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Second hand smoking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040594/association-between-exposure-to-second-hand-smoke-and-telomere-length-cross-sectional-study-of-1303-non-smokers
#1
Liya Lu, Cathy Johnman, Liane McGlynn, Daniel F Mackay, Paul G Shiels, Jill P Pell
Background: Both active smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) are important risk factors for many age-related diseases. Active smoking is associated with shortened telomere length. However, whether SHS accelerates telomere attrition with age is uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the association between SHS exposure and shortening by age of leukocyte telomere length among adult non-smokers. Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional study of the association between self-reported levels of SHS exposure and telomere length shortening per annum on a subgroup of participants from the Scottish Family Health Study...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037230/the-impact-of-multiple-interventions-to-reduce-household-exposure-to-second-hand-tobacco-smoke-among-women-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-in-kalutara-district-sri-lanka
#2
A M A A P Alagiyawanna, N Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, N Gunawardena
BACKGROUND: Second-hand smoke (SHS) in households remains a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, partly due to a lack of voluntary prohibitions of tobacco smoking inside houses. Women are especially at risk of being exposed. Effective community based interventions to reduce the SHS in households targeting women is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a multi-component intervention on household SHS exposure among Sri Lankan women. METHODS: Thirty clusters of 25 women (aged 18-65) from 750 households were randomized into the intervention and control groups...
October 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985714/unhealthy-smokers-scopes-for-prophylactic-intervention-and-clinical-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Shikha Prasad, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Luca Cucullo
BACKGROUND: Globally, tobacco use causes approximately 6 million deaths per year, and predictions report that with current trends; more than 8 million deaths are expected annually by 2030. Cigarette smokings is currently accountable for more than 480,000 deaths each year in United States (US) and is the leading cause of preventable death in the US. On average, smokers die 10 years earlier than nonsmokers and if smoking continues at its current proportion among adolescents, one in every 13 Americans aged 17 years or younger is expected to die prematurely from a smoking-related illness...
October 4, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983918/how-many-cancer-cases-and-deaths-are-potentially-preventable-estimates-for-australia-in-2013
#4
Louise F Wilson, Annika Antonsson, Adele C Green, Susan J Jordan, Bradley J Kendall, Christina M Nagle, Rachel E Neale, Catherine M Olsen, Penelope M Webb, David C Whiteman
Cancer is a leading cause of disease burden in Australia, particularly fatal burden, accounting for an estimated thirty percent of deaths. Many cancers develop because of exposure to lifestyle and environmental factors that are potentially modifiable. We aimed to quantify the proportions and numbers of cancer deaths and cases in Australia in 2013 attributable to 20 modifiable factors in eight broad groupings that are established causes of cancer, namely: tobacco smoke (smoking and second-hand), dietary factors (low intake of fruit, non-starchy vegetables and dietary fibre; and high intake of red and processed meat), overweight/obesity, alcohol, physical inactivity, solar ultraviolet radiation, infections (seven agents), and reproductive factors (lack of breastfeeding, menopausal hormone therapy use, combined oral contraceptive use)...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974829/the-influence-of-smoking-on-the-variations-in-carboxyhemoglobin-and-methemoglobin-during-urologic-surgery
#5
Aleksandra Gavrilovska-Brzanov, Mirjana Shosholcheva, Biljana Kuzmanovska, Andrijan Kartalov, Maja Mojsova-Mijovska, Marija Jovanovski-Srceva, Gordana Taleska, Nikola Brzanov, Risto Simeonov, Maja Slaninka Miceska
INTRODUCTION: Surgery is supposed to modulate the production of carbon monoxide by the reduction of heme oxygenase activity or transcriptional regulation of inducible heme oxygenase. On the other hand, the inhalation of tobacco smoke can substantially raise the level of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. Furthermore, methemoglobin is maintained at a constant level. However, excessive production of methemoglobin relative to total methemoglobin reductase activity results in methemoglobin increase...
June 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961829/cancer-deaths-and-cases-attributable-to-lifestyle-factors-and-infections-in-china-2013
#6
F Islami, W Chen, X Q Yu, J Lortet-Tieulent, R Zheng, W D Flanders, C Xia, M J Thun, S M Gapstur, M Ezzati, A Jemal
Background: The burden of cancer in China is high, and it is expected to further increase. Information on cancers attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is essential in planning preventive measures against cancer. We estimated the number and proportion of cancer deaths and cases attributable to ever-smoking, second-hand smoking, alcohol drinking, low fruit/vegetable intake, excess body weight, physical inactivity, and infections in China, using contemporary data from nationally representative surveys and cancer registries...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954431/effects-of-prenatal-tobacco-and-wood-fuel-smoke-exposure-on-birth-weight-in-sri-lanka
#7
Malshani L Pathirathna, Hansani M Abeywickrama, Kayoko Sekijima, Mieko Sadakata, Naoshi Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki Muramatsu, Kuruppu M S Wimalasiri, Upali Jayawardene, Darshana de Silva, Chandraratne M B Dematawewa
Low birth weight is a key public health problem in many developing countries, including Sri Lanka. Indoor air pollution from tobacco smoke and kitchen-fuel smoke are among the major contributors to low birth weight, factors of which there are little awareness of in Sri Lanka. We evaluated the effect of passive smoking and kitchen-fuel smoke exposure on birth weight. Seventy-six pregnant women were included in the study. Data were collected by questionnaire, and exposure assessment was conducted using a breath carbon monoxide monitor...
