keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Human evolutionary genetics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149249/human-accelerated-regions-and-other-human-specific-sequence-variations-in-the-context-of-evolution-and-their-relevance-for-brain-development
#1
Anastasia Levchenko, Alexander Kanapin, Anastasia Samsonova, Raul Gainetdinov
The review discusses, in a format of a timeline, the studies of different types of genetic variants, present in Homo sapiens, but absent in all other primate, mammalian or vertebrate species, tested so far. The main characteristic of these variants is that they are found in regions of high evolutionary conservation. These sequence variations include single nucleotide substitutions (called human accelerated regions), deletions and segmental duplications. The rationale for finding such variations in the human genome is that they could be responsible for traits, specific to our species, of which the human brain is the most remarkable...
November 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149178/drivers-of-genetic-diversity-in-secondary-metabolic-gene-clusters-within-a-fungal-species
#2
Abigail L Lind, Jennifer H Wisecaver, Catarina Lameiras, Philipp Wiemann, Jonathan M Palmer, Nancy P Keller, Fernando Rodrigues, Gustavo H Goldman, Antonis Rokas
Filamentous fungi produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) critical for defense, virulence, and communication. The metabolic pathways that produce SMs are found in contiguous gene clusters in fungal genomes, an atypical arrangement for metabolic pathways in other eukaryotes. Comparative studies of filamentous fungal species have shown that SM gene clusters are often either highly divergent or uniquely present in one or a handful of species, hampering efforts to determine the genetic basis and evolutionary drivers of SM gene cluster divergence...
November 17, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144594/on-the-origin-of-obesity-identifying-the-biological-environmental-and-cultural-drivers-of-genetic-risk-among-human-populations
#3
REVIEW
A Qasim, M Turcotte, R J de Souza, M C Samaan, D Champredon, J Dushoff, J R Speakman, D Meyre
Genetic predisposition to obesity presents a paradox: how do genetic variants with a detrimental impact on human health persist through evolutionary time? Numerous hypotheses, such as the thrifty genotype hypothesis, attempt to explain this phenomenon yet fail to provide a justification for the modern obesity epidemic. In this critical review, we appraise existing theories explaining the evolutionary origins of obesity and explore novel biological and sociocultural agents of evolutionary change to help explain the modern-day distribution of obesity-predisposing variants...
November 16, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142125/emergence-of-double-and-triple-gene-reassortant-g1p-8-rotaviruses-possessing-a-ds-1-like-backbone-post-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-in-malawi
#4
Khuzwayo C Jere, Chrispin Chaguza, Naor Bar-Zeev, Jenna Lowe, Chikondi Peno, Benjamin Kumwenda, Osamu Nakagomi, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Nigel A Cunliffe, Iturriza-Gomara Miren
To combat the high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis, multiple African countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their childhood immunisation programmes. Malawi incorporated a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix™) into its immunisation schedule in 2012. Utilising a surveillance platform of hospitalised rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, we examined the phylodynamics of G1P[8] rotavirus strains that circulated in Malawi before (1998 - 2012) and after (2013 - 2014) vaccine introduction. Analysis of whole genomes obtained through next generation sequencing revealed that all randomly-selected pre-vaccine G1P[8] strains sequenced (n=32) possessed a Wa-like genetic constellation, whereas post-vaccine G1P[8] strains (n=18) had a DS-1-like constellation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141946/age-related-clonal-hematopoiesis-arch
#5
Liran I Shlush
Age related alterations in the human blood system occur in B cells, T cells, cells of the innate system, as well as in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Interestingly, age related, reduced genetic diversity can be identified both at the stem cell level, but also independently in B cells and T cells. This reduced diversity is most probably related to somatic mutations, or to changes in the micro-environmental niche. Either process can select for specific clones, or cause repeated evolutionary bottlenecks...
November 15, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141179/formation-of-longitudinal-axon-pathways-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
REVIEW
Harald Hutter
The small number of neurons and the simple architecture of the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) nervous system enables researchers to study axonal pathfinding at the level of individually identified axons. Axons in C. elegans extend predominantly along one of the two major body axes, the anterior-posterior axis and the dorso-ventral axis. This review will focus on axon navigation along the anterior-posterior axis, leading to the establishment of the longitudinal axon tracts, with a focus on the largest longitudinal axon tract, the ventral nerve cord (VNC)...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139346/in-vivo-mallard-experiments-indicate-that-zanamivir-has-less-potential-for-environmental-influenza-a-virus-resistance-development-than-oseltamivir
#7
Marie Nykvist, Anna Gillman, Hanna Söderström Lindström, Chaojun Tang, Ganna Fedorova, Åke Lundkvist, Neus Latorre-Margalef, Michelle Wille, Josef D Järhult
Neuraminidase inhibitors are a cornerstone of influenza pandemic preparedness before vaccines can be mass-produced and thus a neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant pandemic is a serious threat to public health. Earlier work has demonstrated the potential for development and persistence of oseltamivir resistance in influenza A viruses exposed to environmentally relevant water concentrations of the drug when infecting mallards, the natural influenza reservoir that serves as the genetic base for human pandemics. As zanamivir is the major second-line neuraminidase inhibitor treatment, this study aimed to assess the potential for development and persistence of zanamivir resistance in an in vivo mallard model; especially important as zanamivir will probably be increasingly used...
