-term history of human-environment interaction has shaped the evolutionary biology of diverse non-human, non-domesticated species. Clear examples of anthropogenic effects on non-human morphological evolution have been documented in modern studies of substantial changes to body size or other major traits in terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in response to selective human harvesting, urbanized habitats, and human-mediated translocation...
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800766/examining-non-ltr-retrotransposons-in-the-context-of-the-evolving-primate-brain
#2
REVIEW
Sara B Linker, Maria C Marchetto, Iñigo Narvaiza, Ahmet M Denli, Fred H Gage
Researchers have long sought to understand the genetic basis of the cognitive differences between primates, with particular focus on the human brain. Although all mutational types have worked in concert with evolutionary forces to generate the current human brain, in this review we will explore the impact of mobile elements, specifically non-LTR retrotransposons. Non-LTR retrotransposons have contributed coding and regulatory sequences to the genome throughout evolution. During primate evolution there have been multiple waves of LINE retrotransposition as well as the birth of new mobile elements such as the SINEs Alu and SVA and we will explore what kinds of impacts these may have had on the evolving human brain...
August 11, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796931/modeling-phenotypes-of-malignant-gliomas
#3
REVIEW
Oltea Sampetrean, Hideyuki Saya
Malignant gliomas are primary tumors of the central nervous system characterized by diffuse infiltration into the brain and a high recurrence rate. Advances in comprehensive genomic studies have provided unprecedented insight into the genetic and molecular heterogeneity of these tumors and refined our understanding of their evolution from low to high grade. However, similar levels of phenotypic characterization are indispensable to understanding the complexity of malignant gliomas. Experimental glioma models have also achieved great progress in recent years...
August 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794225/the-divided-bacterial-genome-structure-function-and-evolution
#4
REVIEW
George C diCenzo, Turlough M Finan
Approximately 10% of bacterial genomes are split between two or more large DNA fragments, a genome architecture referred to as a multipartite genome. This multipartite organization is found in many important organisms, including plant symbionts, such as the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, and plant, animal, and human pathogens, including the genera Brucella, Vibrio, and Burkholderia. The availability of many complete bacterial genome sequences means that we can now examine on a broad scale the characteristics of the different types of DNA molecules in a genome...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747239/palaeoparasitology-and-palaeogenetics-review-and-perspectives-for-the-study-of-ancient-human-parasites
#5
Nathalie M-L Côté, Matthieu LE Bailly
While some species of parasites can be identified to species level from archaeological remains using microscopy (i.e. Enterobius vermicularis, Clonorchis sinensis), others can only be identified to family or genus level as different species produce eggs with similar morphology (i.e. Tænia sp. and Echinococcus sp.). Molecular and immunological approaches offer the possibility to provide more precise determination at the species level. They can also identify taxa when classic parasite markers such as eggs or cysts have been destroyed over time...
