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Human evolutionary genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812734/human-behaviour-as-a-long-term-ecological-driver-of-non-human-evolution
#1
REVIEW
Alexis P Sullivan, Douglas W Bird, George H Perry
Due to our intensive subsistence and habitat-modification strategies-including broad-spectrum harvesting and predation, widespread landscape burning, settlement construction, and translocation of other species-humans have major roles as ecological actors who influence fundamental trophic interactions. Here we review how the long-term history of human-environment interaction has shaped the evolutionary biology of diverse non-human, non-domesticated species. Clear examples of anthropogenic effects on non-human morphological evolution have been documented in modern studies of substantial changes to body size or other major traits in terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in response to selective human harvesting, urbanized habitats, and human-mediated translocation...
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812720/antagonistic-pleiotropy-and-mutation-accumulation-influence-human-senescence-and-disease
#2
Juan Antonio Rodríguez, Urko M Marigorta, David A Hughes, Nino Spataro, Elena Bosch, Arcadi Navarro
Senescence has long been a public health challenge as well as a fascinating evolutionary problem. There is neither a universally accepted theory for its ultimate causes, nor a consensus about what may be its impact on human health. Here we test the predictions of two evolutionary explanations of senescence-mutation accumulation and antagonistic pleiotropy-which postulate that genetic variants with harmful effects in old ages can be tolerated, or even favoured, by natural selection at early ages. Using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we study the effects of genetic variants associated with diseases appearing at different periods in life, when they are expected to have different impacts on fitness...
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811194/immunogenetic-studies-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-era-of-pan-genotype-antiviral-therapies-effective-treatment-is-coming
#3
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Valéria de Lima Kaminski, Jacqueline Maria Valverde-Villegas, Daniel Simon, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, José Artur Bogo Chies
What are the factors that influence human hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis status establishment, and disease progression? Firstly, one has to consider the genetic background of the host and HCV genotypes. The immunogenetic host profile will reflect how each infected individual deals with infection. Secondly, there are environmental factors that drive susceptibility or resistance to certain viral strains. These will dictate (I) the susceptibility to infection; (II) whether or not an infected person will promote viral clearance; (III) the immune response and the response profile to therapy; and (IV) whether and how long it would take to the development of HCV-associated diseases, as well as their severity...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806925/genomic-data-illuminates-demography-genetic-structure-and-selection-of-a-popular-dog-breed
#4
Pamela Wiener, Enrique Sánchez-Molano, Dylan N Clements, John A Woolliams, Marie J Haskell, Sarah C Blott
BACKGROUND: Genomic methods have proved to be important tools in the analysis of genetic diversity across the range of species and can be used to reveal processes underlying both short- and long-term evolutionary change. This study applied genomic methods to investigate population structure and inbreeding in a common UK dog breed, the Labrador Retriever. RESULTS: We found substantial within-breed genetic differentiation, which was associated with the role of the dog (i...
August 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803893/the-companion-dog-as-a-unique-translation-model-for-aging
#5
REVIEW
Andrea Mazzatenta, Camillo Di Giulio, Domenico Robbe, Augusto Carluccio, Alessandro Cellerino
The dog is a unique species due to its wide variation among breeds in size, morphology, behavior and lifespan coupled with a genetic structure that facilitates the dissection of the genetic architecture controlling those traits. Dogs and humans coevolved and share recent evolutionary selection processes like, for example, adaptations to digest starch-rich diets. Many diseases of the dog have a human counterpart, notably Alzheimer's that is otherwise difficult to model in other organisms. Unlike laboratory animals, companion dogs share the human environment and lifestyle, are exposed to the same pollutants and are faced with pathogens and infections...
August 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803872/parallel-trajectories-of-genetic-and-linguistic-admixture-in-a-genetically-admixed-creole-population
#6
Paul Verdu, Ethan M Jewett, Trevor J Pemberton, Noah A Rosenberg, Marlyse Baptista
Joint analyses of genes and languages, both of which are transmitted in populations by descent with modification-genes vertically by Mendel's laws, language via combinations of vertical, oblique, and horizontal processes [1-4]-provide an informative approach for human evolutionary studies [5-10]. Although gene-language analyses have employed extensive data on individual genetic variation [11-23], their linguistic data have not considered corresponding long-recognized [24] variability in individual speech patterns, or idiolects...
August 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800766/examining-non-ltr-retrotransposons-in-the-context-of-the-evolving-primate-brain
#7
REVIEW
Sara B Linker, Maria C Marchetto, Iñigo Narvaiza, Ahmet M Denli, Fred H Gage
Researchers have long sought to understand the genetic basis of the cognitive differences between primates, with particular focus on the human brain. Although all mutational types have worked in concert with evolutionary forces to generate the current human brain, in this review we will explore the impact of mobile elements, specifically non-LTR retrotransposons. Non-LTR retrotransposons have contributed coding and regulatory sequences to the genome throughout evolution. During primate evolution there have been multiple waves of LINE retrotransposition as well as the birth of new mobile elements such as the SINEs Alu and SVA and we will explore what kinds of impacts these may have had on the evolving human brain...
