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Second hand smoking

Garima Bhatt, Sonu Goel, Suman Mor, Rakesh Gupta
Background: Second-hand smoke (SHS) has enormous adverse health impacts with grave health implications for the next generation. Section 4 of Indian legislation, Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act, prohibits smoking at public places, thus protecting people from SHS. Objective: The objective of present study was to assess the exposure to SHS at home and working areas in Punjab, India. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2015 to March 2016...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Nien-Chen Li, Ravi I Thadhani, Marta Reviriego-Mendoza, John W Larkin, Franklin W Maddux, Norma J Ofsthun
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The relationship between tobacco smoking and comorbid condition outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients is not well understood. This study examined the association of tobacco smoking status with hospitalization and mortality in HD patients. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adult HD patients at 2,223 US dialysis centers with HD vintage of 30 days or less who completed a tobacco smoking status survey as part of standard care between April 2013 and June 2015...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
G La Torre, A Sinopoli, C Sestili, V D'Egidio, O Di Bella, R A Cocchiara, I Sciarra, R Saulle, I Backhaus, A Mannocci
BACKGROUND: Young people who begin to smoke at an early age are at a higher risk of becoming occasional or regular smokers and establishing a premature dependence. It is fundamental to act as soon as possible, from very early childhood, to prevent harmful behaviors for health such as smoking and drinking alcohol. Young people must be encouraged to adopt healthy lifestyles. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is two-fold. First, increasing the knowledge about the negative health effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among children aged 9-10 years; and second, to introduce and reinforce life skills in order to learn how to tackle social influences that encourage children to smoke and to drink alcohol...
July 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Pasquale Avino, Mauro Scungio, Luca Stabile, Gino Cortellessa, Giorgio Buonanno, Maurizio Manigrasso
Smoking activities still represent the main, and preventable, cause of lung cancer risk worldwide. For this reason, a number of studies were carried out to deepen and better characterize the emission of cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols in order to perform an a-priori evaluation of the particle doses and related lung cancer risks received by active smokers. On the contrary, a gap of knowledge still exists in evaluating the dose and risk received by passive smokers in indoor private micro-environments (e...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Andrew Abreo, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Cosby A Stone, Tina V Hartert
Childhood asthma is responsible for significant morbidity and health care expenditures in the United States. The incidence of asthma is greatest in early childhood, and the prevalence is projected to continue rising in the absence of prevention and intervention measures. The prevention of asthma will likely require a multifaceted intervention strategy; however, few randomized controlled trials have assessed such approaches. The purpose of this review was to use previous meta-analyses to identify the most impactful risk factors for asthma development and evaluate the effect of risk factor reduction on future childhood asthma prevalence...
June 11, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Petr Brůha, Roman Mouček, Vítězslav Vacek, Pavel Šnejdar, Kateřina Černá, Petr Řehoř
Smoking, excessive drinking, overeating and physical inactivity are well-established risk factors decreasing human physical performance. Moreover, epidemiological work has identified modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor diet and physical and cognitive inactivity that are associated with the risk of reduced cognitive performance. Definition, collection and annotation of human reaction times and suitable health related data and metadata provides researchers with a necessary source for further analysis of human physical and cognitive performance...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Calistus Wilunda, Satomi Yoshida, Shiro Tanaka, Yuji Kanazawa, Takeshi Kimura, Koji Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the association between tobacco smoke and hearing loss in children are limited, involve small samples and are cross-sectional. We investigated the association of maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure to tobacco smoke at age 4 months with hearing impairment at age 3 years in children. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study included 50 734 children born between 2004 and 2010 in Kobe City, Japan. Smoking during pregnancy and exposure to tobacco smoke at 4 months was measured using parent-reported questionnaires...
