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Liliana L Cubas-Gaona, Elisabet Diaz-Beneitez, Marina Ciscar, José F Rodríguez, Dolores Rodríguez
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the Birnaviridae family and is the etiological agent of a highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease (IBD) that affects domestic chickens ( Gallus gallus ). IBD or Gumboro disease leads to high morbidity and mortality of infected animals, and is responsible for major economic losses to the poultry industry world-wide. IBD is characterized by a massive loss of IgM-bearing B lymphocytes and the destruction of the bursa of Fabricius. The molecular bases of the IBDV pathogenicity are still poorly understood, nonetheless, an exacerbated cytokine immune response and B cell depletion due to apoptosis are considered main factors contributing to the severity of the disease...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Justin N Wood, Samantha M W Wood
How do newborns learn to recognize objects? According to temporal learning models in computational neuroscience, the brain constructs object representations by extracting smoothly changing features from the environment. To date, however, it is unknown whether newborns depend on smoothly changing features to build invariant object representations. Here, we used an automated controlled-rearing method to examine whether visual experience with smoothly changing features facilitates the development of view-invariant object recognition in a newborn animal model-the domestic chick (Gallus gallus)...
March 14, 2018: Cognitive Science
Samantha J Lawton, Allison M Weis, Barbara A Byrne, Heather Fritz, Conor C Taff, Andrea K Townsend, Bart C Weimer, Asli Mete, Sarah Wheeler, Walter M Boyce
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was compared to conventional biochemical testing methods and nucleic acid analyses (16S rDNA sequencing, hippurate hydrolysis gene testing, whole genome sequencing [WGS]) for species identification of Campylobacter isolates obtained from chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus, n = 8), American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos, n = 17), a mallard duck ( Anas platyrhynchos, n = 1), and a western scrub-jay ( Aphelocoma californica, n = 1)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Andrezza Braga Soares da Silva, Clarisse Maria Barbosa Fonseca, Maria Michele Araújo de Sousa Cavalcante, Ingrid Macedo de Oliveira, Maíra Soares Ferraz, Felipe José Costa Viana, Rayssa Dourado Fontenele, Airton Mendes Conde Júnior
The pancreas comprises an important metabolic organ of endocrine and exocrine character that has embryonic origin of rudimentary buds that fuse to form the organ. The present work aims to describe the pancreatic histogenesis of hybrid chick embryos (Gallus gallus). The research was performed in the UFPI, previously approved by the CEUA with protocol no. 040/15. We used 120 fertilized eggs of hybrid chickens kept in an incubator with controlled temperature and humidity. Daily collections of embryos and fetuses were performed from 4 to 21 days of incubation through the anatomical dissection consecutive the euthanasia...
March 12, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
G Schiavo, M G Strillacci, A Ribani, S Bovo, S I Roman-Ponce, S Cerolini, F Bertolini, A Bagnato, L Fontanesi
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) insertions have been detected in the nuclear genome of many eukaryotes. These sequences are pseudogenes originated by horizontal transfer of mtDNA fragments into the nuclear genome, producing nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin (numt). In this study we determined the frequency and distribution of mtDNA-originated pseudogenes in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) nuclear genome. The turkey reference genome (Turkey_2.01) was aligned with the reference linearized mtDNA sequence using last...
March 9, 2018: Animal Genetics
Leandro José Ramos, Janis Lunier de Souza, Cláudio Rodrigues de Souza, Jader de Oliveira, João Aristeu da Rosa, Luis Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Renildo Moura da Cunha, Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti
INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of Triatoma sordida in the Brazilian Western Amazon is reported for the first time. METHODS: Triatoma sordida specimens were collected from a Gallus gallus nest in a peridomiciliary area of Senador Guiomard municipality in the state of Acre. RESULTS: The number of triatomine species in Acre increased from six to seven with this first report of T. sordida in the Brazilian Western Amazon. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of T...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Nate Yoder, Craig Yoshioka, Eric Gouaux
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are trimeric, proton-gated and sodium-selective members of the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) superfamily of ion channels and are expressed throughout vertebrate central and peripheral nervous systems. Gating of ASICs occurs on a millisecond time scale and the mechanism involves three conformational states: high pH resting, low pH open and low pH desensitized. Existing X-ray structures of ASIC1a describe the conformations of the open and desensitized states, but the structure of the high pH resting state and detailed mechanisms of the activation and desensitization of the channel have remained elusive...