September 26, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921405/cannabis-associated-asthma-and-allergies
#8
REVIEW
J M Chatkin, L Zani-Silva, I Ferreira, N Zamel
Inhalation of cannabis smoke is its most common use and the pulmonary complications of its use may be the single most common form of drug-induced pulmonary disease worldwide. However, the role of cannabis consumption in asthma patients and allergic clinical situations still remains controversial. To review the evidence of asthma and allergic diseases associated with the use of marijuana, we conducted a search of English, Spanish, and Portuguese medical using the search terms asthma, allergy, marijuana, marihuana, and cannabis...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912356/biomarkers-of-disease-can-be-detected-in-mice-as-early-as-4-weeks-after-initiation-of-exposure-to-third-hand-smoke-levels-equivalent-to-those-found-in-homes-of-smokers
#9
Neema Adhami, Yuxin Chen, Manuela Martins-Green
Third-hand smoke (THS) is a newly discovered environmental health hazard that results from accumulation and aging of second-hand smoke (SHS) toxins on surfaces where smoking has occurred. Our objective was to determine whether there is a time-dependent effect of THS exposure on health. Using an in vivo exposure mouse system that mimics exposure of humans to THS, we investigated its effects on biomarkers found in serum, and in liver and brain tissues. Mice were exposed to THS for 1, 2, 4, or 6 months and brain, liver, and serum were collected...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905483/lung-cancer-in-young-women-in-southern-sweden-a-descriptive-study
#10
Ildikó Fritz, Håkan Olsson
INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer, a common malignancy and cause of cancer-related deaths, is strongly linked to several environmental exposures, and thus primarily affects the elderly. Formerly a man's disease, its incidence is rising among women, and lung cancer is now more common in women than men in Sweden. Women are particularly over-represented among young patients. While overall cancer mortality in Europe is decreasing, female lung cancer mortality is increasing. OBJECTIVES: We describe the epidemiological presentation of lung cancer in young Swedish women, aiming to pinpoint its risk factors for young women...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855033/-risk-factors-of-lung-cancer-in-xuanwei-yunnan-province-china
#11
Liqun Liu, Xia Wan, Gongbo Chen, Xiangyun Ma, Bofu Ning, Gonghuan Yang
BACKGROUND: Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. METHODS: Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012...
August 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855029/-changing-epidemic-of-lung-cancer-tobacco-and-situation-of-tobacco-control-%C3%A2-in-china
#12
REVIEW
Xiaonong Zou, Manman Jia, Xin Wang, Xiuyi Zhi
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and morbidity in China. Smoking and exposure to secondhand smoking closely related to lung cancer. Recently, series policies of tobacco control and lung cancer prevention was carried out. However, burden of lung cancer is still serious, and smoking rate in male is still very high, and in never smokers exposure to secondhand smoking is still very extensive. In this paper, epidemic situation of lung cancer, smoking and second hand smoking are described, at the same time, current implementations of tobacco control policies are summarized...
August 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854570/involving-mosques-in-health-promotion-programmes-a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-mclass-intervention-on-smoking-in-the-home
#13
R King, S Warsi, A Amos, S Shah, G Mir, A Sheikh, K Siddiqi
Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure is high among UK Bangladeshi and Pakistani populations, reflecting higher male smoking prevalence and fewer home smoking restrictions than the general population. The Muslim Communities Learning About Second-hand Smoke (MCLASS) study explored the feasibility and acceptability of implementing SHS education in 14 UK mosques. Religious teachers (RTs) in seven intervention mosques were trained and provided with a culturally appropriate educational package. After the intervention, mosque leaders, RTs and congregants' experiences and perceptions of the intervention were explored through interviews and focus group discussions...
August 1, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822971/second-hand-smoke-exposure-in-homes-with-children-assessment-of-airborne-nicotine-in-the-living-room-and-children-s-bedroom
#14
Teresa Arechavala, Xavier Continente, Mónica Pérez-Ríos, Anna Schiaffino, Esteve Fernandez, Núria Cortés-Francisco, Francesc Centrich, Glòria Muñoz, Maria J López
BACKGROUND: The introduction of 'smoke-free laws' has reduced the population's exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS), although SHS is still an issue in homes and other public places. Children are vulnerable to its health effects, and their greatest exposure occurs at home. OBJECTIVES: To assess airborne nicotine concentration of the living room and children's bedroom of homes with children under 13 years of age, and to analyse factors associated with these levels...
