keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Human evolutionary genetics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733602/distinct-selective-forces-and-neanderthal-introgression-shaped-genetic-diversity-at-genes-involved-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#1
Alessandra Mozzi, Diego Forni, Rachele Cagliani, Uberto Pozzoli, Mario Clerici, Manuela Sironi
In addition to high intelligence, humans evolved specialized social-cognitive skills, which are specifically affected in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genes affected in ASD represent suitable candidates to study the evolution of human social cognition. We performed an evolutionary analysis on 68 genes associated to neurodevelopmental disorders; our data indicate that genetic diversity was shaped by distinct selective forces, including natural selection and introgression from archaic hominins...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729708/new-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-clonal-complexes-in-china-revealed-by-phylogenetic-and-bayesian-population-structure-analyses-of-24-loci-miru-vntrs
#2
Chao Zheng, Yann Reynaud, Changsong Zhao, Thierry Zozio, Song Li, Dongxia Luo, Qun Sun, Nalin Rastogi
Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis constitutes the most predominant lineage in East Asia. Beijing epidemiology, evolutionary history, genetics are studied in details for years revealing probable origin from China followed by worldwide expansion, partially linked to higher mutation rate, hypervirulence, drug-resistance, and association with cases of mixed infections. Considering huge amount of data available for 24-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats, we performed detailed phylogenetic and Bayesian population structure analyses of Beijing lineage strains in mainland China and Taiwan using available 24-loci MIRU-VNTR data extracted from publications or the SITVIT2 database (n = 1490)...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726130/transmission-network-characteristics-based-on-env-and-gag-sequences-from-msm-during-acute-hiv-1-infection-in-beijing-china
#3
Zhimin Zhang, Lili Dai, Yan Jiang, Kaidi Feng, Lifeng Liu, Wei Xia, Fengjiao Yu, Jun Yao, Wenge Xing, Lijun Sun, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Bin Su, Maofeng Qiu
Molecular epidemiology can be used to identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission clusters, usually using pol sequence for analysis. In the present study, we explored appropriate parameters to construct a simple network using HIV env and gag sequences instead of pol sequences for constructing a phylogenetic tree and a genetic transmission subnetwork, which were used to identify individuals with many potential transmission links and to explore the evolutionary dynamics of the virus among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing...
July 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718413/intrinsic-molecular-processes-impact-on-mutagenesis
#4
REVIEW
Byungho Lim, Jihyeob Mun, Seon-Young Kim
Mutations provide resources for genome evolution by generating genetic variability. In addition, mutations act as a driving force leading to disease pathogenesis, and thus have important implications for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Understanding the mechanisms underlying how mutations occur is therefore of prime importance for elucidating evolutionary and pathogenic processes. Recent genomics studies have revealed that mutations occur non-randomly across the human genome. In particular, the distribution of mutations is highly associated with intrinsic molecular processes including transcription, chromatin organization, DNA replication timing, and DNA repair...
May 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717880/environmental-exposure-does-not-explain-putative-maladaptation-in-road-adjacent-populations
#5
Steven P Brady
While the ecological consequences of roads are well described, little is known of their role as agents of natural selection, which can shape adaptive and maladaptive responses in populations influenced by roads. This knowledge gap persists despite a growing appreciation for the influence of evolution in human-altered environments. There, insights indicate that natural selection typically results in local adaptation. Thus, populations influenced by road-induced selection should evolve fitness advantages in their local environment...
July 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717387/human-mediated-evolution-in-a-threatened-species-juvenile-life-history-changes-in-snake-river-salmon
#6
Robin S Waples, Anna Elz, Billy D Arnsberg, James R Faulkner, Jeffrey J Hard, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Linda K Park
Evaluations of human impacts on Earth's ecosystems often ignore evolutionary changes in response to altered selective regimes. Freshwater habitats for Snake River fall Chinook salmon (SRFCS), a threatened species in the US, have been dramatically changed by hydropower development and other watershed modifications. Associated biological changes include a shift in juvenile life history: Historically essentially 100% of juveniles migrated to sea as subyearlings, but a substantial fraction have migrated as yearlings in recent years...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715422/unraveling-the-genetic-diversity-and-phylogeny-of-leishmania-rna-virus-1-strains-of-infected-leishmania-isolates-circulating-in-french-guiana
#7
Sourakhata Tirera, Marine Ginouves, Damien Donato, Ignacio S Caballero, Christiane Bouchier, Anne Lavergne, Eliane Bourreau, Emilie Mosnier, Vincent Vantilcke, Pierre Couppié, Ghislaine Prevot, Vincent Lacoste
INTRODUCTION: Leishmania RNA virus type 1 (LRV1) is an endosymbiont of some Leishmania (Vianna) species in South America. Presence of LRV1 in parasites exacerbates disease severity in animal models and humans, related to a disproportioned innate immune response, and is correlated with drug treatment failures in humans. Although the virus was identified decades ago, its genomic diversity has been overlooked until now. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLES FINDINGS: We subjected LRV1 strains from 19 L...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711317/invasion-fitness-for-gene-culture-co-evolution-in-family-structured-populations-and-an-application-to-cumulative-culture-under-vertical-transmission
#8
Charles Mullon, Laurent Lehmann
Human evolution depends on the co-evolution between genetically determined behaviors and socially transmitted information. Although vertical transmission of cultural information from parent to offspring is common in hominins, its effects on cumulative cultural evolution are not fully understood. Here, we investigate gene-culture co-evolution in a family-structured population by studying the invasion fitness of a mutant allele that influences a deterministic level of cultural information (e.g., amount of knowledge or skill) to which diploid carriers of the mutant are exposed in subsequent generations...
