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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446617/is-embryonic-hypothermia-tolerance-common-in-birds
#1
Jin-Ming Zhao, Zhi-Ming Han, Yue-Hua Sun
Avian incubation temperatures oscillate within narrow limits to ensure proper embryonic development. However, field observations and experimental studies have found that some species can tolerate very low incubation temperatures, either regularly or occasionally. We artificially incubated eggs from five domestic species, which represent a range of egg sizes, to examine whether a diversity of avian species could exhibit an unusual hypothermia tolerance, as observed in the field. We found that eggs of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), pigeon (Columba livia domestica), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) survived the incubation period and hatched after experiencing 10°C hypothermia for 6 h each day...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440626/alteration-of-diastereoisomeric-and-enantiomeric-profiles-of-hexabromocyclododecanes-hbcds-in-adult-chicken-tissues-eggs-and-hatchling-chickens
#2
Xiaobo Zheng, Lin Qiao, Run-XIa Sun, Xiaojun Luo, Jing Zheng, Qilai Xie, Yuxin Sun, Bi Xian Mai
The concentrations and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of α-, β-, and γ-hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were measured in chicken diet sources (soil and chicken feed), home-raised adult chicken (Gallus domesticus) tissues, eggs during incubation, and hatchling chicken tissues. HBCD concentrations were nd-0.69 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 25.6-48.4 ng/g dw in chicken feed and soil, respectively. HBCDs were detected in all adult chicken tissues except the brain, at median levels of 13.1-44.0 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The proportions of α-HBCD in total HBCDs increased from 51% in soil to more than 87% in adult chicken tissues...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431039/genomic-data-for-78-chickens-from-14-populations
#3
Diyan Li, Tiandong Che, Binlong Chen, Shilin Tian, Xuming Zhou, Guolong Zhang, Miao Li, Uma Gaur, Yan Li, Majing Luo, Long Zhang, Zhongxian Xu, Xiaoling Zhao, Huadong Yin, Yan Wang, Long Jin, Qianzi Tang, Huailiang Xu, Mingyao Yang, Rongjia Zhou, Ruiqiang Li, Qing Zhu, Mingzhou Li
Background: Since the domestication of the red jungle fowls ( Gallus gallus ) (dating back to ∼10,000 B.P.) in Asia, domestic chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus ) have been subjected to the combined effects of natural selection and human-driven artificial selection; this has resulted in marked phenotypic diversity in a number of traits, including behavior, body composition, egg production and skin color. Population genomic variations through diversifying selection have not been fully investigated...
April 18, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427323/detection-of-qtl-for-traits-related-to-adaptation-to-sub-optimal-climatic-conditions-in-chickens
#4
Ching-Yi Lien, Michèle Tixier-Boichard, Shih-Wen Wu, Woei-Fuh Wang, Chen Siang Ng, Chih-Feng Chen
BACKGROUND: Growth traits can be used as indicators of adaptation to sub-optimal conditions. The current study aimed at identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control performance under variable temperature conditions in chickens. METHODS: An F2 population was produced by crossing the Taiwan Country chicken L2 line (selected for body weight, comb area, and egg production) with an experimental line of Rhode Island Red layer R- (selected for low residual feed consumption)...
