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Cedric Tan Kai Wei, Philippa Doyle, Emma Bagshaw, David S Richardson, Stuart Wigby, Tommaso Pizzari
In structured populations, competition for reproductive opportunities should be relaxed among related males. The few tests of this prediction often neglect the fact that sexual selection acts through multiple mechanisms, both before and after mating. We performed experiments to study the role of within-group male relatedness across pre- and postcopulatory mechanisms of sexual selection in social groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, in which two related males and one unrelated male competed over females unrelated to all the males...
December 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Cynthia P Zeferino, Kevin D Wells, Ana Silvia A M T Moura, George E Rottinghaus, David R Ledoux
Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) can lead to changes in global gene expression. This study investigated the individual expression of genes turned on and off in renal cells of chicks after different durations of exposure to dietary OTA. One hundred and eighty day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (3 levels of OTA: 0, 1 and 2 mg OTA/kg diet and 3 time periods: 7, 14 and 21 d). Birds were allocated to 36 pens (4 replicate pens of 5 birds each per treatment)...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
E H Mocka, R A Stern, O J Fletcher, K E Anderson, J N Petitte, P E Mozdziak
The hen is an attractive animal model for in vivo testing of agents that thwart ovarian carcinogenesis because ovarian cancer in the domestic hen features clinical and molecular alterations that are similar to ovarian cancer in humans, including a high incidence of p53 mutations. The objective of the study was to test the potential ovarian cancer chemopreventive effect of the p53 stabilizing compound CP-31398 on hens that spontaneously present the ovarian cancer phenotype. Beginning at 79 wk of age, 576 egg-laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were randomized to diets containing different amounts of CP-31398 for 94 wk, 5 d, comprising a control group (C) (n = 144), which was fed a diet containing 0 ppm (mg/kg) of CP-31398; a low-dose treatment (LDT) group (n = 144), which was fed a diet containing 100 ppm of CP-31398; a moderate-dose treatment (MDT) group (n = 144) which was fed a diet containing 200 ppm of CP-31398; and a high-dose treatment (HDT) group (n = 144), which was fed a diet containing 300 ppm of CP-31398...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
Zeeshan Mutahir, Louise Slot Christiansen, Anders R Clausen, Martin W Berchtold, Zoran Gojkovic, Birgitte Munch-Petersen, Wolfgang Knecht, Jure Piškur
Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) salvage deoxyribonucleosides (dNs) and catalyze the rate limiting step of this salvage pathway by converting dNs into corresponding monophosphate forms. These enzymes serve as an excellent model to study duplicated genes and their evolutionary history. So far, among vertebrates only four mammalian dNKs have been studied for their substrate specificity and kinetic properties. However, some vertebrates, such as fish, frogs, and birds, apparently possess a duplicated homolog of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK)...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
Huanglei Pan, Shasha Song, Qiuyue Ma, Hui Wei, Difeng Ren, Jun Lu
Black-bone silky fowl iron(II)-oligopeptide chelate was synthesized from iron(II) solution and the black-bone silky fowl oligopeptide, which was extracted from the muscle protein of black-bone silky fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson). Orthogonal array analysis was used to determine the optimal conditions for the iron(II)-oligopeptide chelate preparation. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to identify the structure of iron(II)-oligopeptide chelate...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
H J Ha, N Christensen, S Humphrey, T Haydon, G Bernardi, T Rawdon
Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) has been considered exotic to New Zealand and thus, any samples from poultry suspected of ORT infection are submitted as part of an exotic disease investigation managed by Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) and subjected to standardized test protocols carried out in the physical containment level 3+ laboratory at MPI's Animal Health Laboratory (AHL). All previous exotic disease investigations concerning ORT produced negative results by bacterial culture and conventional PCR...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
Raf Claes, Pieter G G Muyshondt, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Jelle Dhaene, Joris J J Dirckx, Peter Aerts