November 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138301/genomic-variation-and-evolution-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-st36-over-the-course-of-a-transcontinental-epidemic-expansion
#8
Jaime Martinez-Urtaza, Ronny van Aerle, Michel Abanto, Julie Haendiges, Robert A Myers, Joaquin Trinanes, Craig Baker-Austin, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related infections with illnesses undergoing a geographic expansion. In this process of expansion, the most fundamental change has been the transition from infections caused by local strains to the surge of pandemic clonal types. Pandemic clone sequence type 3 (ST3) was the only example of transcontinental spreading until 2012, when ST36 was detected outside the region where it is endemic in the U.S. Pacific Northwest causing infections along the U.S. northeast coast and Spain...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136020/evolutionary-dynamics-of-group-formation
#9
Marco Alberto Javarone, Daniele Marinazzo
Group formation is a quite ubiquitous phenomenon across different animal species, whose individuals cluster together forming communities of diverse size. Previous investigations suggest that, in general, this phenomenon might have similar underlying reasons across the interested species, despite genetic and behavioral differences. For instance improving the individual safety (e.g. from predators), and increasing the probability to get food resources. Remarkably, the group size might strongly vary from species to species, e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126839/the-epidemic-typhus-and-trench-fever-are-risk-for-public-health-due-to-increased-migration-in-southeast-of-turkey
#10
Fadime Eroglu, Nilgün Ulutasdemir, Mustafa Tanrıverdi, Eda Icbay Dagli, Ismail Soner Koltas
Pediculus humanus capitis is a small ectoparasitic insect that has lived and feds on human beings for thousands of years. Molecular techniques have been used for Pediculus species identification and evolutionary, phylogenic, and ecological studies. A total of 23 adults of P. h. capitis were collected in Gaziantep, located in southeast Turkey, and DNA was isolated from all P. h. capitis using DNA extraction kit. All DNA samples were screened for investigate of Ricettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana and Borrelia recurrentis with real-time polymerase chain reaction...
November 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120031/histopathological-immunohistochemical-and-stereological-analysis-of-the-effect-of-gingko-biloba-egb761-on-the-hippocampus-of-rats-exposed-to-long-term-cellphone-radiation
#11
Fikret Gevrek
Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate...
November 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112749/pgg-population-a-database-for-understanding-the-genomic-diversity-and-genetic-ancestry-of-human-populations
#12
Chao Zhang, Yang Gao, Jiaojiao Liu, Zhe Xue, Yan Lu, Lian Deng, Lei Tian, Qidi Feng, Shuhua Xu
There are a growing number of studies focusing on delineating genetic variations that are associated with complex human traits and diseases due to recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies. However, identifying and prioritizing disease-associated causal variants relies on understanding the distribution of genetic variations within and among populations. The PGG.Population database documents 7122 genomes representing 356 global populations from 107 countries and provides essential information for researchers to understand human genomic diversity and genetic ancestry...
November 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110756/apol1-nephropathy-a-population-genetics-and-evolutionary-medicine-detective-story
#13
REVIEW
Etty Kruzel-Davila, Walter G Wasser, Karl Skorecki
Common DNA sequence variants rarely have a high-risk association with a common disease. When such associations do occur, evolutionary forces must be sought, such as in the association of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene risk variants with nondiabetic kidney diseases in populations of African ancestry. The variants originated in West Africa and provided pathogenic resistance in the heterozygous state that led to high allele frequencies owing to an adaptive evolutionary selective sweep. However, the homozygous state is disadvantageous and is associated with a markedly increased risk of a spectrum of kidney diseases encompassing hypertension-attributed kidney disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy, sickle cell nephropathy, and progressive lupus nephritis...
November 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109466/haplotype-selection-as-an-adaptive-mechanism-in-the-protozoan-pathogen-leishmania-donovani
#14
Pablo Prieto Barja, Pascale Pescher, Giovanni Bussotti, Franck Dumetz, Hideo Imamura, Darek Kedra, Malgorzata Domagalska, Victor Chaumeau, Heinz Himmelbauer, Michel Pages, Yvon Sterkers, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Cedric Notredame, Gerald Frank Späth
The parasite Leishmania  donovani causes a fatal disease termed visceral leishmaniasis. The process through which the parasite adapts to environmental change remains largely unknown. Here we show that aneuploidy is integral for parasite adaptation and that karyotypic fluctuations allow for selection of beneficial haplotypes, which impact transcriptomic output and correlate with phenotypic variations in proliferation and infectivity. To avoid loss of diversity following karyotype and haplotype selection, L...
