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Second hand smoking

Isabel Mr Hess, Kishen Lachireddy, Adam Capon
OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have recently become popular around the world, and their safety is being widely discussed in the scientific literature. Previous studies have examined the chemicals in e-liquids and vapour, and demonstrated that the aerosol from ECs can contain toxic chemicals that are harmful to health. However, little is known about the potential adverse health effects of passive exposure to EC vapour. The aim of this paper is to summarise and review all studies that have examined potential adverse health effects of passive exposure from inhaling EC vapour...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Heather Morgan, Elizabeth Treasure, Mo Tabib, Majella Johnston, Chris Dunkley, Deborah Ritchie, Sean Semple, Steve Turner
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking can cause health complications in pregnancy. Particulate matter (PM2.5) metrics applied to second hand smoke (SHS) concentrations provide indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements and have been used to promote smoking behaviour change among parents of young children. Here, we present the qualitative results from a study designed to use IAQ measurements to help pregnant women who smoke to quit smoking. METHODS: We used IAQ measurements in two centres (Aberdeen and Coventry) using two interventions: 1...
October 12, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Dilek Özbeyli, Ayşe Cansu Berberoglu, Anıl Özen, Oktay Erkan, Yunus Başar, Tunahan Şen, Akakın Dilek, Yüksel Meral, Kasımay Çakır Özgür
The role of second hand smoke [SHS] exposure on ulcerative colitis is not known. Our aim was to examine the effects of α-lipoic acid (ALA), chronic aerobic [AE] or resistance exercise [RE] on SHS exposed rats with colitis. Sprague-Dawley male rats [150-200g, n=54] were occupied for colitis induction. Among the colitis groups, one group was exposed to SHS [6 days/week, 4 cigarettes/day] and the other was not. SHS group was divided into subgroups as sedentary, AE [swimming; 3 days/week] and RE [climbing with weight; 3 days/week]...
October 8, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Sandeep Puranik, Erick Forno, Andrew Bush, Juan C Celedón
Severe exacerbations negatively impact the quality of life and education of children with asthma, while also causing substantial healthcare costs. Preventing severe asthma exacerbations requires identifying patients at high risk, in order to develop personalized care protocols to prevent such exacerbations. In this review, we assess and discuss recently published data on risk factors and predictive tools for severe asthma exacerbations in childhood. Although few genome-wide association studies have focused on severe asthma exacerbations, one such study recently identified cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3, implicated on integrity of the airway epithelium), as a susceptibility gene for recurrent severe asthma exacerbations in young children...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Bo Xi, Yajun Liang, Yunxia Liu, Yinkun Yan, Min Zhao, Chuanwei Ma, Pascal Bovet
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases worldwide. However, the global extent and prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents is poorly described. Using previously collected survey data, we aimed to assess tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12-15 years in 68 low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We used data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2006-13) and the China Global Tobacco Youth Survey (2013), which are school-based surveys of young adolescents aged 12-15 years that assess health behaviours using a standardised, anonymous, self-reported questionnaire...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Christopher Roberts, Grace Wagler, Michele M Carr
INTRODUCTION: Extensive evidence exists regarding health risks posed by children's exposure to second-hand smoke, and there is increasing evidence concerning the risks of third-hand smoke. This evidence is most meaningful if the public is aware of these risks and can help curb childhood exposure. METHODS: Participants were selected at an academic medical center and asked to complete a survey. Responses were compared based on respondents' smoking status and the presence or absence of children in their homes...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Brenda B León-Gómez, Esther Colell, Joan R Villalbí, Gregorio Barrio, Antonia Domingo-Salvany
BACKGROUND: Studies assessing Spanish smoke-free laws have found a decrease in second-hand smoke exposure, but the impact of such laws on general smoking trends is not clear. This study proposes to analyse trends in the prevalence of smoking in Spain, including changes by educational level, following the implementation of smoke-free regulations (2005 and 2010). METHODS: Seven editions of the Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs from 1999 to 2011 were used to analyse the standardised prevalence of daily smokers, the proportion of ex-daily smokers, and the average cigarettes smoked daily in both sexes and by educational level, among the population aged 15-64...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Seong-Jin Kim, Dirga Kumar Lamichhane, Shin-Goo Park, Bum-Joon Lee, So-Hyun Moon, Sung-Min Park, Hyun-Suk Jang, Hwan-Cheol Kim
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been responsible for more than 0.6 million deaths and 10.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYS) lost in never smokers in 2004. The world health organization (WHO) reported smoking-related death of 58,000 per year in South Korea. There is recent emerging evidence of the associations of SHS exposure with anxiety or depression and poor mental health. Although exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with various physical health conditions and mental health, we are unaware of any studies examining its association with psychological well-being as mental factor...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Raúl Pérez-Ortuño, Jose M Martínez-Sánchez, Marcela Fu, Montse Ballbè, Núria Quirós, Esteve Fernández, José A Pascual
BACKGROUND: Smoke-free laws are expected to reduce smoking habits and exposure to secondhand smoke. The objective of this study was the measurement of tobacco specific carcinogens (TSNAs) in oral fluid to assess the most suitable biomarker of cancer risk associated with tobacco smoke. METHODS: TSNAs, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), as well as nicotine and cotinine were measured in oral fluid samples from 166 smokers and 532 non-smokers of the adult population of Barcelona, Spain...