March 7, 2018: Nature
Fan Yang, Song Xu, Renwang Liu, Tao Shi, Xiongfei Li, Xuebing Li, Gang Chen, Hongyu Liu, Qinghua Zhou, Jun Chen
Introduction: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common Mendelian multi-system disorder that is characterized by café-au-lait spots (CLS), axillary freckling, optic glioma and plexiform neurofibroma. Various mutations of the NF1 gene are widely accepted to be the main cause of this disease, while whether there are still certain other modifier genes that could influence the phenotypes of NF1 is our concern. Patients and Methods: One proband and his father are involved, who are characterized by plexiform neurofibroma and cutaneous neurofibroma, respectively...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
C Aidala, Y Akiba, M Alfred, V Andrieux, K Aoki, N Apadula, H Asano, C Ayuso, B Azmoun, V Babintsev, A Bagoly, N S Bandara, K N Barish, S Bathe, A Bazilevsky, M Beaumier, R Belmont, A Berdnikov, Y Berdnikov, D S Blau, M Boer, J S Bok, M L Brooks, J Bryslawskyj, V Bumazhnov, C Butler, S Campbell, V Canoa Roman, R Cervantes, C Y Chi, M Chiu, I J Choi, J B Choi, Z Citron, M Connors, N Cronin, M Csanád, T Csörgő, T W Danley, M S Daugherity, G David, K DeBlasio, K Dehmelt, A Denisov, A Deshpande, E J Desmond, A Dion, D Dixit, J H Do, A Drees, K A Drees, M Dumancic, J M Durham, A Durum, T Elder, A Enokizono, H En'yo, S Esumi, B Fadem, W Fan, N Feege, D E Fields, M Finger, M Finger, S L Fokin, J E Frantz, A Franz, A D Frawley, Y Fukuda, C Gal, P Gallus, P Garg, H Ge, F Giordano, Y Goto, N Grau, S V Greene, M Grosse Perdekamp, T Gunji, H Guragain, T Hachiya, J S Haggerty, K I Hahn, H Hamagaki, H F Hamilton, S Y Han, J Hanks, S Hasegawa, T O S Haseler, X He, T K Hemmick, J C Hill, K Hill, A Hodges, R S Hollis, K Homma, B Hong, T Hoshino, N Hotvedt, J Huang, S Huang, K Imai, J Imrek, M Inaba, A Iordanova, D Isenhower, Y Ito, D Ivanishchev, B V Jacak, M Jezghani, Z Ji, X Jiang, B M Johnson, V Jorjadze, D Jouan, D S Jumper, J H Kang, D Kapukchyan, S Karthas, D Kawall, A V Kazantsev, V Khachatryan, A Khanzadeev, C Kim, D J Kim, E-J Kim, M Kim, M H Kim, D Kincses, E Kistenev, J Klatsky, P Kline, T Koblesky, D Kotov, S Kudo, K Kurita, Y Kwon, J G Lajoie, E O Lallow, A Lebedev, S Lee, S H Lee, M J Leitch, Y H Leung, N A Lewis, X Li, S H Lim, L D Liu, M X Liu, V-R Loggins, S Lökös, K Lovasz, D Lynch, T Majoros, Y I Makdisi, M Makek, M Malaev, V I Manko, E Mannel, H Masuda, M McCumber, P L McGaughey, D McGlinchey, C McKinney, M Mendoza, W J Metzger, A C Mignerey, D E Mihalik, A Milov, D K Mishra, J T Mitchell, G Mitsuka, S Miyasaka, S Mizuno, P Montuenga, T Moon, D P Morrison, S I M Morrow, T Murakami, J Murata, K Nagai, K Nagashima, T Nagashima, J L Nagle, M I Nagy, I Nakagawa, H Nakagomi, K Nakano, C Nattrass, T Niida, R Nouicer, T Novák, N Novitzky, R Novotny, A S Nyanin, E O'Brien, C A Ogilvie, J D Orjuela Koop, J D Osborn, A Oskarsson, G J Ottino, K Ozawa, V Pantuev, V Papavassiliou, J S Park, S Park, S F Pate, M Patel, W Peng, D V Perepelitsa, G D N Perera, D Yu Peressounko, C E PerezLara, J Perry, R Petti, M Phipps, C Pinkenburg, R P Pisani, A Pun, M L Purschke, P V Radzevich, K F Read, D Reynolds, V Riabov, Y Riabov, D Richford, T Rinn, S D Rolnick, M Rosati, Z Rowan, J Runchey, A S Safonov, T Sakaguchi, H Sako, V Samsonov, M Sarsour, K Sato, S Sato, B Schaefer, B K Schmoll, K Sedgwick, R Seidl, A Sen, R Seto, A Sexton, D Sharma, I Shein, T-A Shibata, K Shigaki, M Shimomura, T Shioya, P Shukla, A Sickles, C L Silva, D Silvermyr, B K Singh, C P Singh, V Singh, M J Skoby, M Slunečka, K L Smith, M Snowball, R A Soltz, W E Sondheim, S P Sorensen, I V Sourikova, P W Stankus, S P Stoll, T Sugitate, A Sukhanov, T Sumita, J Sun, S Syed, J Sziklai, A Takeda, K Tanida, M J Tannenbaum, S Tarafdar, A Taranenko, G Tarnai, R Tieulent, A Timilsina, T Todoroki, M Tomášek, C L Towell, R S Towell, I Tserruya, Y Ueda, B Ujvari, H W van Hecke, S Vazquez-Carson, J Velkovska, M Virius, V Vrba, N Vukman, X R Wang, Z Wang, Y Watanabe, Y S Watanabe, C P Wong, C L Woody, C Xu, Q Xu, L Xue, S Yalcin, Y L Yamaguchi, H Yamamoto, A Yanovich, P Yin, J H Yoo, I Yoon, H Yu, I E Yushmanov, W A Zajc, A Zelenski, S Zharko, L Zou
