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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110274/c4-photosynthesis-50-years-of-discovery-and-innovation
#1
EDITORIAL
Susanne von Caemmerer, Oula Ghannoum, Robert T Furbank
It is now over half a century since the biochemical characterization of the C4 photosynthetic pathway, and this special issue highlights the sheer breadth of current knowledge. New genomic and transcriptomic information shows that multi-level regulation of gene expression is required for the pathway to function, yet we know it to be one of the most dynamic examples of convergent evolution. Now, a focus on the molecular transition from C3-C4 intermediates, together with improved mathematical models, experimental tools and transformation systems, holds great promise for improving C4 photosynthesis in crops...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109958/optical-barcoding-for-single-clone-tracking-to-study-tumor-heterogeneity
#2
Malte Mohme, Cecile L Maire, Kristoffer Riecken, Svenja Zapf, Tim Aranyossy, Manfred Westphal, Katrin Lamszus, Boris Fehse
Intratumoral heterogeneity has been identified as one of the strongest drivers of treatment resistance and tumor recurrence. Therefore, investigating the complex clonal architecture of tumors over time has become a major challenge in cancer research. We developed a new fluorescent "optical barcoding" technique that allows fast tracking, identification, and quantification of live cell clones in vitro and in vivo using flow cytometry (FC). We optically barcoded two cell lines derived from malignant glioma, an exemplary heterogeneous brain tumor...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109737/retinal-oxygen-from-animals-to-humans
#3
REVIEW
Robert A Linsenmeier, Hao F Zhang
This article discusses retinal oxygenation and retinal metabolism by focusing on measurements made with two of the principal methods used to study O2 in the retina: measurements of PO2 with oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes in vivo in animals with a retinal circulation similar to that of humans, and oximetry, which can be used non-invasively in both animals and humans to measure O2 concentration in retinal vessels. Microelectrodes uniquely have high spatial resolution, allowing the mapping of PO2 in detail, and when combined with mathematical models of diffusion and consumption, they provide information about retinal metabolism...
January 18, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109302/review-of-mathematical-models-for-neglected-tropical-diseases-essential-tools-for-control-and-elimination-part-b-edited-by-maria-gloria-bas%C3%A3-%C3%A3-ez-and-roy-m-anderson
#4
Robert C Spear
Basáñez MG, Anderson RM, Editors: Mathematical Models for Neglected Tropical Diseases: Essential Tools for Control and Elimination, Part B, Volume 94, Advances in Parasitology, Academic Press; 2016, 430 pages. ISBN: 978-0-12-809971-1.
January 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109179/quantitative-and-integrative-analysis-of-paracrine-hepatocyte-activation-by-non-parenchymal-cells-upon-lipopolysaccharide-induction
#5
Katharina Beuke, Frank A Schildberg, Federico Pinna, Ute Albrecht, Roman Liebe, Michaela Bissinger, Peter Schirmacher, Steven Dooley, Johannes G Bode, Percy A Knolle, Ursula Kummer, Kai Breuhahn, Sven Sahle
Gut-derived bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulate the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) from liver macrophages (MCs), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which control the acute phase response in hepatocytes through activation of the NF-κB pathway. The individual and cooperative impact of non-parenchymal cells on this clinically relevant response has not been analysed in detail due to technical limitations. To gain an integrative view on this complex inter- and intracellular communication, we combined a multi-scale mathematical model with quantitative, time-resolved experimental data of different primary murine liver cell types...
January 21, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108915/microbial-changes-linked-to-the-accelerated-degradation-of-the-herbicide-atrazine-in-a-range-of-temperate-soils
#6
R L Yale, M Sapp, C J Sinclair, J W B Moir
Accelerated degradation is the increased breakdown of a pesticide upon its repeated application, which has consequences for the environmental fate of pesticides. The herbicide atrazine was repeatedly applied to soils previously untreated with s-triazines for >5 years. A single application of atrazine, at an agriculturally relevant concentration, was sufficient to induce its rapid dissipation. Soils, with a range of physico-chemical properties and agricultural histories, showed similar degradation kinetics, with the half-life of atrazine decreasing from an average of 25 days after the first application to <2 days after the second...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108295/algebraic-hyperstructures-associated-to-biological-inheritance
#7
M Al Tahan, B Davvaz
After introducing the notion of hyperstructures about 80 years ago, a number of researches on its applications have been done. This paper can be considered as one of its applications on Biology. It is well known that biological inheritance is related to Mathematics in the sense of probability. In this paper, we consider another relationship between inheritance and Mathematics in which we present a connection between it and hyperstructures. First, we present examples of five different types of Non- Mendelian inheritance and study, for the first time, their relation with hyperstucture theory...
