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Second hand smoking

Zhiyao Chen, Guocong Liu, Jianying Chen, Shunming Li, Ting Jiang, Bin Xu, Xiaohua Ye
OBJECTIVES: Although previous studies have suggested an association between second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and respiratory symptoms, current evidence is inconsistent. Additionally, it remains unclear whether there are frequency-risk relationships between SHS exposure and respiratory symptoms among adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a stratified cluster sampling method to obtain a representative sample of high school students in Guangzhou, China...
April 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Li Wang, Aiping Liu, Yuan Zhao, Xi Mu, Tao Huang, Hong Gao, Jianmin Ma
We investigated in this paper the presence of PAHs in human milk from lactating women residing in Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized valley city in Northwest China. The PAH concentration levels in human milk samples from 98 healthy women were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The associations between the lifestyle factors and the PAHs levels of human milk were analyzed. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) method to gain a better insight into the similarities or dissimilarities of the human milk PAH loads and different pathways of source exposure...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Denise F Blake, Derelle A Young, Lawrence H Brown
INTRODUCTION: Published normal transcutaneous oxygen partial pressures (Ptc O2 ) for the chest and lower limb have defined tissue hypoxia as a value of < 40 mmHg (< 30 mmHg in some patients, < 50 mmHg in others). AIM: To determine 'normal' Ptc O2 for the upper and lower limb in healthy, non-smoking adults using the Radiometer® TCM400 with tc Sensor E5250. METHOD: Thirty-two volunteers had transcutaneous oxygen measurements (TCOM) performed on the chest, upper and lower limbs breathing air, with leg then arm elevated and whilst breathing 100% oxygen...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Tieba Millogo, Brice W Bicaba, Joseph Kouesyandé Soubeiga, Estelle Dabiré, Isaie Médah, Séni Kouanda
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is reportedly growing fast in sub-Saharan Africa. There is however a scarcity of epidemiologic data on DM in Burkina Faso. We carried out a secondary analysis of the first survey conducted in Burkina Faso on a nationally representative sample following the World Health Organization (WHO) Stepwise approach to risk factors Surveillance (STEPS) for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) with the aims of identifying the prevalence of NCDs and the prevalence of common risk factors for NCDs...
March 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Wouter F van Leeuwen, Mariano E Menendez, Michael P Gaspar, Sidney M Jacoby, A Lee Osterman, Neal Chen
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with unplanned reoperation after surgery for scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) insufficiency. METHODS: Using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes from 3 hand surgery centers across 2 metropolitan areas, we identified 316 patients undergoing surgery for SLIL insufficiency from 2000 to 2014. Medical records were manually reviewed to collect data on factors that might be associated with unplanned reoperation, including age, sex, tobacco use, occupation, acuity of treatment, and reconstruction method...
March 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Y Guo, A H Wang, C Y Liu, C N Mu, B Wang
Objective: To understand the rate on tobacco use and associated factors in junior middle school students in Shaanxi province. Methods: We used a multi-stage stratified random sampling method to select students from 30 junior middle schools in 10 areas of Shaanxi province in 2013. All the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Results: A total of 4 633 questionnaires were dispatched and 4 298 were qualified for further analysis. The current smoking rate of junior middle school students in Shaanxi was 6...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Jian Li, Q Wu, Xiao-Ke Wu, Zhong-Ming Zhou, Ping Fu, Xiu-Hua Chen, Ying Yan, Xin Wang, Zheng-Wang Yang, Wei-Li Li, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Richard S Legro, Ernest Hung-Yu Ng, Heping Zhang, Ben Willem J Mol, Chi Chiu Wang
STUDY QUESTION: Does second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure from husbands have adverse effects on sex hormones, metabolic profiles, clinical phenotypes and fertility outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing ovulation induction? SUMMARY ANSWER: SHS exposure is associated with worsened biochemical hyperandrogenism, higher incidence of metabolic syndrome and reduced conception rates in women with PCOS. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Smoking in women impairs fecundity at some stages of the reproductive process including folliculogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial angiogenesis and uterine blood flow...
February 20, 2018: Human Reproduction
N Kotova, V Maichuk, O Fedorenko
Neural tube defects occupy second place in frequency after the defects of the cardiovascular system. The folate metabolism violation and hyperhomocysteinemia in women are proved to be the leading risk factors for the NTD of the fetus. Polymorphism of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) is a genetic determinant of folate metabolism violation. Admission of folic acid in a standard dose of 0.4 mg and / or the use of fortified foods does not allow reaching the protective level of folic acid if there is a mutation of the MTHFR gene or when several risk factors combine, which requires a higher dose of folic acid...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
Ruriko Seto-Yukimura, Emiko Ogawa, Takashi Hisamatsu, Sayuki Torii, Akihiko Shiino, Kazuhiko Nozaki, Akira Fujiyoshi, Katsuyuki Miura, Yasutaka Nakano, Hirotsugu Ueshima
AIM: We aimed to investigate the association between reduced lung function and cerebral small vessel diseases via cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the cross-sectional study of the general Japanese population. METHODS: We recruited participants aged ≥40 years from the general population of a single city in Japan. We clarified the comorbidities and treatments, smoking habits, second-hand smoke exposure, current alcohol consumption, education level, exercise habits, and occupation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Maarten O Blanken, Bosco Paes, Evan J Anderson, Marcello Lanari, Margaret Sheridan-Pereira, Scot Buchan, John R Fullarton, ElizaBeth Grubb, Gerard Notario, Barry S Rodgers-Gray, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
BACKGROUND: The objective was to develop a risk scoring tool which predicts respiratory syncytial virus hospitalisation (RSVH) in moderate-late preterm infants (32-35 weeks' gestational age) in the Northern Hemisphere. METHODS: Risk factors for RSVH were pooled from six observational studies of infants born 32 weeks and 0 days to 35 weeks and 6 days without comorbidity from 2000 to 2014. Of 13 475 infants, 484 had RSVH in the first year of life. Logistic regression was used to identify the most predictive risk factors, based on area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC)...