August 11, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795375/evolutionary-significance-of-selected-edar-variants-in-tibetan-high-altitude-adaptations
#8
Jianming Shao, Muhammad Sohail Raza, Basang Zhuoma, Changqing Zeng
Humans have been exposed to many environmental challenges since their evolutionary origins in Africa and subsequent migrations to the rest of the world. A severe environmental challenge to human migrants was hypoxia caused by low barometric oxygen pressure at high altitudes. Several genome-wide scans have elucidated the genetic basis of human high-altitude adaptations. However, the dearth of functional variant information has led to the successful association of only a few candidate genes. In the present study, we employed a candidate gene approach and re-sequenced the EDAR locus in 45 Tibetan individuals to identify mutations involved in hypoxia adaptation...
August 8, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793862/physical-shearing-imparts-biological-activity-to-dna-and-ability-to-transmit-itself-horizontally-across-species-and-kingdom-boundaries
#9
Gorantla Venkata Raghuram, Deepika Gupta, Siddharth Subramaniam, Ashwini Gaikwad, Naveen Kumar Khare, Malcolm Nobre, Naveen Kumar Nair, Indraneel Mittra
BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments derived from dying cells that circulate in blood are biologically active molecules and can readily enter into healthy cells to activate DNA damage and apoptotic responses in the recipients. However, DNA is not conventionally known to spontaneously enter into cells or to have any intrinsic biological activity. We hypothesized that cellular entry and acquisition of biological properties are functions of the size of DNA...
August 9, 2017: BMC Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792413/human-reproduction-and-health-an-evolutionary-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Grazyna Jasienska, Richard G Bribiescas, Anne-Sofie Furberg, Samuli Helle, Alejandra Núñez-de la Mora
According to life history theory, increased investment in reproductive function (physiology and behaviour) at different times throughout the life course affects the risk of many diseases and, ultimately, longevity. Although genetic factors contribute to interindividual and interpopulation variation in reproductive traits, the dominant source of variability is phenotypic plasticity during development and adult life. Reproductive traits in both sexes evolved sensitivity to ecological conditions, as reflected in contemporary associations of hormone concentrations with geographical setting, nutritional status, and physical activity level...
July 29, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780941/the-pathophysiology-of-anaphylaxis
#11
REVIEW
Laurent L Reber, Joseph D Hernandez, Stephen J Galli
Anaphylaxis is a severe systemic hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset; characterized by life-threatening airway, breathing, and/or circulatory problems; and usually associated with skin and mucosal changes. Because it can be triggered in some persons by minute amounts of antigen (eg, certain foods or single insect stings), anaphylaxis can be considered the most aberrant example of an imbalance between the cost and benefit of an immune response. This review will describe current understanding of the immunopathogenesis and pathophysiology of anaphylaxis, focusing on the roles of IgE and IgG antibodies, immune effector cells, and mediators thought to contribute to examples of the disorder...
August 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771698/molecular-and-functional-genetics-of-the-proopiomelanocortin-gene-food-intake-regulation-and-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low
During the last decade, the obesity pandemia has skyrocketed, and the spectre is threatening children, adolescents and lower income families worldwide. Although driven by an increase in the consumption of ultra-processed edibles of poor nutritional value, the obesogenic changes in contemporary human lifestyle affect people differently, revealing that some individuals are more prone to developing increased adiposity. During the last years, we performed a variety of genetic, evolutionary, biochemical and behavioral experiments that allowed us to understand how a group of neurons present in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus regulate the expression of the proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene and induce satiety...
August 3, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770079/evolutionary-response-to-global-change-climate-and-land-use-interact-to-shape-color-polymorphism-in-a-woodland-salamander
#13
Bradley J Cosentino, Jean-David Moore, Nancy E Karraker, Martin Ouellet, James P Gibbs
Evolutionary change has been demonstrated to occur rapidly in human-modified systems, yet understanding how multiple components of global change interact to affect adaptive evolution remains a critical knowledge gap. Climate change is predicted to impose directional selection on traits to reduce thermal stress, but the strength of directional selection may be mediated by changes in the thermal environment driven by land use. We examined how regional climatic conditions and land use interact to affect genetically based color polymorphism in the eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus)...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768854/presence-of-a-shared-5-leader-sequence-in-ancestral-human-and-mammalian-retroviruses-and-its-transduction-into-feline-leukemia-virus
#14
Junna Kawasaki, Maki Kawamura, Yoshiharu Ohsato, Jumpei Ito, Kazuo Nishigaki
Recombination events induce significant genetic changes, and this process can result in virus genetic diversity or in the generation of novel pathogenicity. We discovered a new recombinant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) gag gene harboring an unrelated insertion, termed the "X-region", which was derived from FcERV-gamma4, a feline endogenous gammaretrovirus. The identified FcERV-gamma4 proviruses have lost their coding capability, but some can express their viral RNA in feline tissues. Although the X-region-carrying recombinant FeLVs appeared to be replication-defective viruses, they were detected in 6...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768473/a-de-novo-missense-mutation-of-fgfr2-causes-facial-dysplasia-syndrome-in-holstein-cattle
#15
Jørgen S Agerholm, Fintan J McEvoy, Steffen Heegaard, Carole Charlier, Vidhya Jagannathan, Cord Drögemüller
BACKGROUND: Surveillance for bovine genetic diseases in Denmark identified a hitherto unreported congenital syndrome occurring among progeny of a Holstein sire used for artificial breeding. A genetic aetiology due to a dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or a mosaic germline mutation was suspected as all recorded cases were progeny of the same sire. Detailed investigations were performed to characterize the syndrome and to reveal its cause. RESULTS: Seven malformed calves were submitted examination...