January 17, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108293/a-model-incorporating-combined-rtis-and-pis-therapy-during-early-hiv-1-infection
#8
Sutimin, F Chirove, E Soewono, N Nuraini, L B Suromo
We develop a within host mathematical model of HIV-1 infection describing the effects of combined RTIs and PIs treatments on early HIV-1 infection when treatment is captured using periodic functions of pharmacokinetics type. We use an alternative of the basic reproduction number to analyze endemicity level of HIV-1 infection. Various treatment scenarios incorporating perfect and imperfect drug adherence in drug administration are explored. Our results show that pharmacokinetics treatment is a more realistic way of administering the treatment...
January 17, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108187/application-of-an-artificial-neural-network-for-evaluation-of-activity-concentration-exemption-limits-in-norm-industry
#9
Hannah Wiedner, Virginia Peyrés, Teresa Crespo, Marcos Mejuto, Eduardo García-Toraño, Franz Josef Maringer
NORM emits many different gamma energies that have to be analysed by an expert. Alternatively, artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used. These mathematical software tools can generalize "knowledge" gained from training datasets, applying it to new problems. No expert knowledge of gamma-ray spectrometry is needed by the end-user. In this work an ANN was created that is able to decide from the raw gamma-ray spectrum if the activity concentrations in a sample are above or below the exemption limits.
December 27, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108016/can-benthic-quality-assessment-be-impaired-by-uncertain-species-sensitivities
#10
Romualda Chuševė, Darius Daunys
This study tested robustness of mathematically defined species sensitivity with manipulation of disturbance gradient coverage by datasets on two different pressures and two depth zones of the central Baltic Sea. The results indicate large differences of sensitivity values for the same species when depth range changed. After addition of samples from impacted sites to the control datasets, estimated sensitivity values decreased for half of analysed species. Sensitivity of tolerant species appeared to be highly dependent on the coverage of disturbance gradient by the dataset, while sensitive species were highly robust to this effect...
January 17, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107913/quantitative-structure-retention-relationship-model-for-the-determination-of-naratriptan-hydrochloride-and-its-impurities-based-on-artificial-neural-networks-coupled-with-genetic-algorithm
#11
Mikołaj Mizera, Anna Krause, Przemysław Zalewski, Robert Skibiński, Judyta Cielecka-Piontek
Mathematical modeling of Quantitative Structure - Property Relationships met great interest in fields of in silico drug design and more recently, pharmaceutical analysis. In our approach we proposed automated method of creation Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship (QSRR) for analysis of triptans, selective serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonists used for the treatment of acute headache. The method was created using hybrid machine learning approach, namely Genetic algorithm (GA) coupled with artificial neutral networks (ANN)...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107681/enhancement-of-numeric-cognition-in-children-with-low-achievement-in-mathematic-after-a-non-instrumental-musical-training
#12
Fabiana Silva Ribeiro, Flávia H Santos
Studies suggest that musical training enhances spatial-temporal reasoning and leads to greater learning of mathematical concepts. The aim of this prospective study was to verify the efficacy of a Non-Instrumental Musical Training (NIMT) on the Numerical Cognition systems in children with low achievement in math. For this purpose, we examined, with a cluster analysis, whether children with low scores on Numerical Cognition would be grouped in the same cluster at pre and post-NIMT. Participants were primary school children divided into two groups according to their scores on an Arithmetic test...
January 17, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107436/a-micro-ct-study-in-patients-with-breast-microcalcifications-using-a-mathematical-algorithm-to-assess-3d-structure
#13
David Kenkel, Zsuzsanna Varga, Heike Heuer, Konstantin J Dedes, Nicole Berger, Lukas Filli, Andreas Boss
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of breast microcalcifications (MC) as a predictor of malignancy using highly resolved micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) datasets of biopsy samples. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 28 women with suspicious MC in their mammogram undergoing vacuum-assisted biopsy. Directly after the intervention, the specimens were scanned in a micro-CT with an isometric spatial resolution of 9 μm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106042/diverse-feather-shape-evolution-enabled-by-coupling-anisotropic-signalling-modules-with-self-organizing-branching-programme
#14
Ang Li, Seth Figueroa, Ting-Xin Jiang, Ping Wu, Randall Widelitz, Qing Nie, Cheng-Ming Chuong
Adaptation of feathered dinosaurs and Mesozoic birds to new ecological niches was potentiated by rapid diversification of feather vane shapes. The molecular mechanism driving this spectacular process remains unclear. Here, through morphology analysis, transcriptome profiling, functional perturbations and mathematical simulations, we find that mesenchyme-derived GDF10 and GREM1 are major controllers for the topologies of rachidial and barb generative zones (setting vane boundaries), respectively, by tuning the periodic-branching programme of epithelial progenitors...
