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H Jodaa Holm, S Skugor, A K Bjelland, S Radunovic, S Wadsworth, E O Koppang, Ø Evensen
Atlantic salmon skin tissues with and without scales were taken from two preferred sites of salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) attachment, behind the dorsal fin (scaled) and from the top of the head (scaleless), respectively. Tissues were profiled by qPCR of 32 genes to study responses to copepodids, 4 days post infection (dpi), and during the moult of copepodids to the chalimus stage, at 8 dpi. Basal/constitutive differences were found for many immune-related genes between the two skin sites; e.g., mannose binding protein C was over 100 fold higher expressed in the scaled skin from the back in comparison to the skin without scales from the head...
October 21, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Haje Korth, Kim Strohbehn, Francisco Tejada, Andreas G Andreou, John Kitching, Svenja Knappe, S John Lehtonen, Shaughn M London, Matiwos Kafel
A miniature atomic scalar magnetometer based on the rubidium isotope (87)Rb was developed for operation in space. The instrument design implements both Mx and Mz mode operation and leverages a novel microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabricated vapor cell and a custom silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The vapor cell has a volume of only 1 mm(3) so that it can be efficiently heated to its operating temperature by a specially designed, low-magnetic-field-generating resistive heater implemented in multiple metal layers of the transparent sapphire substrate of the SOS-CMOS chips...
August 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
Andrew R Wargo, Robert J Scott, Benjamin Kerr, Gael Kurath
Viral replication and shedding are key components of transmission and fitness, the kinetics of which are heavily dependent on virus, host, and environmental factors. To date, no studies have quantified the shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), or how they are associated with replication, making it difficult to ascertain the transmission dynamics of this pathogen of high agricultural and conservation importance. Here, the replication and shedding kinetics of two M genogroup IHNV genotypes were examined in their naturally co-evolved rainbow trout host...
October 19, 2016: Virus Research
Irene Cano, Bertrand Collet, Clarissa Pereira, Richard Paley, Ronny van Aerle, David Stone, Nick G H Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Michael Dau, Amir Edalatpour, Ralf Schulze, Bilal Al-Nawas, Abdulmonem Alshihri, Peer W Kämmerer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the subjective quality rating of panoramic radiography (PAN) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in planning of dental implant procedures by clinicians with different educational background. METHODS: Radiographic images (PAN and CBCT) of 42 patients were examined as follows: 10 maxillary (MX) anterior region, 16 MX posterior region and 16 mandibular (MD) posterior region. These sites were used for planning of dental implant insertion...
October 19, 2016: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
Mohnish Pandey, Karsten W Jacobsen, Kristian S Thygesen
Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have proven highly successful for photovoltaics, but suffer from low stability which deteriorates their performance over time. Recent experiments have demonstrated that low dimensional phases of the hybrid perovskites may exhibit improved stability, and facile routes to synthesise these compounds have also been explored. Here we report first-principles calculations of the electronic structure of the two-dimensional (2D) organometallic halide perovskites (C$_4$H$_9$NH$_3$)$_2$MX$_2$Y$_2$ where M=Pb, Ge, Sn and X,Y=Cl, Br, I...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Mouna Necibi, Laurent Lanceleur, Nadia Mzoughi, Mathilde Monperrus
A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of eight synthetic musks compounds (SMs) including five polycyclic musks (PCMs) and three nitro musks (NMs) was validated for sediment samples based on a simple QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) sample preparation procedure followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Good analytical performances were obtained for all the target compounds. For the validation of the method, internal calibration (IC) and internal calibration with QuEChERS (ICQ) were compared...
October 14, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Felipe E Rodríguez, Beatriz Valenzuela, Ana Farías, Ana María Sandino, Mónica Imarai
The diets of farmed salmon are usually supplemented with immunostimulants to improve health status. Because β-glucan is one of the most common immunostimulants used in diets, here we examined the effect of two β-1,3/1,6-glucan-supplemented diets on the expression of immune response genes of Atlantic salmon. The relative abundances of IFN-α1, Mx, IFN-γ, IL-12, TGF-β1, IL-10, and CD4 transcripts were evaluated in head kidney by qRT-PCR. We assessed the effects of the diets under normoxia and acute hypoxia, as salmon are especially sensitive to changes in the concentration of dissolved oxygen, which can also affect immunity...
October 11, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Claudia Joseph, Jens Mibus, Paul Trepte, Christa Müller, Vinzenz Brendler, Dan M Park, Yongqin Jiao, Annie B Kersting, Mavrik Zavarin
As a contribution to the safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories, U(VI) diffusion through the potential buffer material MX-80 bentonite was investigated at three clay dry densities over six years. Synthetic MX-80 model pore water was used as background electrolyte. Speciation calculations showed that Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq) was the main U(VI) species. The in- and out-diffusion of U(VI) was investigated separately. U(VI) diffused about 3mm, 1.5mm, and 1mm into the clay plug at ρ=1.3, 1.6, and 1.9g/cm(3), respectively...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Long Qin, Guang-Juan Xu, Chan Yao, Yan-Hong Xu
A series of phenylene-based conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) of the A6 + Mx (x = 2, 3, 4, 6) type were synthesized. By tuning the monomer length and geometry, the BET surface area of CMPs can be tuned from 571 to 1115 m(2) g(-1). Amongst the synthesized CMPs, A6CMP-1 exhibits the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of 1218 mg g(-1) at 318 K and 60 bar pressure. In addition, A6CMP-4 shows a high selectivity ratio of 47 for CO2/N2.