July 12, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709399/draft-sequencing-and-assembly-of-the-genome-of-the-world-s-largest-fish-the-whale-shark-rhincodon-typus-smith-1828
#9
Timothy D Read, Robert A Petit, Sandeep J Joseph, Md Tauqeer Alam, M Ryan Weil, Maida Ahmad, Ravila Bhimani, Jocelyn S Vuong, Chad P Haase, D Harry Webb, Milton Tan, Alistair D M Dove
BACKGROUND: The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) has by far the largest body size of any elasmobranch (shark or ray) species. Therefore, it is also the largest extant species of the paraphyletic assemblage commonly referred to as fishes. As both a phenotypic extreme and a member of the group Chondrichthyes - the sister group to the remaining gnathostomes, which includes all tetrapods and therefore also humans - its genome is of substantial comparative interest. Whale sharks are also listed as an endangered species on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List of threatened species and are of growing popularity as both a target of ecotourism and as a charismatic conservation ambassador for the pelagic ecosystem...
July 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708995/evolution-of-the-human-nervous-system-function-structure-and-development
#10
REVIEW
André M M Sousa, Kyle A Meyer, Gabriel Santpere, Forrest O Gulden, Nenad Sestan
The nervous system-in particular, the brain and its cognitive abilities-is among humans' most distinctive and impressive attributes. How the nervous system has changed in the human lineage and how it differs from that of closely related primates is not well understood. Here, we consider recent comparative analyses of extant species that are uncovering new evidence for evolutionary changes in the size and the number of neurons in the human nervous system, as well as the cellular and molecular reorganization of its neural circuits...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708050/hyperinvasiveness-and-increased-intercellular-spread-of-listeria-monocytogenes-sequence-type-1-are-independent-of-listeriolysin-s-internalin-f-and-internalin-j1
#11
Sebastian Rupp, Michelle Bärtschi, Joachim Frey, Anna Oevermann
PURPOSE: Listeria monocytogenes is a genetically heterogeneous species, which is divided into evolutionary lineages and clonal complexes (CCs). Not all L. monocytogenes isolates are equally likely to cause disease, with CC1, and in particular sequence type (ST) 1, being the most prevalent complex in human and ruminant infections and more specifically in neurolisteriosis. While the major factors that determine neurotropism are unknown, the L. monocytogenes CC1 strains harbour listeriolysin S (lls) and particular alleles of internalin (inl) F and inlJ, which are not present in CCs commonly isolated from food and the environment...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705673/global-acquisition-of-genetic-materials-from-different-bacteria-into-the-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-elements-of-a-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#12
Huping Xue, Zhaowei Wu, Dandan Qiao, Chao Tong, Xin Zhao
Staphylococcus epidermidis has been suggested as a main reservoir of methicillin-resistant and virulence genes to facilitate evolution of Staphylococcus aureus as a successful pathogen. However, it remains a mystery where and how S. epidermidis obtains numerous genes to serve as the reservoir. A methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis isolate NW32 from a mastitic milk sample was sequenced and its staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) elements were characterized in this study. The SCC composite island covered 3...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704715/differential-effect-of-the-overexpression-of-rad2-xpg-family-endonucleases-on-genome-integrity-in-yeast-and-human-cells
#13
Sonia Jimeno, Emilia Herrera-Moyano, Pedro Ortega, Andrés Aguilera
Eukaryotic cells possess several DNA endonucleases that are necessary to complete different steps in DNA metabolism. Rad2/XPG and Rad27/FEN1 belong to a group of evolutionary conserved proteins that constitute the Rad2 family. Given the important roles carried out by these nucleases in DNA repair and their capacity to create DNA breaks, we have investigated the effect that in vivo imbalance of these nucleases and others of the family have on genome integrity and cell proliferation. We show that overexpression of these nucleases causes genetic instability in both yeast and human cells...