August 19, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812472/modifiable-risk-factors-associated-with-bronchiolitis
#15
Raffaella Nenna, Renato Cutrera, Antonella Frassanito, Claudia Alessandroni, Ambra Nicolai, Giulia Cangiano, Laura Petrarca, Serena Arima, Serena Caggiano, Nicola Ullman, Paola Papoff, Enea Bonci, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: We sought to clarify possibly modifiable risk factors related to pollution responsible for acute bronchiolitis in hospitalized infants. METHODS: For this observational study, we recruited 213 consecutive infants with bronchiolitis (cases: median age: 2 months; age range: 0.5-12 months; boys: 55.4%) and 213 children aged <3 years (controls: median age: 12 months; age range: 0.5-36 months; boys: 54.5%) with a negative medical history for lower respiratory tract diseases hospitalized at 'Sapienza' University Rome and IRCCS Bambino Gesù Hospital...
August 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810685/characterising-the-exposure-of-prison-staff-to-second-hand-tobacco-smoke
#16
Sean Semple, Helen Sweeting, Evangelia Demou, Greig Logan, Rachel O'Donnell, Kate Hunt
Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) is an avoidable and harmful exposure in the workplace but >25000 prison staff continue to be exposed on a daily basis in the UK and many more worldwide. SHS exposures in prisons are incompletely understood but may be considerable given the large proportion of smoking prisoners and limited ventilation. This study characterized the exposure of prison staff to SHS in all 15 prisons in Scotland using multiple methods. Exposure assessment strategies included 6-day area measurement of fine Particulate Matter (PM2...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792710/effects-of-passive-smoking-on-glycemic-parameters-and-lipid-profiles-in-a-chinese-female-population
#17
Lijuan Gu, Jing Li, Gui Pan, Xiaojun Zhou, Jianmin Zhang, Xiaoyang Lai, Jianping Liu
BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke on glucose and lipid parameters in women and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this prospective community-based study, we examined the effects of passive smoking on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in a Chinese female population. METHODS: Of 3197 healthy women enrolled (30 - 75 years), 2082 self-reported passive exposure to smoke (≥ 15 minutes/day, 3 days/week, > 1 year) and 1115 had no smoke exposure (control group)...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781027/tobacco-exposure-as-determined-by-serum-cotinine-and-subclinical-myocardial-injury-in-individuals-free-from-cardiovascular-disease
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Muhammad Ali, Yabing Li, Wesley T O'Neal, Elsayed Z Soliman
Tobacco exposure including second-hand smoke is the leading preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Serum cotinine, a highly sensitive and specific biomarker for tobacco exposure, is a more accurate measure of tobacco exposure than self-reported smoking status. Although the harmful effect of tobacco exposure on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (e.g., atherosclerosis) or hard CVD outcomes (e.g., myocardial infarction) is well established, its effect on intermediate outcomes such as subclinical myocardial injury (SMI), especially in nonsmokers, is not clear...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756465/estimating-lung-cancer-mortality-attributable-to-second-hand-smoke-exposure-in-germany
#19
Heiko Becher, Matthias Belau, Volker Winkler, Annette Aigner
OBJECTIVES: Public health measures such as nonsmoker protection laws affect smoking prevalence and consequently the number of lung cancer deaths attributable to second hand smoke (SHS). In Germany, a risk assessment of SHS has been performed in 1994 only, and therefore, a reassessment is of interest. METHODS: Based on current knowledge on the relative risk of lung cancer from SHS, SHS prevalence, lung cancer deaths in Germany, and two approaches to estimate the number of never smokers among lung cancer deaths, we estimated the current number of deaths attributable to SHS among never smokers in Germany...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750224/second-hand-smoke-generated-by-combustion-and-electronic-smoking-devices-used-in-real-scenarios-ultrafine-particle-pollution-and-age-related-dose-assessment
#20
Carmela Protano, Maurizio Manigrasso, Pasquale Avino, Matteo Vitali
Aerosol measurements were carried out in a model room where both combustion (conventional and hand-rolled cigarettes, a cigar and tobacco pipe) and non-combustion (e-cigarette and IQOS®) devices were smoked. The data were used to estimate the dose of particles deposited in the respiratory systems of individuals from 3months to 21years of age using the multiple-path particle dosimetry (MPPD) model. Regardless of the smoking device, the highest doses were received by infants, which reached 9.88×10(8)particles/kg bw during a cigar smoking session...
July 24, 2017: Environment International
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