January 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105650/what-is-the-long-run-impact-of-learning-mathematics-during-preschool
#15
Tyler W Watts, Greg J Duncan, Douglas H Clements, Julie Sarama
The current study estimated the causal links between preschool mathematics learning and late elementary school mathematics achievement using variation in treatment assignment to an early mathematics intervention as an instrument for preschool mathematics change. Estimates indicate (n = 410) that a standard deviation of intervention-produced change at age 4 is associated with a 0.24-SD gain in achievement in late elementary school. This impact is approximately half the size of the association produced by correlational models relating later achievement to preschool math change, and is approximately 35% smaller than the effect reported by highly controlled ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models (Claessens et al...
January 20, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104897/optimal-flow-rate-sampling-designs-for-studies-with-extended-exhaled-nitric-oxide-analysis
#16
Noa Molshatzki, Sandrah Eckel
INTRODUCTION: The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation. Repeat FeNO maneuvers at multiple fixed exhalation flow rates (extended NO analysis) can be used to estimate parameters quantifying proximal and distal sources of NO in mathematical models of lower respiratory tract NO. A growing number of studies use extended NO analysis, but there is no official standard flow rate sampling protocol. In this paper, we provide information for study planning by deriving theoretically optimal flow rate sampling designs...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104089/prediction-of-radiofrequency-ablation-lesion-formation-using-a-novel-temperature-sensing-technology-incorporated-in-a-force-sensing-catheter
#17
Guy Rozen, Leon Ptaszek, Israel Zilberman, Kevin Cordaro, E Kevin Heist, Christopher Beeckler, Andres Altmann, Zhang Ying, Zhenjiang Liu, Jeremy N Ruskin, Assaf Govari, Moussa Mansour
BACKGROUND: Real-time radiofrequency (RF) ablation lesion assessment is a major unmet need in cardiac electrophysiology. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether improved temperature measurement using a novel thermocoupling (TC) technology combined with information derived from impedance change, contact force (CF) sensing, and catheter orientation allows accurate real-time prediction of ablation lesion formation. METHODS: RF ablation lesions were delivered in the ventricles of 15 swine using a novel externally irrigated-tip catheter containing 6 miniature TC sensors in addition to force sensing technology...
February 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102752/the-importance-of-conditional-probability-in-diagnostic-reasoning-and-clinical-decision-making-a-primer-for-the-eye-care-practitioner
#18
Paul G Sanfilippo, Alex W Hewitt, David A Mackey
PURPOSE: To outline and detail the importance of conditional probability in clinical decision making and discuss the various diagnostic measures eye care practitioners should be aware of in order to improve the scope of their clinical practice. METHODS: We conducted a review of the importance of conditional probability in diagnostic testing for the eye care practitioner. RESULTS: Eye care practitioners use diagnostic tests on a daily basis to assist in clinical decision making and optimizing patient care and management...
January 19, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102344/predicting-drug-combination-index-and-simulating-the-network-regulation-dynamics-by-mathematical-modeling-of-drug-targeted-egfr-erk-signaling-pathway
#19
Lu Huang, Yuyang Jiang, Yuzong Chen
Synergistic drug combinations enable enhanced therapeutics. Their discovery typically involves the measurement and assessment of drug combination index (CI), which can be facilitated by the development and applications of in-silico CI predictive tools. In this work, we developed and tested the ability of a mathematical model of drug-targeted EGFR-ERK pathway in predicting CIs and in analyzing multiple synergistic drug combinations against observations. Our mathematical model was validated against the literature reported signaling, drug response dynamics, and EGFR-MEK drug combination effect...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101675/operative-planning-aid-for-optimal-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-entry-points-in-pediatric-cases
#20
Zsolt Zador, David J Coope, Abteen Mostofi, Ian D Kamaly-Asl
OBJECT: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) uses anatomical spaces of the ventricular system to reach the third ventricle floor and create an alternative pathway for cerebrospinal fluid flow. Optimal ETV trajectories have been previously proposed in the literature, designed to grant access to the third ventricle floor without a displacement of eloquent periventricular structures. However, in hydrocephalus, there is a significant variability to the configuration of the ventricular system, implying that the optimal ETV trajectory and cranial entry point needs to be planned on a case-by-case basis...
January 18, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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