September 8, 2016: Environmental Research
E S Petherick, L Fairley, R C Parslow, R McEachan, D Tuffnell, K E Pickett, D Leon, D A Lawlor, J Wright
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a time of optimal motivation for many women to make positive behavioural changes. We aim to describe pregnant women with similar patterns of self-reported health behaviours and examine associations with birth outcomes. METHODS: We examined the clustering of multiple health behaviours during pregnancy in the Born in Bradford cohort, including smoking physical inactivity, vitamin d supplementation and exposure to second-hand smoke.Latent class analysis was used to identify groups of individuals with similar patterns of health behaviours separately for White British (WB) and Pakistani mothers...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Raja M Flores, Bian Liu, Emanuela Taioli
This study was performed to quantify the association between mortality and known and unknown secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure as measured by cotinine levels in non-smokers. Data collected from 1999 to 2010 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were linked to the National Death Index. Self-reported non-smokers aged ≥20 years (N = 20 175) were studied. Serum cotinine was measured at recruitment; non-smokers were those with cotinine below the reported race-specific cut-off points (5...
September 7, 2016: Carcinogenesis
Stefano Fogli, Alessandro Saba, Marzia Del Re, Francesco Pistelli, Ferruccio Aquilini, Riccardo Zucchi, Antonio Palla, Maria Cristina Breschi, Laura Carrozzi, Romano Danesi
The nicotine metabolite ratio, i.e., the ratio 3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine, is used to assess the nicotine metabolic status and has been proven to predict the response to smoking cessation treatments in randomized clinical trials. In the current study, a pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic integrated approach is described, based on the development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for nicotine metabolite ratio assay in plasma and a real-time PCR analysis for fast genotyping of CYP2A6...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
F Peng, C-H Xue, S K Hwang, W-H Li, Z Chen, J-Z Zhang
BACKGROUND: Skin ageing especially senile lentigo directly affects self-esteem. For decades, senile lentigo has been associated with chronic exposure to solar radiation. However, a study conducted recently in Caucasian subjects suggested that exposure to air pollution was significantly correlated with extrinsic skin ageing, in particular senile lentigines. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and skin ageing, particularly senile lentigo and seborrheic keratosis...
September 5, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Resa M Jones, Kara P Wiseman, Marina Kharitonova
BACKGROUND: Smoking has a detrimental effect on the symptoms and severity of asthma, a common chronic disease among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between asthma and smoking among high school students and assess provider-patient communication with asthmatic adolescents regarding smoking and adolescents' beliefs about the harms of smoking. METHODS: In fall 2014, data from high school students, ages 14-18 years, completing the 2009-2010 Virginia Youth Tobacco Survey (N = 1796) were used in descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for model-specific confounders as appropriate...
2016: BMC Public Health
B Pourkaveh, M Ahmadi, G Eslami, L Gachkar
Spontaneous abortion is the loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy, when occurring naturally without any surgical or pharmaceutical intervention. On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes, as one of the foodborne pathogens, is a causative agent of listeriosis. The transfer of L. monocytogenes in pregnant women occurs as self-limited flu-like symptoms which may result in abortion, stillbirth or premature birth of infected infants. The purpose of this study was the identification of Listeria monocytogenes risk factors in women with spontaneous abortion admitted to Tehran Province health care centers in 2015...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
M Blanquet, S Leger, L Gerbaud, F Vendittelli
INTRODUCTION: Smoking tobacco during pregnancy is a preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of an information and training program implemented by the perinatal network of Auvergne, France, on smoking during pregnancy. METHODS: A multi-center before-and-after population-based study, based on two cross-sectional surveys, was carried out between July 2003 and June 2004, and between December 2008 and January 2010...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Anne Berit Petersen, Lisa M Thompson, Gezahegn Bekele Dadi, Alemu Tolcha, Janine K Cataldo
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, female smoking rates are currently low (1 %). However, because of male smoking rates (overall 7.7 % and up to 27 % depending on region), women and children's risk of second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is a pressing concern. In order to develop effective public health interventions that prevent the uptake and exposure to smoking, thereby averting the projected increase in tobacco-induced disease, an understanding of Ethiopian women's practices regarding tobacco is needed...
2016: BMC Public Health
Alexander V Prokhorov, Karen S Calabro, Irene Tamí-Maury
OBJECTIVE: To review the importance of and evidence-based strategies to prevent tobacco use and promote tobacco cessation in the pediatric setting. DATA SOURCES: Literature review of evidence-based resources on tobacco use and prevention/cessation interventions in the pediatric/adolescent population. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the impact of tobacco use on cancer risk, second- and third-hand smoke carcinogenesis, and newer methods of tobacco delivery is necessary to select appropriate and effective prevention and cessation strategies...
August 2016: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Suzanne M de la Monte, M Tong, A R Agarwal, E Cadenas
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is associated with impairments in hepatic insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling through cell growth, survival, and metabolic pathways. Since not all heavy drinkers develop ALD, co-factors may be important. Epidemiologic data indicate that most heavy drinkers smoke tobacco and experimental data revealed that low-level nitrosamine exposures, including those from tobacco, can cause steatohepatitis with hepatic insulin/IGF resistance and exacerbate ALD...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology
Nora Kant, Ruth Müller, Markus Braun, Alexander Gerber, David Groneberg
Indoor air pollution with harmful particulate matter (PM) is mainly caused by cigarette smoke. Super-Slim-Size-Cigarettes (SSL) are considered a less harmful alternative to King-Size-Cigarettes (KSC) due to longer filters and relatively low contents. We ask if "Combined Mainstream and Sidestream Smoke" (CMSS)-associated PM levels of SSL are lower than of KSC and thus are potentially less harmful. PM concentrations in CMSS (PM10, PM2.5, and PM₁) are measured from four cigarette types of the brand Vogue, using an "automatic-environmental-tobacco-smoke-emitter" (AETSE) and laser aerosol spectrometry: SSL-BLEUE, -MENTHE, -LILAS and KSC-La Cigarette and -3R4F reference...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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