August 2, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764714/testis-specific-histone-2b-is-associated-with-sperm-chromatin-dynamics-and-bull-fertility-a-pilot-study
#16
Naseer A Kutchy, Ana Velho, Erika S B Menezes, Marie Jacobsen, Giselle Thibaudeau, Robert W Wills, Arlindo Moura, Abdullah Kaya, Andy Perkins, Erdogan Memili
BACKGROUND: Bull fertility is the degree of sperm's ability to fertilize and activate the egg and support embryo development, and this is critical for herd reproductive performance. We used the bull as a unique model organism for the study of male fertility because cattle genetics and physiology is similar to those of other mammals including humans. Moreover, reliable fertility data along with well-established in vitro systems are available for bovine. The objective of this original study was to ascertain evolutionary diversification and expression dynamics of Testis Specific Histone 2B (TH2B) in sperm from Holstein bulls with different fertility scores...
August 1, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758634/the-genomic-evolution-of-h1-influenza-a-viruses-from-swine-detected-in-the-united-states-between-2009-and-2016
#17
Shibo Gao, Tavis K Anderson, Rasna R Walia, Karin S Dorman, Alicia Janas-Martindale, Amy L Vincent
Transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) from humans to swine occurs with relative frequency and is a critical contributor to swine IAV diversity. Subsequent to the introduction of these human seasonal lineages, there is often reassortment with endemic viruses and antigenic drift. To address whether particular genome constellations contributed to viral persistence following the introduction of the 2009 H1N1 human pandemic virus to swine in the USA, we collated and analysed 616 whole genomes of swine H1 isolates...
July 31, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755952/are-humans-prone-to-autoimmunity-implications-from-evolutionary-changes-in-hominin-sialic-acid-biology
#18
REVIEW
Ajit Varki
Given varied intrinsic and extrinsic challenges to the immune system, it is unsurprising that each evolutionary lineage evolves distinctive features of immunoreactivity, and that tolerance mechanisms fail, allowing autoimmunity. Humans appear prone to many autoimmune diseases, with mechanisms both genetic and environmental. Another rapidly evolving biological system involves sialic acids, a family of monosaccharides that are terminal caps on cell surface and secreted molecules of vertebrates, and play multifarious roles in immunity...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754709/the-sortase-dependent-fimbriome-of-the-genus-bifidobacterium-extracellular-structures-with-potential-to-modulate-microbe-host-dialogue
#19
Christian Milani, Marta Mangifesta, Leonardo Mancabelli, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Walter Mancino, Alice Viappiani, Andrea Faccini, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura, Francesca Turroni
Bifidobacteria are important gut commensals of mammals, including humans, of any age. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these microorganisms establish themselves in the mammalian gut and persist in this environment are largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity of the predicted arsenal of sortase-dependent pili of known and sequenced members of the Bifidobacterium genus, and constructed a bifidobacterial sortase-dependent fimbriome database. Our analyses revealed considerable genetic variability of the sortase-dependent fimbriome among bifidobacterial (sub)species, which appears to have been due to horizontal gene transfer events, and for which we were able to perform an evolutionary mapping...
July 28, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751889/morphological-and-mitochondrial-genomic-characterization-of-eyeworms-thelazia-callipaeda-from-clinical-cases-in-central-china
#20
Xi Zhang, Ya L Shi, Zhong Q Wang, Jiang Y Duan, Peng Jiang, Ruo D Liu, Jing Cui
Thelazia callipaeda, also called the oriental eyeworm, is the major etiological agent of human thelaziasis. Cases of thelaziasis have increased in recent years in China. Although this species is of medical importance, the genetics and phylogenetic systematics of T. callipaeda are poorly understood. In this study, we first reported three cases of thelaziasis in central China. All clinical isolates were identified as T. callipaeda according to morphological characteristics by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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