April 20, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423325/rapid-genome-wide-recruitment-of-rna-polymerase-ii-drives-transcription-splicing-and-translation-events-during-t-cell-responses
#5
Kathrin Davari, Johannes Lichti, Christian Gallus, Franziska Greulich, N Henriette Uhlenhaut, Matthias Heinig, Caroline C Friedel, Elke Glasmacher
Activation of immune cells results in rapid functional changes, but how such fast changes are accomplished remains enigmatic. By combining time courses of 4sU-seq, RNA-seq, ribosome profiling (RP), and RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) ChIP-seq during T cell activation, we illustrate genome-wide temporal dynamics for ∼10,000 genes. This approach reveals not only immediate-early and posttranscriptionally regulated genes but also coupled changes in transcription and translation for >90% of genes. Recruitment, rather than release of paused RNA Pol II, primarily mediates transcriptional changes...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419378/arsenic-induced-testicular-toxicity-in-gallus-gallus-expressions-of-inflammatory-cytokines-and-heat-shock-proteins
#6
Xiao Sun, Siwen Li, Ying He, Hongjing Zhao, Yu Wang, Xiangwei Zeng, Mingwei Xing
The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of sub-chronic poisoning with arsenic on the testes of chickens treated. Seventy-two 1-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 4 groups and provided food with different doses arsenic. The histological changes were examined. The mRNA levels of inflammatory factors, including transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E synthase (PTGEs), and heat shock proteins (Hsps), including Hsp70, Hsp90, Hsp60, Hsp40, and Hsp27 were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in the testes of chickens...
April 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418277/geographical-variation-in-the-skeletal-morphology-of-red-jungle-fowl
#7
H Endo, N Tsunekawa, M Sonoe, T Sasaki, H Ogawa, T Amano, N T Son, V Phimphachanhvongsod, K Kudo, T Yonezawa, F Akishinonomiya
1. The skulls and postcranial skeletons of the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) were compared osteometrically between the populations from North and South Vietnam, North and Central Laos and Southeast Bangladesh. The populations include the three subspecies of G. g. spadiceus, G. g. gallus and G. g. murghi and were sampled to reveal the geographical morphological variations among populations in G. gallus. 2. The morphometric characteristics of subspecies murghi could be clearly distinguished from those of the other subspecies using a canonical discriminant analysis...
April 18, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415800/selenophosphate-synthetase-1-sps1-is-required-for-the-development-and-selenium-homeostasis-of-central-nervous-system-in-chicken-gallus-gallus
#8
Jin-Long Li, Wei Li, Xue-Tong Sun, Jun Xia, Xue-Nan Li, Jia Lin, Cong Zhang, Xiao-Chen Sun, Shi-Wen Xu
Selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) is essential for selenoprotein biosynthesis. In two SPS paralogues, SPS1 was only cloned from a cDNA library prepared from avian organ. However, the biological function of SPS1 in chicken central nervous system (CNS) remains largely unclear. To investigate the role of avian SPS1 in the development and selenium (Se) homeostasis of CNS, fertile eggs, chicken embryos, embryo neurons and chicks were employed in this study. The response of SPS1 transcription to the development and Se levels of CNS tissues was analyzed using qRT-PCR...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415037/enantiomer-specific-accumulation-and-depuration-of-%C3%AE-hexabromocyclododecane-%C3%AE-hbcdd-in-chicken-gallus-gallus-as-a-tool-to-identify-contamination-sources
#9
Elsa Omer, Ronan Cariou, Adeline Huneau-Salaün, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Élisabeth Baéza, Angélique Travel, Sophie Le Bouquin, Catherine Jondreville, Bruno Le Bizec
A LC-ESI(-)-HRMS method dedicated to the analysis of 6 HBCDD enantiomers at trace levels in animal matrices was developed, using a cellulose based stationary phase with a particle size of 2.5 μm. This method was applied to a sample set derived from a kinetic study of α-HBCDD previously conducted in fast- and slow-growing chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus, n = 49, plus controls), in order to study the enantiomer specific accumulation and depuration of α-HBCDD in various tissues. Regarding abdominal adipose tissue, muscle and liver, the average enantiomeric fractions of α-HBCDD (EFα) for continuously exposed groups ranged between 0...
