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Paul Mätzig, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann, David Caplan, Frank Burchert
We present a computational evaluation of three hypotheses about sources of deficit in sentence comprehension in aphasia: slowed processing, intermittent deficiency, and resource reduction. The ACT-R based Lewis and Vasishth (2005) model is used to implement these three proposals. Slowed processing is implemented as slowed execution time of parse steps; intermittent deficiency as increased random noise in activation of elements in memory; and resource reduction as reduced spreading activation. As data, we considered subject vs...
January 22, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Joane S Elleouet, Sally N Aitken
Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is widely used to infer demographic history of populations and species using DNA markers. Genomic markers can now be developed for non-model species using reduced representation library (RRL) sequencing methods that select a fraction of the genome using targeted sequence capture or restriction enzymes (genotyping-by-sequencing, GBS). We explored the influence of marker number and length, knowledge of gametic phase, and tradeoffs between sample size and sequencing depth on the quality of demographic inferences performed with ABC...
January 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Pierre-Frederic Villard, Peter E Hammer, Douglas P Perrin, Pedro J Del Nido, Robert D Howe
BACKGROUND: Common surgical procedures on the mitral valve of the heart include modifications to the chordae tendineae. Such interventions are used when there is extensive leaflet prolapse caused by chordae rupture or elongation. Understanding the role of individual chordae tendineae before operating could be helpful to predict whether the mitral valve will be competent at peak systole. Biomechanical modelling and simulation can achieve this goal. METHODS: We present a method to semi-automatically build a computational model of a mitral valve from micro CT (computed tomography) scans: after manually picking chordae fiducial points, the leaflets are segmented and the boundary conditions as well as the loading conditions are automatically defined...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
Hiroyuki Kubo, Koichiro Kenzaki, Yasuhide Ishikawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Raimundo Barbosa-Barros, Andrés R Pérez-Riera, Kimmo Koivula, Jairo de Carvalho Santos, Luiz C de Abreu, Kjell Nikus
Aortitis is one of many possible manifestations of tertiary syphilis. Aortic disease is the most common of all cardiovascular syphilitic lesions. Aortic diseases caused by tertiary syphilis include aortitis, aortic root dilation, aneurysm formation, aortic regurgitation and coronary ostial stenosis. A less common manifestation of syphilitic aortitis is coronary artery ostial narrowing related to aortic wall thickening. We report a case of a 40-year-old male patient admitted with a clinical picture of acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina)...
January 21, 2018: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Edmund Kenneth Kerut, Philip G Kogos, Jason H Anderson, Michael Turner, Robert Ascuitto, Nancy Ross-Ascuitto, Sameh M Said
A healthy 20-year-old male presented with aborted sudden death. Both thoracic echocardiography and cardiac computed tomographic angiography demonstrated the characteristic findings of ALCAPA noting a dilated and tortuous right coronary artery, dilated coronary collateral arteries within the interventricular septum or along the surface of the heart, and visualization of the left coronary artery origin from the posterior aspect of the main pulmonary artery. Both imaging modalities demonstrated all three characteristic findings of this rare coronary anomaly and served as complementary imaging studies for surgical correction...
January 21, 2018: Echocardiography
Enhua Xu, Seiichiro L Ten-No
Partially linearized external models to active-space coupled-cluster through hextuple excitations, for example, CC{SDtqph}L , CCSD{tqph}L , and CCSD{tqph}hyb, are implemented and compared with the full active-space CCSDtqph. The computational scaling of CCSDtqph coincides with that for the standard coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD), yet with a much large prefactor. The approximate schemes to linearize the external excitations higher than doubles are significantly cheaper than the full CCSDtqph model...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Brendan T Johns, Randall K Jamieson
The collection of very large text sources has revolutionized the study of natural language, leading to the development of several models of language learning and distributional semantics that extract sophisticated semantic representations of words based on the statistical redundancies contained within natural language (e.g., Griffiths, Steyvers, & Tenenbaum, ; Jones & Mewhort, ; Landauer & Dumais, ; Mikolov, Sutskever, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, ). The models treat knowledge as an interaction of processing mechanisms and the structure of language experience...
January 22, 2018: Cognitive Science
Isac C Thomas, Nketi I Forbang, Michael H Criqui
Calcification of the coronary artery is a complex pathophysiologic process that is intimately associated with atherosclerosis. Extensive investigation has demonstrated the value of identifying and quantifying coronary artery calcium (CAC) in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) prognostication. However, over the last several years, an increasing body of evidence has suggested that CAC has underappreciated aspects that modulate, and at times attenuate, future CVD risk. The most commonly used measure of CAC, the Agatston unit, effectively models both higher density and higher area of CAC as risk factors for future CVD events...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Moti Freiman, Hannes Nickisch, Holger Schmitt, Pál Maurovich-Horvat, Patrick M Donnelly, Mani Vembar, Liran Goshen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a functionally personalized boundary condition (BC) model for estimating the fractional flow reserve (FFR) from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) using flow simulation (CT-FFR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCTA data of 90 subjects with subsequent invasive FFR in 123 lesions within 21 days (range: 0-83) were retrospectively collected. We developed a functionally-personalized BC model accounting specifically for the coronary micro-vascular resistance dependency on the coronary outlets pressure suggested by several physiological studies...
