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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640565/-protection-from-exposure-to-second-hand-tobacco-smoke-in-the-canton-of-vaud-review-and-outcomes
#1
Karin Zürcher, Myriam Pasche, Léonie Chinet
At the beginning of the 2000's the dissemination of scientific evidence, public opinion shift and the example of private or public workplaces led the Latin part of Switzerland to plead for a comprehensive smoke-free ban. In the canton of Vaud, the smoke-free public places law entered into force on September 15th 2009 after a 3-year process initiated by a popular initiative. Key factors included public awareness and information actions, civil society engagement and the involvement of every stakeholder. Smoke-free public- and workplaces led to health improvements in the general population and an evolving social norm towards tobacco use...
June 7, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602080/trends-in-environmental-tobacco-smoke-ets-exposure-and-preterm-birth-use-of-smoking-bans-and-direct-ets-exposure-assessments-in-study-designs
#2
Elana R Elkin, Marie S O'Neill
For decades, many studies have linked maternal smoking to an increased risk of preterm birth. As a result, the scientific community has long hypothesized that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly referred to as second-hand smoke, is also associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Multiple studies have examined this proposed association through different strategies and approaches. Recently, a small number of epidemiology studies have examined preterm birth trends before and after the implementation of antismoking legislation in various jurisdictions...
June 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579064/practice-patterns-among-eye-care-providers-at-us-teaching-hospitals-with-regards-to-assessing-and-educating-patients-about-smoking
#3
Zachary C Landis, Ramunas Rolius, Ingrid U Scott
PURPOSE: To investigate practice patterns of eye care providers at academic medical centers in the United States (US) with regards to assessing patients' smoking status and exposure, educating patients regarding ocular risks of smoking, and counseling patients about smoking cessation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: An anonymous survey including multiple choice and Likert-style questions was constructed on http://www.surveymonkey...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575460/testing-familial-transmission-of-smoking-with-two-different-research-designs
#4
Jorien L Treur, Karin J H Verweij, Abdel Abdellaoui, Iryna O Fedko, Eveline L de Zeeuw, Erik A Ehli, Gareth E Davies, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Gonneke Willemsen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jacqueline M Vink
Introduction: Classical twin studies show that smoking is heritable. To determine if shared family environment plays a role in addition to genetic factors, and if they interact (GxE), we use a children-of-twins design. In a second sample, we measure genetic influence with polygenic risk scores (PRS) and environmental influence with a question on exposure to smoking during childhood. Methods: Data on smoking initiation were available for 723 children of 712 twins from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR;64...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535361/maternal-smoking-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-offspring-hypodontia
#5
A H Al-Ani, J S Antoun, W M Thomson, T R Merriman, M Farella
Little is known about environmental risk factors for hypodontia. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between hypodontia and common environmental risk factors, such as maternal smoking and alcohol and caffeine consumption during pregnancy. Eighty-three hypodontia cases with 1 or more missing permanent lateral incisors and/or 1 or more missing premolars were enrolled in this clinic-based case-control study. Some 253 controls with no missing teeth were frequency matched to cases by age and sex...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520988/geographical-inequality-in-tobacco-control-in-china-multilevel-evidence-from-98-058-participants
#6
Thomas Astell-Burt, Mei Zhang, Xiaoqi Feng, Limin Wang, Yichong Li, Andrew Page, Maigeng Zhou, Linhong Wang
Background: We investigated the spatial patterning and correlates of tobacco smoking, exposure to second-hand smoke, smoking in public places, workplace smoking prohibition, pro- and counter-tobacco advertisements in mainland China. Methods: Choropleth maps and multilevel models were used to assess geographical variation and correlates of the aforementioned outcome variables for 98,058 participants across 31 provinces of China in 2010. Results: Current tobacco smoking prevalence was higher in the central provinces for men and in the north eastern provinces and Tibet for women...
May 17, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508372/effect-of-second-hand-tobacco-smoke-on-the-nitration-of-brain-proteins-a-systems-biology-and-bioinformatics-approach
#7
Firas H Kobeissy, Joy Guingab-Cagmat, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel, Mark S Gold, Kevin Wang
Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure leads to the death of approximately 48,000 nonsmokers per year in the United States alone. SHS exposure has been associated with cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurodegenerative diseases. While cardiac function abnormalities and lung cancer due to SHS have been well characterized, brain injury due to SHS has not undergone a full systematic evaluation. Oxidative stress and nitration have been associated with smoking and SHS exposure. Animal studies suggest that exposure to tobacco smoke increases oxidative stress...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499411/paraneoplastic-acral-vascular-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-melanoma-under-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#8
Thilo Gambichler, Stefanie Strutzmann, Andrea Tannapfel, Laura Susok
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic acral vascular syndrome (PAVS) is a rare phenomenon which is observed in patients with adenocarcinomas and other malignancies. Various potential pathogenic mechanisms such as tumour invasion of sympathetic nerves, hyperviscosity, hypercoagulability, vasoactive tumour-secreted substances, and immunological mechanisms have been suggested. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 60-year-old Caucasian male attended our hospital with a bulky lymph node mass in the right axilla...