April 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413822/distinct-neural-properties-in-the-low-frequency-region-of-the-chicken-cochlear-nucleus-magnocellularis
#10
Xiaoyu Wang, Hui Hong, David H Brown, Jason Tait Sanchez, Yuan Wang
Topography in the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) is represented as gradually increasing characteristic frequency (CF) along the caudolateral-to-rostromedial axis. In this study, we characterized the organization and cell biophysics of the caudolateral NM (NMc) in chickens (Gallus gallus). Examination of cellular and dendritic architecture first revealed that NMc contains small neurons and extensive dendritic processes, in contrast to adendritic, large neurons located more rostromedially. Individual dye-filling study further demonstrated that NMc is divided into two subregions, with NMc2 neurons having larger and more complex dendritic fields than NMc1...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413724/are-anti-ganglioside-antibodies-associated-with-proventricular-dilatation-disease-in-birds
#11
Jeann Leal de Araujo, Ian Tizard, Jianhua Guo, J Jill Heatley, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann, Raquel R Rech
The identification of Parrot bornaviruses (PaBV) in psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) has not been sufficient to explain the pathogenesis of this fatal disease, since not all infected birds develop clinical signs. Although the most accepted theory indicates that PaBV directly triggers an inflammatory response in this disease, another hypothesis suggests the disease is triggered by autoantibodies targeting neuronal gangliosides, and PDD might therefore resemble Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) in its pathogenesis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412302/who-benefits-from-computer-based-brief-alcohol-intervention-day-to-day-drinking-patterns-as-a-moderator-of-intervention-efficacy
#12
Sophie Baumann, Beate Gaertner, Katja Haberecht, Gallus Bischof, Ulrich John, Jennis Freyer-Adam
OBJECTIVE: to test if people with different day-to-day drinking patterns benefitted differently from two brief alcohol interventions (BAIs). METHODS: A total of 1243 job-seekers with at-risk alcohol use aged 18-64 years (64% men) were randomized to (a) intervention tailored to the motivational stage (ST), (b) non-stage tailored intervention (NST), or (c) assessment only (AO). ST and NST contained individualized computer-generated feedback letters. Follow-ups were conducted at months 3, 6, and 15...
March 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405364/east-african-origins-for-madagascan-chickens-as-indicated-by-mitochondrial-dna
#13
Michael B Herrera, Vicki A Thomson, Jessica J Wadley, Philip J Piper, Sri Sulandari, Anik Budhi Dharmayanthi, Spiridoula Kraitsek, Jaime Gongora, Jeremy J Austin
The colonization of Madagascar by Austronesian-speaking people during AD 50-500 represents the most westerly point of the greatest diaspora in prehistory. A range of economically important plants and animals may have accompanied the Austronesians. Domestic chickens (Gallus gallus) are found in Madagascar, but it is unclear how they arrived there. Did they accompany the initial Austronesian-speaking populations that reached Madagascar via the Indian Ocean or were they late arrivals with Arabian and African sea-farers? To address this question, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA control region diversity of modern chickens sampled from around the Indian Ocean rim (Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa and Madagascar)...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395119/spatial-and-temporal-expression-profiles-of-urocortin-3-mrna-in-the-brain-of-the-chicken-gallus-gallus
#14
Sylvia V H Grommen, Melissa K Scott, Veerle M Darras, Bert De Groef
Urocortin 3 (UCN3) is a neuropeptide believed to regulate stress-coping responses by binding to type 2 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors. Here we report the cloning and brain distribution of UCN3 mRNA in a sauropsid - the chicken, Gallus gallus. Mature chicken UCN3 is predicted to be a 40-amino acid peptide showing high sequence similarity to human (93%), mouse (93%), and Xenopus (88%) UCN3. During the last third of embryonic development, UCN3 mRNA levels changed differentially in the various brain parts...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385509/effect-of-central-and-peripheral-injection-of-prostaglandin-e2-and-f2%C3%AE-on-feeding-and-the-crop-emptying-rate-in-chicks
#15
Tetsuya Tachibana, Yasua Nakai, Ryosuke Makino, Md Sakirul Islam Khan, Mark A Cline
Prostaglandins (PGs) have been shown to cause several physiological changes in mammals including anorexia, awakening and sleeping, change in digestive function, and activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis. However, there is a paucity of information about the effect of PGs on physiological parameters in birds. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intraperitoneal (IP) injections of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) affect feeding, voluntary movement, crop-emptying rate, and corticosterone release in chicks (Gallus gallus)...