July 27, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739941/cultural-evolutionary-theory-how-culture-evolves-and-why-it-matters
#6
Nicole Creanza, Oren Kolodny, Marcus W Feldman
Human cultural traits-behaviors, ideas, and technologies that can be learned from other individuals-can exhibit complex patterns of transmission and evolution, and researchers have developed theoretical models, both verbal and mathematical, to facilitate our understanding of these patterns. Many of the first quantitative models of cultural evolution were modified from existing concepts in theoretical population genetics because cultural evolution has many parallels with, as well as clear differences from, genetic evolution...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739929/pursuing-darwin-s-curious-parallel-prospects-for-a-science-of-cultural-evolution
#7
Alex Mesoudi
In the past few decades, scholars from several disciplines have pursued the curious parallel noted by Darwin between the genetic evolution of species and the cultural evolution of beliefs, skills, knowledge, languages, institutions, and other forms of socially transmitted information. Here, I review current progress in the pursuit of an evolutionary science of culture that is grounded in both biological and evolutionary theory, but also treats culture as more than a proximate mechanism that is directly controlled by genes...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739927/culture-extends-the-scope-of-evolutionary-biology-in-the-great-apes
#8
Andrew Whiten
Discoveries about the cultures and cultural capacities of the great apes have played a leading role in the recognition emerging in recent decades that cultural inheritance can be a significant factor in the lives not only of humans but also of nonhuman animals. This prominence derives in part from these primates being those with whom we share the most recent common ancestry, thus offering clues to the origins of our own thoroughgoing reliance on cumulative cultural achievements. In addition, the intense research focus on these species has spawned an unprecedented diversity of complementary methodological approaches, the results of which suggest that cultural phenomena pervade the lives of these apes, with potentially major implications for their broader evolutionary biology...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725948/genomics-and-epigenomics-in-rheumatic-diseases-what-do-they-provide-in-terms-of-diagnosis-and-disease-management
#9
Patricia Castro-Santos, Roberto Díaz-Peña
Most rheumatic diseases are complex or multifactorial entities with pathogeneses that interact with both multiple genetic factors and a high number of diverse environmental factors. Knowledge of the human genome sequence and its diversity among populations has provided a crucial step forward in our understanding of genetic diseases, identifying many genetic loci or genes associated with diverse phenotypes. In general, susceptibility to autoimmunity is associated with multiple risk factors, but the mechanism of the environmental component influence is poorly understood...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719406/toward-a-biopsychosocial-ecology-of-the-human-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-and-health
#10
Karl J Maier, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Rapidly expanding insights to the human microbiome and health suggest that Western medicine is poised for significant evolution, or perhaps revolution - this while the field continues on a trajectory from reductionism to a biopsychosocial (BPS) paradigm recognizing biological, psychological, and social influences on health. The apparent sensitivity of the microbiota to perturbations across BPS domains suggests that a broad and inclusive framework is needed to develop applicable knowledge in this area...
July 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718445/mouse-versus-human-neutrophils-in-cancer-a-major-knowledge-gap
#11
REVIEW
Evgeniy B Eruslanov, Sunil Singhal, Steven M Albelda
Many types of cancer recruit neutrophils that could have protumor or antitumor effects on tumor development. Numerous findings in murine models suggest a predominantly protumoral role for neutrophils in cancer development. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human tumors in the evolution of tumors, genetic diversity, immune response, and also in the intrinsic biology of neutrophils that might have a profound impact on tumor development and the function of these cells. A crucial difference is that the majority of mouse tumor models lack the prolonged initial phases of multistage tumor evolution present in humans when antitumoral mechanisms are activated...
February 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711987/getting-genetic-access-to-natural-adenovirus-genomes-to-explore-vector-diversity
#12
REVIEW
Wenli Zhang, Anja Ehrhardt
Recombinant vectors based on the human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) have been developed and extensively used in preclinical and clinical studies for over 30 years. However, certain restrictions of HAdV5-based vectors have limited their clinical applications because they are rather inefficient in specifically transducing cells of therapeutic interest that lack the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Moreover, enhanced vector-associated toxicity and widespread preexisting immunity have been shown to significantly hamper the effectiveness of HAdV-5-mediated gene transfer...
July 15, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701907/adaptation-of-human-skin-color-in-various-populations
#13
REVIEW
Lian Deng, Shuhua Xu
BACKGROUND: Skin color is a well-recognized adaptive trait and has been studied extensively in humans. Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation of skin color in various populations has many implications in human evolution and medicine. DISCUSSION: Impressive progress has been made recently to identify genes associated with skin color variation in a wide range of geographical and temporal populations. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the genetics of skin color variation...
2018: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695291/missing-or-altered-self-human-nk-cell-receptors-that-recognize-hla-c
#14
REVIEW
Hugo G Hilton, Peter Parham
Natural killer (NK) cells are fast-acting and versatile lymphocytes that are critical effectors of innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and placental development. Controlling NK cell function are the interactions between killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C ligands. Due to the extensive polymorphism of both KIR and HLA class I, these interactions are highly diversified and specific combinations correlate with protection or susceptibility to a range of infectious, autoimmune, and reproductive disorders...