February 6, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Junko Saito, Akira Shibanuma, Junko Yasuoka, Naoki Kondo, Daisuke Takagi, Masamine Jimba
BACKGROUND: Parents with less formal education are more likely to smoke indoors, causing socioeconomic disparity in children's exposure to second-hand smoke. However, little is known about the roles of social factors in the socioeconomic gradients of indoor smoking. We tested the potential mediating role of perceived smoking norms on the associations between education and indoor smoking among parents who smoke. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 822 smoking fathers and 823 smoking mothers, who lived with young children and were members of a Japanese online survey panel, participated...
February 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Sasha G Hutchinson, Constant P van Schayck, Jean W M Muris, Frans J M Feron, Edward Dompeling
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effectiveness of different recruitment strategies used in a study aimed at eliminating/reducing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in Dutch children 0-13 years of age with a high risk of asthma. METHODS: The different strategies include: 1) questionnaires distributed via home addresses, physicians or schools of the children; 2) cohorts from other paediatric studies; 3) physicians working in the paediatric field (family physicians, paediatricians and Youth Health Care (YHC) physicians); and 4) advertisements in a local newsletter, at child-care facilities, and day-care centres...
January 31, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Xuan Thanh Thi Le, Lien Thi To, Huong Thi Le, Hanh Duc Hoang, Khanh Nam Do, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Bach Xuan Tran, Huyen Phuc Do, Luong Thanh Nguyen, Carl A Latkin, Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho
Since 2013, smoke-free signs in public places, including in restaurants and food stores, have been introduced in Vietnam, aiming to prevent passive smoking. Although extensive research has been carried out on second-hand smoking among clients in public places (e.g., hospitals, restaurants) in Vietnam, no single study exists which captures the current practice of smoking among street food outlets. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify factors associated with smoking status and cessation motivation amongst food sellers in Vietnam...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kaarin J Anstey, Ruoling Chen
Pan et al. report findings showing that second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with cognitive decline over two years in both middle-aged and older Chinese women who never smoked and also report a dose-response relationship. SHS exposure affects vulnerable people disproportionately as they have less control or choice over their living and working environment. Smoking is an established risk factor for dementia, but recent evidence reports on dementia risk increase have not included SHS. Many epidemiologic studies collect data on smoking but not SHS exposure...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Xi Pan, Ye Luo, Amy Restorick Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Byung Jin Kim, Jin Min Han, Jun Hyung Do, Bum Soo Kim, Jin Ho Kang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
Rodrigo César Rosa, Sângela Cunha Pereira, Fabrizio Antônio Gomide Cardoso, Abadio Gonçalves Caetano, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha de Santiago, José Batista Volpon
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase...
December 2017: Clinics
Li-Yuan Sun, Jae-Hyun Park
PURPOSE: The association between regional contextual factors and second-hand smoke (SHS) prevalence is important, but is unclear. This study investigated the changes of SHS prevalence from 2011 to 2013 and explored the correlations of SHS prevalence and regional contextual factors by exposure location. METHODS: The data were obtained from the 2011 and 2013 Korean Community Health Survey and the Development of Health Indicators for Community Health Ranking report...
January 5, 2018: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
Karolien Adriaens, Dinska Van Gucht, Frank Baeyens
(1) Background: Many smokers completely switch to vaping (switchers), whereas others use e-cigarettes (e-cigs) alongside tobacco cigarettes (dual users). To the extent that dual users substantially lower the number of cigarettes, they will reduce health risks from smoking. However, from a medical point of view, exclusive vaping is preferable to dual use; (2) Methods: Using an online questionnaire we assessed behavioral, cognitive and attitudinal aspects of e-cig use in smoking and ex-smoking vapers; (3) Results: Our sample consisted of 19% dual users and 81% switchers...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Gillian S Gould, Yael Bar Zeev, Laura Tywman, Christopher Oldmeadow, Simon Chiu, Marilyn Clarke, Billie Bonevski
Clinicians often ask pregnant women about tobacco smoking, but their practices of asking about other smoking and nicotine exposures are unknown. This study analysed how often clinicians ask pregnant women about their use of e-cigarettes, cannabis, chewing tobacco, and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken. A random sample of 500 General Practitioner (GP) members were invited from the National Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (NFATSIH) to complete an on-line survey, and 5571 GP and Obstetrician (OBS) members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) were sent a paper survey by mail...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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