January 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Jiali Zheng, Anwar T Merchant, Michael D Wirth, Jiajia Zhang, Samuel O Antwi, Azza Shoaibi, Nitin Shivappa, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, James R Hebert, Susan E Steck
Inflammation plays a central role in pancreatic cancer etiology and can be modulated by diet. We aimed to examine the association between the inflammatory potential of diet, assessed with the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), and pancreatic cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial prospective cohort. Our study included 101,449 participants aged 52 to 78 years at baseline who completed both baseline questionnaire and a diet history questionnaire. Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores were computed based on food and supplement intake...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Michael D Jenkinson, Damiano Giuseppe Barone, Andrew Bryant, Luke Vale, Helen Bulbeck, Theresa A Lawrie, Michael G Hart, Colin Watts
BACKGROUND: Extent of resection is considered to be a prognostic factor in neuro-oncology. Intraoperative imaging technologies are designed to help achieve this goal. It is not clear whether any of these sometimes very expensive tools (or their combination) should be recommended as standard care for people with brain tumours. We set out to determine if intraoperative imaging technology offers any advantage in terms of extent of resection over standard surgery and if any one technology was more effective than another...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
John H Relethford, Fred H Smith
OBJECTIVES: Ancient DNA analysis has shown that present-day humans of Eurasian ancestry are more similar to Neandertals than are present-day humans of sub-Saharan African ancestry, reflecting interbreeding after modern humans first left Africa. We use craniometric data to test the hypothesis that the crania of recent modern humans show the same pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We computed Mahalanobis squared distances between a published Neandertal centroid based on 37 craniometric traits and each of 2,413 recent modern humans from the Howells global data set (N = 373 sub-Saharan Africans, N = 2,040 individuals of Eurasian descent)...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Hege Mari Johnsen, Mariann Fossum, Pirashanthie Vivekananda-Schmidt, Ann Fruhling, Åshild Slettebø
Future nursing education is challenged to develop innovative and effective programs that align with current changes in health care and to educate nurses with a high level of clinical reasoning skills, evidence-based knowledge, and professional autonomy. Serious games (SGs) are computer-based simulations that combine knowledge and skills development with video game-playing aspects to enable active, experiential, situated, and problem-based learning. In a PhD project, a video-based SG was developed to teach nursing students nursing care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in home health care and hospital settings...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
Daniel G Congrave, Yu-Ting Hsu, Andrei S Batsanov, Andrew Beeby, Martin R Bryce
The potential of intramolecular π-π interactions to influence the photophysical properties of diiridium complexes is an unexplored topic, and provides the motivation for the present study. A series of diarylhydrazide-bridged diiridium complexes functionalised with phenylpyridine (ppy)-based cyclometalating ligands is reported. It is shown by NMR studies in solution and single crystal X-ray analysis that intramolecular π-π interactions between the bridging and cyclometalating ligands rigidify the complexes leading to high luminescence quantum efficiencies in solution and in doped films...
January 22, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Rajat Maji, Sharath Chandra Mallojjala, Steven E Wheeler
Chiral phosphoric acids (CPAs) have emerged as powerful organocatalysts for asymmetric reactions, and applications of computational quantum chemistry have revealed important insights into the activity and selectivity of these catalysts. In this tutorial review, we provide an overview of computational tools at the disposal of computational organic chemists and demonstrate their application to a wide array of CPA catalysed reactions. Predictive models of the stereochemical outcome of these reactions are discussed along with specific examples of representative reactions and an outlook on remaining challenges in this area...
January 22, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
María J Aurell, Miguel A González-Cardenete, Ramón J Zaragozá
A new mechanism for the classic internal nucleophilic substitution reactions SNi by means of computational studies in the gas-phase, DCM and acetonitrile is reported. Despite the importance of the SNi mechanism, since the mid-1990s this mechanism has remained unexplored. This study focused mainly on the comparison between the mechanisms postulated to date for the SNi reactions and a new mechanism suggested by us that fits better the experimental observations. This comparative study has been applied to the conversion of ethyl, neopentyl, isopropyl and tert-butyl chlorosulfites into the corresponding alkyl chlorides...
January 22, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Masahiro Sonoshita, Alex P Scopton, Peter M U Ung, Matthew A Murray, Lisa Silber, Andres Y Maldonado, Alexander Real, Avner Schlessinger, Ross L Cagan, Arvin C Dar
Synthetic tailoring of approved drugs for new indications is often difficult, as the most appropriate targets may not be readily apparent, and therefore few roadmaps exist to guide chemistry. Here, we report a multidisciplinary approach for accessing novel target and chemical space starting from an FDA-approved kinase inhibitor. By combining chemical and genetic modifier screening with computational modeling, we identify distinct kinases that strongly enhance ('pro-targets') or limit ('anti-targets') whole-animal activity of the clinical kinase inhibitor sorafenib in a Drosophila medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) model...
January 22, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Nobuhiko Arai, Hiroshi Kagami, Tomohiro Funabiki, Yutaka Mine, Makoto Inaba
BACKGROUND: Non-traumatic carotid artery injury with active extravasation, or carotid blowout syndrome (CBS), is relatively rare and highly difficult to treat because it is difficult to approach the lesions due to anatomical factors. It also involves quick progression and cerebral embolization risk caused by thrombi and carotid artery occlusion. Recently, covered stents were revealed to be effective for CBS. However, they have several disadvantages, such as their costs, rebleeding complications, or cerebral embolic risks...
January 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Hiroyuki Aono, Shota Takenaka, Yukitaka Nagamoto, Hidekazu Tobimatsu, Tomoya Yamashita, Masayuki Furuya, Motoki Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) has become a general surgical method for degenerative lumbar diseases. Although many reports have focused on single-level PLIF, few have focused on 2-level PLIF, and no report has covered the fusion status of 2-level PLIF. The purpose of this study is to investigate clinical outcomes and fusion for 2-level PLIF by using a combination of dynamic radiographs and multiplanar-reconstruction computed tomography scans. METHODS: This study consists of 48 consecutive patients who underwent 2-level PLIF for degenerative lumbar diseases...
January 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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