Recently, multiparticle-correlation measurements of relativistic p/d/^{3}He+Au, p+Pb, and even p+p collisions show surprising collective signatures. Here, we present beam-energy-scan measurements of two-, four-, and six-particle angular correlations in d+Au collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200, 62.4, 39, and 19.6 GeV. We also present measurements of two- and four-particle angular correlations in p+Au collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200  GeV. We find the four-particle cumulant to be real valued for d+Au collisions at all four energies...
February 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Roberta Galli, Grit Preusse, Christian Schnabel, Thomas Bartels, Kerstin Cramer, Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns, Edmund Koch, Gerald Steiner
In order to provide an alternative to day-old chick culling in the layer hatcheries, a noninvasive method for egg sexing is required at an early stage of incubation before onset of embryo sensitivity. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy of blood offers the potential for precise and contactless in ovo sex determination of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus f. dom.) eggs already during the fourth incubation day. However, such kind of optical spectroscopy requires a window in the egg shell, is thus invasive to the embryo and leads to decreased hatching rates...
2018: PloS One
A Alwin Prem Anand, Carola Huber, John Asnet Mary, Nancy Gallus, Christoph Leucht, Ruth Klafke, Bernhard Hirt, Andrea Wizenmann
BACKGROUND: MiR-9 is a small non-coding RNA that is highly conserved between species and primarily expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). It is known to influence proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the brain and spinal cord of different vertebrates. Different studies have pointed to regional and species-specific differences in the response of neural progenitors to miR-9. METHODS: In ovo and ex ovo electroporation was used to overexpress or reduce miR-9 followed by mRNA in situ hybridisation and immunofluorescent stainings to evaluate miR- expression and the effect of changed miR-9 expression...
February 22, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
B Finucci, L Gallus, A Amaroli, S Candiani, M Rottigni, M A Masini, S Ferrando
A palatal organ, possibly used for food sorting and processing, has previously been identified among the vomerine toothplates of the chimaeroid Chimaera monstrosa. In this study, the palatal organ was described in six additional species, confirming it is a widespread trait among holocephalans. It is proposed that this palatal structure, which appears to differ in shape according to each chimaeroid's degree of durophagy and is not homologous to the palatal structure described in teleosts, be hereby referred to as Vacchi's organ...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Benilson S Rodrigues, Rafael Kretschmer, Ricardo J Gunski, Analia D V Garnero, Patricia C M O'Brien, Malcolm Ferguson-Smith, Edivaldo H C de Oliveira
Tyrannidae is the largest family of Passeriformes in the Neotropical region. However, despite an interesting chromosomal diversity, there are only few cytogenetic studies of this family, and most of these are based on conventional cytogenetics. Hence, we analyzed here the chromosomal diversity and karyotypical evolution of this group by chromosome painting in 3 different species - Pitangus sulphuratus, Serpophaga subcristata, and Satrapa icterophrys - and make comparisons with previous data. In addition to chromosome painting with Gallus gallus (GGA) and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL) probes, karyotypes were analyzed by conventional staining, C-banding, and FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric probes...