August 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690602/geography-ethnicity-or-subsistence-specific-variations-in-human-microbiome-composition-and-diversity
#15
REVIEW
Vinod K Gupta, Sandip Paul, Chitra Dutta
One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687858/a-genomic-perspective-on-hla-evolution
#16
REVIEW
Diogo Meyer, Vitor R C Aguiar, Bárbara D Bitarello, Débora Y C Brandt, Kelly Nunes
Several decades of research have convincingly shown that classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci bear signatures of natural selection. Despite this conclusion, many questions remain regarding the type of selective regime acting on these loci, the time frame at which selection acts, and the functional connections between genetic variability and natural selection. In this review, we argue that genomic datasets, in particular those generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS) at the population scale, are transforming our understanding of HLA evolution...
July 7, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682226/la-g%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-tique-de-l%C3%A2-h%C3%A3-te-influe-sur-les-%C3%A3-cosyst%C3%A3-mes-microbiens-par-l%C3%A2-interm%C3%A3-diaire-du-syst%C3%A3-me-immunitaire-de-l%C3%A2-h%C3%A3-te
#17
Hela El Kafsy, Guy Gorochov, Martin Larsen
Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms occurred as a response to environmental challenges, in particular competition for nutrients, climatic change, physical and chemical stressors and pathogens. However organism fitness depends on both the efficiency of its defences and its capacities for benefiting from its symbiotic organisms. Indeed microbes not only engender pathogenies, but enable efficient uptake of host non-self biodegradable nutriments. Furthermore, microbes play an important role in the development of host immunity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673043/lifestyles-in-transition-evolution-and-natural-history-of-the-genus-lactobacillus
#18
Rebbeca M Duar, Xiaoxi B Lin, Jinshui Zheng, Maria Elena Martino, Théodore Grenier, María Elisa Pérez-Muñoz, François Leulier, Michael Gänzle, Jens Walter
Lactobacillus species are found in nutrient-rich habitats associated with food, feed, plants, animals and humans. Due to their economic importance, the metabolism, genetics and phylogeny of lactobacilli have been extensively studied. However, past research primarily examined lactobacilli in experimental settings abstracted from any natural history, and the ecological context in which these bacteria exist and evolve has received less attention. In this review, we synthesize phylogenetic, genomic and metabolic metadata of the Lactobacillus genus with findings from fine-scale phylogenetic and functional analyses of representative species to elucidate the evolution and natural history of its members...
June 30, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601904/disease-modeling-in-genetic-kidney-diseases-mice
#19
REVIEW
Andreas F Hofmeister, Martin Kömhoff, Stefanie Weber, Ivica Grgic
The mouse still represents arguably the most important mammal organism in research for modeling human genetic kidney diseases in vivo. Compared with many other mammal species, the breeding and maintenance of mice in the laboratory is relatively simple and cheap and reproduction cycles are short. In addition to classic gene knockout mouse lines, new molecular biological technologies have led to the development of a plethora of other, more sophisticated, mouse models, allowing the targeting of genes or gene function in a cell-specific, tissue-specific and time-dependent fashion...
July 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587191/new-insights-in-the-cytogenetic-practice-karyotypic-chaos-non-clonal-chromosomal-alterations-and-chromosomal-instability-in-human-cancer-and-therapy-response
#20
REVIEW
Nelson Rangel, Maribel Forero-Castro, Milena Rondón-Lagos
Recently, non-clonal chromosomal alterations previously unappreciated are being proposed to be included in cytogenetic practice. The aim of this inclusion is to obtain a greater understanding of chromosomal instability (CIN) and tumor heterogeneity and their role in cancer evolution and therapy response. Although several genetic assays have allowed the evaluation of the variation in a population of cancer cells, these assays do not provide information at the level of individual cells, therefore limiting the information of the genomic diversity within tumors (heterogeneity)...
June 3, 2017: Genes
keyword
keyword
78445
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"