May 12, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480578/protecting-children-and-families-from-tobacco-and-tobacco-related-ncds-in-the-western-pacific-good-practice-examples-from-malaysia-philippines-and-singapore
#9
A M David, S P Mercado, J D Klein, M S/O K Kaundan, H N Koong, E Garcia
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are generally considered diseases of adulthood, but NCD risk factors like tobacco use often are taken up during childhood and adolescence, and second-hand smoke exposure affects child survival and development. METHODS: At a regional meeting of the Asia Pacific Child and Family Health Alliance for Tobacco Control, members reviewed existing good practices of child-focused tobacco control approaches using health promotion strategies...
May 7, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457971/double-dissociation-of-the-anterior-and-posterior-dorsomedial-caudate-putamen-in-the-acquisition-and-expression-of-associative-learning-with-the-nicotine-stimulus
#10
Sergios Charntikov, Steven T Pittenger, Natashia Swalve, Ming Li, Rick A Bevins
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. This habit is not only debilitating to individual users but also to those around them (second-hand smoking). Nicotine is the main addictive component of tobacco products and is a moderate stimulant and a mild reinforcer. Importantly, besides its unconditional effects, nicotine also has conditioned stimulus effects that may contribute to the tenacity of the smoking habit. Because the neurobiological substrates underlying these processes are virtually unexplored, the present study investigated the functional involvement of the dorsomedial caudate putamen (dmCPu) in learning processes with nicotine as an interoceptive stimulus...
April 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440102/smoking-addiction-the-shift-from-head-to-hands-approach-bias-towards-smoking-related-cues-in-low-dependent-versus-dependent-smokers
#11
Sandrine Detandt, Ariane Bazan, Etienne Quertemont, Paul Verbanck
The dual process theory is central to several models of addiction, implying both an increase of stimulus salience and deficits in inhibitory control. Our major aim is to provide behavioral evidence for an approach bias tendency in smokers and more specifically during smoking cue exposure. The second aim is to examine whether this bias differs in low-dependent versus dependent smokers. Thirty-two smokers (17 low dependent and 15 dependent; cut-off FTND of 4) and 28 non-smokers performed a modified Go/NoGo task using tobacco-related words and neutral words as stimuli...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420008/c-reactive-protein-and-cold-pressor-tolerance-in-the-general-population-the-troms%C3%A3-study
#12
Elina Iordanova Schistad, Audun Stubhaug, Anne-Sofie Furberg, Bo Lars Engdahl, Christopher Sivert Nielsen
The aim of this study was to examine whether increases in severity of subclinical inflammation, measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), increased experimental pain sensitivity, measured by cold-pressor tolerance, and to test whether this relationship is independent of chronic pain. A large population-based study from 2007 to 2008, the sixth Tromsø Study, provided data from 12,981 participants. For the present analysis, complete data for 10,274 participants (age: median 58 years) were available...
July 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413171/comparison-of-weibull-and-lognormal-cure-models-with-cox-in-the-survival-analysis-of-breast-cancer-patients-in-rafsanjan
#13
Mina Hoseini, Abbas Bahrampour, Moghaddameh Mirzaee
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer after lung cancer and the second cause of death. In this study we compared Weibull and Lognormal Cure Models with Cox regression on the survival of breast cancer. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study. METHODS: The current study retrospective cohort study was conducted on 140 patients referred to Ali Ibn Abitaleb Hospital, Rafsanjan southeastern Iran from 2001 to 2015 suffering from breast cancer...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360145/preliminary-evidence-that-high-levels-of-nicotine-on-children-s-hands-may-contribute-to-overall-tobacco-smoke-exposure
#14
E Melinda Mahabee-Gittens, Ashley L Merianos, Georg E Matt
BACKGROUND: Dust and surfaces are important sources of lead and pesticide exposure in young children. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate if third-hand smoke (THS) pollutants accumulate on the hands of children who live in environments where tobacco is used and if hand nicotine levels are associated with second-hand smoke (SHS), as measured by salivary cotinine. METHODS: Participants were parents and children (n=25; age mean (SD)=5.4 (5.3) years) presenting to the emergency department with a potentially SHS-related illness...