The avian middle ear differs from that of mammalians and contains a tympanic membrane, one ossicle (bony columella and cartilaginous extra-columella), some ligaments and one muscle. The rim of the eardrum (closing the middle ear cavity) is connected to the neurocranium and, by means of a broad ligament, to the otic process of the quadrate. Due to the limited number of components in the avian middle ear, the possibilities of attenuating the conduction of sound seem to be limited to activity of the stapedius muscle...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Greta Bolin, Benjamin Dubansky, Warren W Burggren
The metanephric kidneys of the chicken embryo, along with the chorioallantoic membrane, process water and ions to maintain osmoregulatory homeostasis. We hypothesized that changes in relative humidity (RH) and thus osmotic conditions during embryogenesis would alter the developmental trajectory of embryonic kidney function. White leghorn chicken eggs were incubated at one of 25-30% relative humidity, 55-60% relative humidity, and 85-90% relative humidity. Embryos were sampled at days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 to examine embryo and kidney mass, glomerular characteristics, body fluid osmolalities, hematological properties, and whole embryo oxygen consumption...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Silvano Gallus, Alessandra Lugo, Giuseppe Gorini, Paolo Colombo, Roberta Pacifici, Esteve Fernandez
To investigate voluntary home smoking bans, we analysed five nationally representative surveys on 15 175 adults conducted in Italy in 2011-2015. Overall, 61% of Italians (69% of non-smokers and 32% of current smokers) adopted a complete home smoking ban. Although families with children more frequently live in smoke-free homes, still the majority of current smokers living with children admit smoking inside their homes. Complete home smoking bans are substantially increasing in Italy, and an acceleration of this trend is expected with the 2016 implementation of a new tobacco control legislation aimed at decreasing the social acceptability of smoking...
October 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Madhumita Mondal, J K Kundu, K K Misra
Lipid synthesis is an important process in most organisms as well as in helminths. The present observation shows the variation of lipid and fatty acid uptake among cestode, Raillietina (Fuhrmannetta) echinobothrida; nematode, Ascaridia galli and their host, Gallus domesticus, the common country fowl. Total lipid (TL), neutral lipid (NL), glycolipid (GL), phospholipid (PL) and their fatty acid of cestode, nematode and liver and intestinal fluid of the host were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and gas liquid chromatography respectively...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
G S Sreenivasa Murthy, Rasmita Panda
The nematodes Dispharynx spiralis (Superfamily-Spiruroidea, Family-Acuariidae) parasitising the proventriculus and Heterakis gallinarum (Superfamily-Subuluroidea, Family-Heterakidae) found in the caecum of two backyard poultry birds are described. The usual location of D. spiralis is glandular stomach or proventriculus, where their heads may be deeply buried in the proventricular wall. H. gallinarum occurs in the caecum and commonly called as caecal worm of poultry.
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Uwe Mayer, Orsola Rosa-Salva, Francesca Morbioli, Giorgio Vallortigara
Predispositions to attend to animate objects are ubiquitous in newborn vertebrates but little is known about their neural bases. In the present study we wanted to know if exposure to the motion of an alive, behaving conspecific will selectively activate septal, preoptic and amygdaloid areas in visually naive domestic chicks. For this purpose, newly hatched chicks were exposed to an alive conspecific, whose natural motion presents of course several features typical of animate motion to which chicks are known to be sensitive...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
T Tachibana, M Ogino, R Makino, M S I Khan, M A Cline
We examined the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of Gram-negative bacteria, on food passage in the digestive tract of chickens (Gallus gallus) in order to clarify whether bacterial infection affects food passage in birds. Food passage in the crop was significantly reduced by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of LPS while it did not affect the number of defecations, suggesting that LPS may affect food passage only in the upper digestive tract. Similar to LPS, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), one of the mediators of LPS, also reduced crop-emptying rate in chickens while it had no effect on the number of defecations...
December 2, 2016: British Poultry Science
Elad Tako, Haim Bar, Raymond P Glahn
Research methods that predict Fe bioavailability for humans can be extremely useful in evaluating food fortification strategies, developing Fe-biofortified enhanced staple food crops and assessing the Fe bioavailability of meal plans that include such crops. In this review, research from four recent poultry (Gallus gallus) feeding trials coupled with in vitro analyses of Fe-biofortified crops will be compared to the parallel human efficacy studies which used the same varieties and harvests of the Fe-biofortified crops...