June 5, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Erica S Schultz, Jenny Hallberg, Niklas Andersson, Jesse D Thacher, Göran Pershagen, Tom Bellander, Anna Bergström, Inger Kull, Stefano Guerra, Per Thunqvist, Per M Gustafsson, Matteo Bottai, Erik Melén
RATIONALE: Little is known about how perinatal and childhood factors influence lung function change between childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible early life predictors of change in FEV1 between age 8 and 16 years. In addition, to investigate possible predictors of having persistently low lung function (FEV1 <25th percentiles both at age 8 and 16) up to adolescence. METHODS: The BAMSE birth cohort study collected data throughout childhood on environmental factors, individual characteristics, and spirometric measures at 8 and 16 years (n = 1425)...
June 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Thomas Franz, Gisela Skopp, Gerlinde Schwarz, Frank Musshoff
Testing hair for cannabis use has increasingly been scrutinized due to exposure to second hand smoke or environmental contamination. Confirmation of drug use involving detection of metabolites such as 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) having very rarely been considered. We developed a new, simplified procedure with regard to expenditure of time and material to determine delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, qualitatively), as well as THC-OH and THC-COOH (quantitatively) from 587 hair samples by LC-MS/MS which was compared to hitherto established methods (n=3)...
May 29, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Deepak Sharma, Sonu Goel, Pranay Lal
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use and education of an individual are linked to each other. Educated people are more likely to practice healthy behaviors and are aware of the harms of tobacco use. This paper uses the Global Adult Tobacco Survey data (GATS-India) to study the education differential associated with tobacco use and its predictors across India. METHODOLOGY: Secondary data analysis was conducted for GATS conducted in 2009-2010 in India. Data for "illiterate" and "literate" study subjects were analyzed according to study subject's "tobacco consumption pattern," their "quitting behavior," "exposure to second hand smoke (SHS)" and "observing health warnings on tobacco products...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Yunting Zheng, Ying Ji, Hongbo Dong, Chun Chang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have provided inconsistent findings on smoking among migrants, and very limited data exist on their second-hand smoke exposure. This study aims to investigate internal migrants' smoking prevalence, second-hand smoke exposure among non-smokers, and knowledge of the health hazards of smoking in 12 major migrant provinces in China in 2013. METHODS: Data from the 2013 Migrant Dynamics Monitoring Survey in China published by the National Commission of Health and Family Planning was used in this study...
May 24, 2018: BMC Public Health
Julia Santucci-Pereira, Thomas J Pogash, Aman Patel, Navroop Hundal, Maria Barton, Anna Camoirano, Rosanna T Micale, Sebastiano La Maestra, Roumen Balansky, Silvio De Flora, Jose Russo
Epidemiological studies show that there is limited evidence that tobacco smoking causes breast cancer in humans. In rodents, many tobacco smoke chemicals cause mammary gland tumors. This study evaluated the mammary gland differentiation in mice exposed to environmental cigarette smoke (ECS), using 3R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes, starting after birth and continuing daily for 10 weeks (total particulate exposure 95 mg/m3; CO 610 ppm). We also analyzed the effects of oral administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin (1600mg/kg) or naproxen (320mg/kg), on mammary gland differentiation, either in unexposed or ECS-exposed mice...
May 17, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Da-Hye Son, Ji-Won Yoo, Mi-Ra Cho, Yong-Jae Lee
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between handgrip strength and pulmonary function. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of older Korean women. SETTING: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling women aged 65 and older without chronic diseases or pulmonary disease (N=605). MEASUREMENTS: Handgrip strength was measured using a digital hand dynamometer, and pulmonary function was tested according to guidelines of the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society using a spirometry system...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Sankaran Krishnan, Allen J Dozor, Leonard Bacharier, Jason E Lang, Charles G Irvin, David Kaminsky, Harold J Farber, Lynn Gerald, Mark Brown, Janet T Holbrook, Robert A Wise, Julie Ryu, Sonali Bose, Yasin Razan, Joy Saams, Robert J Henderson, William G Teague
OBJECTIVE: To characterize a cohort of children with airflow limitation resistant to bronchodilator (BD) therapy. METHODS: Pulmonary function tests performed in children 6-17 years of age at 15 centers in a clinical research consortium were screened for resistant airflow limitation, defined as a post-BD FEV1 and/or an FEV1 /FVC less than the lower limits of normal. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed for associations with pulmonary function. RESULTS: 582 children were identified...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Kamran Siddiqi, Rumana Huque, Mona Kanaan, Farid Ahmed, Tarana Ferdous, Sarwat Shah, Cath Jackson, Steve Parrott, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Aziz Sheikh
Introduction: Children exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) are at increased risk of respiratory illnesses. We piloted a Smoke Free Intervention (SFI) and trial methods before investigating its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in primary school children. Methods: In a pilot cluster randomised controlled-trial in Bangladesh, primary schools were allocated to usual education (control) or SFI, using minimisation. Year-5 children were recruited. Masking treatment allocation was not possible...