March 30, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347749/parents-educational-level-and-second-hand-tobacco-smoke-exposure-at-home-in-a-sample-of-portuguese-children
#15
Paulo D Vitória, Célia Nunes, José Precioso
Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure is a major and entirely avoidable health risk for children's health, well-being and development. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the association between parents' educational level and children's SHS home exposure. A self-administered questionnaire was conducted within a sample of 949 students in 4th grade (mean age 9.56±0.75, 53.4% male). The sample was randomly selected from all schools located at Lisbon District, Portugal. The current study confirmed that Portuguese children are exposed to unacceptable high levels of SHS at home, mainly by their parents' smoke...
March 24, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345330/relationship-of-lifetime-exposure-to-tobacco-alcohol-and-second-hand-tobacco-smoke-with-upper-aero-digestive-tract-cancers-in-india-a-case-control-study-with-a-life-course-perspective
#16
Bhawna Gupta, Narinder Kumar, Newell W Johnson
Background: Squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADTSCC) are a multifaceted public health problem. Effects of lifestyle risk factors, including tobacco (chewing and smoking), alcohol drinking and exposure to second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) at home and their association with UADT cancers was assessed in a case-control study with a life-course perspective. The study was conducted at two different hospitals in Pune, India. Material and methods: The total sample size (N=480) included 240 histopathologically confirmed cases of UADT cancers and an equal number of controls frequency matched with cases by gender and age distribution (+5 years)...
February 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338027/molar-incisor-hypomineralisation
#17
Greig D Taylor
Data sourcesThe Medline and Embase databases and hand searches in the journals International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry and European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry.Study selectionEnglish language cohort and case-control studies.Data extraction and synthesisStudy selection was carried out independently by two reviewers with data abstraction being conducted by a single reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Adjusted (aOR) and unadjusted odds ratios (uOR), P-values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from the studies...
March 2017: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320748/association-of-husband-smoking-with-wife-s-hypertension-status-in-over-5%C3%A2-million-chinese-females-aged-20-to-49%C3%A2-years
#18
Ying Yang, Fangchao Liu, Long Wang, Qian Li, Xingyu Wang, Julia C Chen, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Man Zhang, Yuan He, Zuoqi Peng, Yuanyuan Wang, Jihong Xu, Jun Zhao, Ya Zhang, Hongguang Zhang, Xiaona Xin, Yan Wang, Dujia Liu, Tongjun Guo, Qiaoyun Dai, Xu Ma
BACKGROUND: The effect of second-hand smoking, especially husband smoking, on wife's hypertension has not been well studied. The current study was aimed to assess the association of husband smoking with wife's hypertension among females aged 20 to 49 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included 5 027 731 females along with their husbands from the National Free Pre-pregnancy Checkup Projects conducted across 31 provinces in China in 2014. Smoking/passive smoking status was collected by a standard questionnaire and blood pressure was measured by an electronic device after 10 minutes rest...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319813/the-clinical-implications-of-legalizing-marijuana-are-physician-and-non-physician-providers-prepared
#19
Elizabeth Brooks, Doris C Gundersen, Erin Flynn, Ashley Brooks-Russell, Sheana Bull
INTRODUCTION: Passage of voter-driven marijuana reform laws signals a shift in public attitudes for marijuana use. For providers, legalization may necessitate practice modifications, particularly regarding patient-provider conversations about use and risk. We examined healthcare providers' knowledge of marijuana laws and health implications, professional practice behaviors, and attitudes about training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We surveyed 114 Colorado-based providers who care for children, adolescents, pregnant and breastfeeding women using a Venue-Day-Time survey methodology throughout Colorado...
March 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315569/algorithm-for-predicting-chd-death-risk-in-turkish-adults-conventional-factors-contribute-only-moderately-in-women
#20
Altan Onat, Günay Can, Ayşem Kaya, Muhammed Keskin, Mert I Hayıroğlu, Hüsniye Yüksel
OBJECTIVE: To assist the management strategy of individuals, we determined an algorithm for predicting the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) death in Turkish adults with a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: The risk of CHD death was estimated in 3054 middle-aged adults, followed over 9.08±4.2 years. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to predict risk. Discrimination was assessed using C-statistics. RESULTS: CHD death was identified in 233 subjects...
March 9, 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
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