November 18, 2016: Nutrients
Hung-Yueh Yeh, Arife Ezgi Telli, Jarra F Jagne, Christopher L Benson, Kelli L Hiett, John E Line
Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The flagellum, composed of more than 35 proteins, is responsible for colonization of C. jejuni in the host gastrointestinal tract as well as inducing protective antibodies against the homologous serotype. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the flagellar capping protein (FliD) is an immunodominant protein that reacted strongly to sera from field chickens. In this communication, we mapped linear immunoreactive epitopes on FliD using a set of 158 synthetic peptides of 15-mer overlapping with 11 amino acid residues on peptide microarrays with sera from field chickens...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Hao Chen, Qisheng Zuo, Yinjie Wang, Mahmoud F Ahmed, Kai Jin, Jiuzhou Song, Yani Zhang, Bichun Li
The study aims to analyze the key signaling pathways in regulating the process of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation into spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Based on RNA Sequencing result, we further explored the specific regulating mechanisms of Hedgehog (HH) signaling in this process. HH signaling was found to be a crucial signaling pathway participating in the differentiation process of ESCs to SSCs. In Retinoic acid (RA) induced in vitro differentiation assay, the expression of two germ cell marker genes, integrin α6, and integrin β1, was observed to significantly increase, while it decreased dramatically when IHH was knocked down...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Elizabeth M Pritchett, Susan J Lamont, Carl J Schmidt
The pituitary gland is a neuroendocrine organ that works closely with the hypothalamus to affect multiple processes within the body including the stress response, metabolism, growth, and immune function. Relative tissue expression (rEx) is a transcriptome analysis method that compares the genes expressed in a particular tissue to the genes expressed in all other tissues with available data. Using rEx, the aim of this study was to identify genes that are uniquely or more abundantly expressed in the pituitary when compared to all other collected chicken tissues...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Jamie R Wood, Michael J B Herrera, R Paul Scofield, Janet M Wilmshurst
Human settlers transported chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to most East Polynesian archipelagos between AD 1000 and 1300; however, it has long been assumed that New Zealand was an exception. Despite the fact that chicken bones have been recovered from localities of early archaeological middens in New Zealand, their age and genetic relationships have never been critically assessed. Here, we test the assumption that chickens were not introduced to New Zealand during prehistory through ancient DNA and radiocarbon analyses of chicken bones from sites of Māori middens containing prehistoric material...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Wesley C Warren, LaDeana W Hillier, Chad Tomlinson, Patrick Minx, Milinn Kremitzki, Tina Graves, Chris Markovic, Nathan Bouk, Kim D Pruitt, Francoise Thibaud-Nissen, Valerie Schneider, Tamer A Mansour, C Titus Brown, Aleksey Zimin, Rachel Hawken, Mitch Abrahamsen, Alexis B Pyrkosz, Mireille Morisson, Valerie Fillon, Alain Vignal, William Chow, Kerstin Howe, Janet E Fulton, Marcia M Miller, Peter Lovell, Claudio V Mello, Morgan Wirthlin, Andrew S Mason, Richard Kuo, David W Burt, Jerry B Dodgson, Hans H Cheng
The importance of the Gallus gallus (chicken) as a model organism and agricultural animal merits a continuation of sequence assembly improvement efforts. We present a new version of the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-5.0; GCA_000002315.3) built from combined long single molecule sequencing technology, finished BACs, and improved physical maps. In overall assembled bases, we see a gain of 183 Mb including 16.4 Mb in placed chromosomes with a corresponding gain in the percentage of intact repeat elements characterized...
November 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Elisabetta Versace, Jana Schill, Andrea Maria Nencini, Giorgio Vallortigara
Biological predispositions influence approach and avoid responses from the time of birth or hatching. Neonates of species that require parental care (e.g. human babies and chicks of the domestic fowl) are attracted by stimuli associated with animate social partners, such as face-like configurations, biological motion and self-propulsion. The property of being filled is used as a cue of animacy by 8-month-old human infants but it is not known whether this reflects the effect of previous experience. We used chicks of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus) to investigate whether the property of being filled vs...
2016: PloS One
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