July 3, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704536/phylogeography-in-nassarius-mud-snails-complex-patterns-in-congeneric-species
#14
Chuanliang Pu, Haitao Li, Aijia Zhu, Yiyong Chen, Yan Zhao, Aibin Zhan
One major goal for phylogeographical studies is to elucidate respective roles of multiple evolutionary and ecological forces that shape the current distribution patterns. In marine and coastal ecosystems, it has been generated a common realization that species with enormous population size and pelagic larval stages can disperse across broad geographical scales, leading to weak or even no phylogeographical structure across large geographical scales. However, the violation of such realization has been frequently reported, and it remains largely unexplored on mechanisms responsible for various phylogeographical patterns observed in different species at varied geographical scales...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701907/adaptation-of-human-skin-color-in-various-populations
#15
REVIEW
Lian Deng, Shuhua Xu
BACKGROUND: Skin color is a well-recognized adaptive trait and has been studied extensively in humans. Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation of skin color in various populations has many implications in human evolution and medicine. DISCUSSION: Impressive progress has been made recently to identify genes associated with skin color variation in a wide range of geographical and temporal populations. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the genetics of skin color variation...
2018: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696940/multiple-selective-events-at-the-prdm16-functional-pathway-shaped-adaptation-of-western-european-populations-to-different-climate-conditions
#16
Andrea Quagliarello, Sara De Fanti, Cristina Giuliani, Paolo Abondio, Patrizia Serventi, Stefania Sarno, Marco Sazzini, Donata Luiselli
Several studies highlighted the role of climate in shaping many human evolutionary processes. This occurred even in relatively recent times, having affected various human phenotypic traits, among which metabolic processes that orchestrate absorption and accumulation of substances to maintain energy homeostasis, that is critical for the survival of individuals in high energy-expenditure environments. To date, most researches have focalized on detection of climatic influence on SNPs' frequency in populations exposed to extreme environmental conditions or by comparing variation patterns between populations from different continents...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696226/kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-stably-clusters-its-genomes-across-generations-to-maintain-itself-extrachromosomally
#17
Ya-Fang Chiu, Arthur U Sugden, Kathryn Fox, Mitchell Hayes, Bill Sugden
Genetic elements that replicate extrachromosomally are rare in mammals; however, several human tumor viruses, including the papillomaviruses and the gammaherpesviruses, maintain their plasmid genomes by tethering them to cellular chromosomes. We have uncovered an unprecedented mechanism of viral replication: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) stably clusters its genomes across generations to maintain itself extrachromosomally. To identify and characterize this mechanism, we developed two complementary, independent approaches: live-cell imaging and a predictive computational model...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695291/missing-or-altered-self-human-nk-cell-receptors-that-recognize-hla-c
#18
REVIEW
Hugo G Hilton, Peter Parham
Natural killer (NK) cells are fast-acting and versatile lymphocytes that are critical effectors of innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and placental development. Controlling NK cell function are the interactions between killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C ligands. Due to the extensive polymorphism of both KIR and HLA class I, these interactions are highly diversified and specific combinations correlate with protection or susceptibility to a range of infectious, autoimmune, and reproductive disorders...
July 10, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694832/pathogenicity-of-virulent-species-of-group-c-streptococci-in-human
#19
REVIEW
Marta Kłos, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
Group C streptococci (GCS) are livestock pathogens and they often cause zoonotic diseases in humans. They are Gram-positive, in mostly β-hemolytic and facultative anaerobes. Because of their close evolutionary kinship with group A streptococci (GAS), GCS share many common virulence factors with GAS and cause a similar range of diseases. Due to the exchange of genetic material with GAS, GCS belong to bacteria that are difficult to be distinguished from group A streptococci; GCS are often treated in microbiological diagnostics as contamination of the culture...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692019/bacteriophage-evolution-differs-by-host-lifestyle-and-genome
#20
Travis N Mavrich, Graham F Hatfull
Bacteriophages play key roles in microbial evolution(1,2), marine nutrient cycling(3) and human disease(4). Phages are genetically diverse, and their genome architectures are characteristically mosaic, driven by horizontal gene transfer with other phages and host genomes(5). As a consequence, phage evolution is complex and their genomes are composed of genes with distinct and varied evolutionary histories(6,7). However, there are conflicting perspectives on the roles of mosaicism and the extent to which it generates a spectrum of genome diversity(8) or genetically discrete populations(9,10)...
July 10, 2017: Nature Microbiology
keyword
keyword
78444
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"