February 21, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Antonella Di Pizio, Nitzan Shy, Maik Behrens, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Masha Y Niv
Chickens sense the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptors ( Gallus gallus taste 2 receptors, ggTas2rs), representing a minimal case of bitter perception. Some bitter compounds like quinine, diphenidol and chlorpheniramine, activate all three ggTas2rs, while others selectively activate one or two of the receptors. We focus on bitter compounds with different selectivity profiles toward the three receptors, to shed light on the molecular recognition complexity in bitter taste...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Dan Zhao, Imdad Hussain Leghari, Jian Li, Yuling Mi, Caiqiao Zhang
The isolation and culture of ovarian follicles is essential for the studies of follicular development and function. In contrast to the relative ease of culture for mammalian follicles, developing in vitro cultures of high viability for the much larger avian follicles has always proven to be more challenging. In this study, the growing follicles from domestic hens (Gallus domesticus) were isolated using enzymatic and mechanical methods and then investigated for the optimized conditions for culture. Assessments of viability and hormonal responsiveness were also considered...
February 2, 2018: Theriogenology
Marie Perkins, Niladri Basu
Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive environmental contaminant that can impair avian health, consequently there is a need to gauge exposures. Bird blood provides a measure of recent dietary exposure to Hg, but blood collection and storage can be complex and costly. Dried blood spots (DBS) may help overcome challenges of whole blood analyses, therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a novel method to assess Hg exposure in birds using DBS. First, accuracy and precision of blood Hg concentrations for entire DBS and DBS punches were determined for white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) dosed with methylmercury (MeHg) via egg injection...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Benjamin Dubansky, Guido Verbeck, Phillip Mach, Warren Burggren
Oil spills on birds and other organisms have focused primarily on direct effects of oil exposure through ingestion or direct body fouling. Little is known of indirect effects of airborne volatiles from spilled oil, especially on vulnerable developing embryos within the bird egg. Here a technique is described for exposing bird embryos in the egg to quantifiable amounts of airborne volatile toxicants from Deepwater Horizon crude oil. A novel membrane inlet mass spectrometry system was used to measure major classes of airborne oil-derived toxicants and correlate these exposures with biological endpoints...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Renata Rezende Carvalho, Rupert Palme, Angélica da Silva Vasconcellos
Livestock is the category of animals that suffers the most severe welfare problems. Among these, physical, physiological, and behavioural distress caused by artificial grouping are some of the challenges faced by these animals. Groups whose members are frequently changed have been reported as socially unstable, which could jeopardise the welfare of animals. Here, we assessed the effect of social instability on aggression, stress, and productivity in groups of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We studied 36 females, distributed into three stable groups (without group membership change) and three unstable groups (where the dominant member was rotated every week) over the course of 10 weeks...
February 2, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Karina M Shreffler, Zachary Giano, Ronald B Cox, Michael J Merten, Kami L Gallus
Many Latino youth are U.S. citizens but live with parents whose immigration status is unauthorized. The association between parental documentation status and early adolescent academic attitudes and expectations is unclear. Using a general population sample of urban 7th grade students who self-identified as Latino in the South Central U.S. (n = 514), we examine the associations between parental documentation status and youth attitudes about the importance of graduating high school and college and expectations of the likelihood of completing high school and attending college...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Steven J Conrad, Robert F Silva, Cari J Hearn, Megan Climans, John R Dunn
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus of Gallus gallus, the domesticated chicken. Control strategies rely upon vaccination with live attenuated viruses of antigenically similar avian herpesviruses or attenuated strains of MDV. Recent studies in other viruses have shown that recoding certain viral genes to employ synonymous but rarely-used codon pairs resulted in viral attenuation. We deoptimized two MDV proteins, UL54/ICP27 and UL49/VP22, and demonstrate that the more severely deoptimized variant of UL54 accumulates significantly less gene product in vitro...
February 1, 2018: Virology
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