April 3, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381111/spontaneous-spinal-plexiform-perineurioma-in-a-juvenile-chicken-gallus-domesticus
#16
Lara Cusack, Uriel Blas-Machado, Joerg Mayer
A 2-mo-old pet chicken ( Gallus domesticus) was presented because of lameness and a hind limb mass of 1 mo duration. Radiographs revealed a soft tissue mass extending from the mid-femur into the body wall. Cytology of a sample obtained from a fine-needle aspirate was unremarkable. The bird was prepared for surgical investigation of the mass but died acutely at the time of pre-medication. Autopsy revealed an extradural mesenchymal neoplasm that focally compressed the lumbar spinal cord, extended into and along the adjacent nerve structures, and displaced the kidneys, skeletal muscle, and body wall...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369868/pre-and-postcopulatory-sexual-selection-favor-aggressive-young-males-in-polyandrous-groups-of-red-junglefowl
#17
Grant C McDonald, Lewis G Spurgin, Eleanor A Fairfield, David S Richardson, Tommaso Pizzari
A challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the operation of sexual selection on males in polyandrous groups, where sexual selection occurs before and after mating. Here, we combine fine-grained behavioural information (>41,000 interactions) with molecular parentage data to study sexual selection in replicated, age-structured groups of polyandrous red junglefowl, Gallus gallus. Male reproductive success was determined by the number of females mated (precopulatory sexual selection) and his paternity share, which was driven by the polyandry of his female partners (postcopulatory sexual selection)...
March 28, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342761/cardiovascular-tolerance-of-intravenous-bupivacaine-in-broiler-chickens-gallus-gallus-domesticus-anesthetized-with-isoflurane
#18
Peter M DiGeronimo, Anderson F da Cunha, Bruno Pypendop, João Brandão, Rhett Stout, Max Rinaldi, Thomas N Tully
OBJECTIVE: To determine the median effective dose (ED50) of intravenous (IV) bupivacaine associated with a 50% probability of causing clinically relevant cardiovascular effects [defined as 30% change in heart rate (HR) or mean arterial pressure (MAP)] in chickens anesthetized with isoflurane. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized up-and-down study. ANIMALS: A total of 14 Ross-708 broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) weighing 1.70-2.75 kg. METHODS: Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342374/accumulation-of-%C3%AE-hexabromocyclododecane-%C3%AE-hbcdd-in-tissues-of-fast-and-slow-growing-broilers-gallus-domesticus
#19
Catherine Jondreville, Ronan Cariou, Bertrand Méda, Elena Dominguez-Romero, Elsa Omer, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Bruno Le Bizec, Angélique Travel, Elisabeth Baéza
The aim of the current study was to describe the fate of ingested α-hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCDD) in fast-growing (FG) and slow-growing (SG) broilers, through an exposure to a dietary concentration of 50 ng α-HBCDD g(-1) feed during 42 and 84 days, respectively. Depuration parameters were assessed in SG broilers successively exposed during 42 days and depurated during 42 days. At market age, SG broilers had ingested 42% more feed than FG broilers, while their body weight gain per g of feed ingested was 34% lower...
March 22, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338731/purification-and-enzymatic-characterization-of-gallus-gallus-blm-helicase
#20
Jing Shi, Na-Nv Liu, Yan-Tao Yang, Xu-Guang Xi
Mutations in human BLM helicase give rise to the autosomal recessive Bloom syndrome, which shows high predisposition to types of malignant tumours. Though lots of biochemical and structural investigations have shed lights on the helicase core, structural investigations of the whole BLM protein are still limited due to its low stability and production. Here by comparing with the expression systems and functions of other BLM homologues, we developed the heterologous high-level expression and high-yield purification systems for Gallus gallus BLM (gBLM) in Escherichia coli...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
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