May 16, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Tongjun Guo, Yuanyuan Wang, Hongguang Zhang, Ya Zhang, Jun Zhao, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yan Wang, Xiaoxu Xie, Long Wang, Zongyu Xu, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Yuan He, Ying Yang, Jihong Xu, Zuoqi Peng, Xu Ma
BACKGROUND: The relationship between PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of exposure to PM2.5 on preterm birth in China. METHODS: The birth outcomes of 426,246 pregnant women enrolled between January 2014 and December 2014 in NFPCP (National Free Pre-pregnancy Checkups Project) were collected, and their individual PM2.5 exposure values were estimated from the China National Environmental Monitoring Centre...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jingya Huang, Bin Xu, Dan Guo, Ting Jiang, Wei Huang, Guocong Liu, Xiaohua Ye
There has been little focus on the possible association between second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and depressive symptoms among adolescents. Thus, this study aimed to explore the dose⁻response relationships between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms among adolescents and differentiate these associations in setting-specific exposure and severity-specific outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified cluster sampling method to obtain a representative sample of high school students in Guangzhou, China...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Prabjit Barn, Enkhjargal Gombojav, Chimedsuren Ochir, Bayarkhuu Laagan, Bolor Beejin, Gerel Naidan, Buyantushig Boldbaatar, Jargalsaikhan Galsuren, Tsogtbaatar Byambaa, Craig Janes, Patricia A Janssen, Bruce P Lanphear, Tim K Takaro, Scott A Venners, Glenys M Webster, Weiran Yuchi, Christopher D Palmer, Patrick J Parsons, Young Man Roh, Ryan W Allen
BACKGROUND: Portable HEPA filter air cleaners can reduce indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ), but their use has not been adequately evaluated in high pollution settings. We assessed air cleaner effectiveness in reducing indoor residential PM2.5 and second hand smoke (SHS) exposures among non-smoking pregnant women in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. METHODS: We randomized 540 participants to an intervention group receiving 1 or 2 HEPA filter air cleaners or a control group receiving no air cleaners...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yu-Tong He, Ya-Chen Zhang, Gao-Feng Shi, Qi Wang, Qian Xu, Di Liang, Yu Du, Dao-Juan Li, Jing Jin, Bao-En Shan
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary nodules have become common incidental findings with the widespread use of computed tomography (CT) technology. Such nodules have the potential to become early lung cancer lesions, so understanding more about factors that may be associated with them is important. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present work was based on a large prospective cohort comprising 32,438 participants in Hebei Province (China) between January 2014 and March 2016. Participants aged 40-75 years completed a questionnaire, underwent low-dose CT (LDCT), and were followed up to March 2017...
June 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Bochen Cao, Catherine Hill, Christophe Bonaldi, Maria E León, Gwenn Menvielle, Pierre Arwidson, Freddie Bray, Isabelle Soerjomataram
Background: The evidence on the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoking has been well established. An assessment of the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer due to smoking is needed for France, given its high smoking prevalence. Methods: We extracted age- and sex-specific national estimates of population and cancer incidence for France, and incidence rates of lung cancer among never smokers and relative risk (RR) estimates of smoking for various cancers from the American Cancer Prevention Study (CPS II)...
May 7, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
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