October 18, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Abad-Coronel Cristian, Li Jeanette, Martínez-Rus Francisco, Pradíes Guillermo
Objectives. To evaluate microleakage and absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) and to assess correlation between AMD and microleakage with four resin luting cements. Material and Methods. 20 extracted human third molars were prepared for full-coverage crowns. 20 zirconia copings were made (LAVA, 3M ESPE) and cemented. Specimens were randomly allocated for each used type of cement into 4 groups, RelyX® (Rx), Multilink® (Mk), PANAVIA 2.1® (P), and Maxcem® (Mx) and immersed in 10% safranin for 72 hours. 20x magnification lenses were used to observe microleakage areas (μm(2)) and images software was used to measure AMD areas (μm)...
2016: International Journal of Dentistry
Mayuree Kanlayavattanakul, Nattaya Lourith, Puxvadee Chaikul
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: While rice is one of the most important global staple food sources its extracts have found many uses as the bases of herbal remedies. Rice extracts contain high levels of phenolic compounds which are known to be bioactive, some of which show cutaneous benefits and activity towards skin disorders. This study highlights an assessment of the cellular activity and clinical efficacy of rice panicle extract, providing necessary information relevant to the development of new cosmetic products...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yu-Chuan Tseng, Chun-Chan Ting, Yu-Hsun Kao, Chun-Ming Chen
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at investigating the correlation between intraoperative blood loss and operation-related factors in the treatment of bimaxillary protrusion with four different procedures. STUDY DESIGN: Ninety-four patients were separated into the following four surgical groups: group 1: anterior subapical osteotomy of the maxilla (ASO Mx) + bilateral parasymphyseal osteotomy of the mandible (BPsO Md) + genioplasty (GeP); group 2: ASO Mx + BPsO Md; group 3: ASO Mx + ASO Md + GeP; and group 4: ASO Mx + ASO Md...
September 13, 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Aideen C M Young, Karen Glaser, Timothy D Spector, Claire J Steves
Our study examines the contribution of genetic and environmental factors (both shared and unique) to frailty, measured using the Rockwood Frailty Index (FI) in a sample of twins from the St Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry. The FI was based on 39 items of potential health deficit. Study participants were 3,375 volunteer adult twins (840 monozygotic and 802 dizygotic twin-pairs) 40.0-84.5 years old. First, we used structural equation modeling to estimate the relative contribution of genetics and of the shared and unique environment to variance in FI adjusted for age...
October 10, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Jun Xiao, Jun Yan, Hui Chen, Jun Li, Yu Tian, Luosheng Tang, Hao Feng
Mx (myxovirus resistance) is an important antiviral protein in the innate immune responses of vertebrates to microbial pathogens. In this study, we cloned and characterized Mx1 of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). The full-length cDNA of black carp Mx1 (bcMx1) consists of 2781 nucleotides and the predicted bcMx1 protein contains 631 amino acids. bcMx1 contains a GTPase domain at the N-terminnus, a "central interactive domain" in the middle and a GTPase effector domain at the C-terminus. bcMx1 mRNA was constitutively transcribed in all tissues tested, including the heart, liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, muscle, skin and gill; and bcMx1 mRNA levels increased in all but the gill after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) or viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection...
October 4, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Arnau Vilà, Miguel González
The influence of the mass in the photodissociation dynamics of a homonuclear diatomic molecule (X2), embedded in a superfluid helium nanodroplet (T = 0.37 K) of 300 atoms, has been investigated using a hybrid quantum dynamics method recently proposed by us. Several hypothetical isotopic variants of Cl2 have been examined in order to make possible the analysis of a wide diversity of masses (mX: 0.25mCl-1.50mCl). This is probably the first time that this problem has been considered theoretically. The photodissociation mechanism of X2(B) is very similar to that of Cl2(B) and the efficiency of the X2-helium energy exchange mechanism can be so great that it leads to the full and partial (≈86%) geminate recombination for the lower masses explored (mX = 0...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ning Li, Tianqi Hong, Rong Li, Yao Wang, Mengjiao Guo, Zongxi Cao, Yumei Cai, Sidang Liu, Tongjie Chai, Liangmeng Wei
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Mélanie Flaender, Guillaume Costa, Guillaume Nonglaton, Christine Saint-Pierre, Didier Gasparutto
DNA is under continuous assault by environmental and endogenous reactive oxygen and alkylating species, inducing the formation of mutagenic, toxic and genome destabilizing nucleobase lesions. Due to the implications of such genetic alterations in cell death, aging, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, many efforts have been devoted to developing assays that aim at analyzing DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or cell extracts. The present work deals with the conception and application of a new, miniaturized and parallelized on surface-DNA biosensor to measure base excision repair (BER) activities...
September 22, 2016: Analyst
Hyunjung Lim, JiEun Kim, Youfa Wang, Jungwon Min, Nubia A Carvajal, Charles W Lloyd
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. Development of effective and sustainable programs to promote healthy behaviors from a young age is important. This study developed and tested an intervention program designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity among young children in South Korea by adaptation of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mission X (MX) Program. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The intervention program consisted of 4 weeks of fitness and 2 weeks of nutrition education...
October 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
Ricardo Parreño, Susana Torres, Lucía Almagro, Melissa Belló-Pérez, Amparo Estepa, Luis Perez
IPNV is a salmonid birnavirus that possesses the ability to establish asymptomatic persistent infections in a number of valuable fish species. The presence of IPNV may interfere with subsequent infection by other viruses. In the present study we show that an IPNV-carrier cell line (EPC(IPNV)) can induce an antiviral state in fresh EPC by co-cultivating both cell types in three different ways: a "droplet" culture system, a plastic chamber setup, and a transmembrane (Transwell(®)) system. All three cell co-culture methods were proven useful to study donor/target cell interaction...
September 28, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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