November 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109227/the-impact-of-recombination-on-human-mutation-load-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Isabel Alves, Armande Ang Houle, Julie G Hussin, Philip Awadalla
Recombination promotes genomic integrity among cells and tissues through double-strand break repair, and is critical for gamete formation and fertility through a strict regulation of the molecular mechanisms associated with proper chromosomal disjunction. In humans, congenital defects and recurrent structural abnormalities can be attributed to aberrant meiotic recombination. Moreover, mutations affecting genes involved in recombination pathways are directly linked to pathologies including infertility and cancer...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109226/the-red-queen-model-of-recombination-hot-spot-evolution-a-theoretical-investigation
#16
Thibault Latrille, Laurent Duret, Nicolas Lartillot
In humans and many other species, recombination events cluster in narrow and short-lived hot spots distributed across the genome, whose location is determined by the Zn-finger protein PRDM9. To explain these fast evolutionary dynamics, an intra-genomic Red Queen model has been proposed, based on the interplay between two antagonistic forces: biased gene conversion, mediated by double-strand breaks, resulting in hot-spot extinction, followed by positive selection favouring new PRDM9 alleles recognizing new sequence motifs...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104775/predicting-the-evolutionary-variability-of-the-influenza-a-virus
#17
T A Timofeeva, M N Asatryan, A D Altstein, B S Narodisky, A L Gintsburg, N V Kaverin
The influenza A virus remains one of the most common and dangerous human health concerns due to its rapid evolutionary dynamics. Since the evolutionary changes of influenza A viruses can be traced in real time, the last decade has seen a surge in research on influenza A viruses due to an increase in experimental data (selection of escape mutants followed by examination of their phenotypic characteristics and generation of viruses with desired mutations using reverse genetics). Moreover, the advances in our understanding are also attributable to the development of new computational methods based on a phylogenetic analysis of influenza virus strains and mathematical (integro-differential equations, statistical methods, probability-theory-based methods) and simulation modeling...
July 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104094/a-two-year-monitoring-period-of-the-genetic-properties-of-clade-2-3-2-1c-h5n1-viruses-in-nigeria-reveals-the-emergence-and-co-circulation-of-distinct-genotypes
#18
Agnes Laleye, Tony Joannis, Ismaila Shittu, Clement Meseko, Gianpiero Zamperin, Adelaide Milani, Bianca Zecchin, Alice Fusaro, Isabella Monne, Celia Abolnik
Phylogenetic analyses of the complete genomes of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) 2.3.2.1c H5N1 virus strains causing outbreaks in Nigeria's poultry population from 2014 to 2016 showed evidence of distinct co-circulating genotypes and the emergence of reassortant viruses. One of these reassortants became the predominant strain by 2016, and the NA protein of this strain possessed the V96A substitution known to confer reduced susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibiting antiviral drugs. Our findings also demonstrated evolutionary relationships between Nigerian isolates and European and Middle Eastern strains of H5N1 which provides further evidence for the proposed role of migratory birds in spreading the virus, although the involvement of the live poultry trade cannot be excluded...
November 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103940/morphometric-behavioral-and-genomic-evidence-for-a-new-orangutan-species
#19
Alexander Nater, Maja P Mattle-Greminger, Anton Nurcahyo, Matthew G Nowak, Marc de Manuel, Tariq Desai, Colin Groves, Marc Pybus, Tugce Bilgin Sonay, Christian Roos, Adriano R Lameira, Serge A Wich, James Askew, Marina Davila-Ross, Gabriella Fredriksson, Guillem de Valles, Ferran Casals, Javier Prado-Martinez, Benoit Goossens, Ernst J Verschoor, Kristin S Warren, Ian Singleton, David A Marques, Joko Pamungkas, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Puji Rianti, Augustine Tuuga, Ivo G Gut, Marta Gut, Pablo Orozco-terWengel, Carel P van Schaik, Jaume Bertranpetit, Maria Anisimova, Aylwyn Scally, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Erik Meijaard, Michael Krützen
Six extant species of non-human great apes are currently recognized: Sumatran and Bornean orangutans, eastern and western gorillas, and chimpanzees and bonobos [1]. However, large gaps remain in our knowledge of fine-scale variation in hominoid morphology, behavior, and genetics, and aspects of great ape taxonomy remain in flux. This is particularly true for orangutans (genus: Pongo), the only Asian great apes and phylogenetically our most distant relatives among extant hominids [1]. Designation of Bornean and Sumatran orangutans, P...
October 31, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097520/evolution-of-life-in-urban-environments
#20
REVIEW
Marc T J Johnson, Jason Munshi-South
Our planet is an increasingly urbanized landscape, with over half of the human population residing in cities. Despite advances in urban ecology, we do not adequately understand how urbanization affects the evolution of organisms, nor how this evolution may affect ecosystems and human health. Here, we review evidence for the effects of urbanization on the evolution of microbes, plants, and animals that inhabit cities. Urbanization affects adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary processes that shape the genetic diversity within and between populations...
November 3, 2017: Science
keyword
keyword
78444
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"