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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908515/an-altered-state-emergent-changes-to-illicit-drug-markets-and-distribution-networks-in-scotland
#1
James Densley, Robert McLean, Ross Deuchar, Simon Harding
BACKGROUND: Many efforts have been undertaken to construct an overview of various aspects of illicit drug distribution in the United Kingdom. Yet given that national, regional, and local differences can be profound, this has proven difficult, to the extent that Scotland has been largely excluded from the conversation. In addition, the level of supply being examined, the drug type, and the actors involved only add to confusion and vast differences between some findings. METHOD: The current study aims to provide a holistic account, as best as possible considering variations of illegal drug supply in illicit networks, by focusing in on a particular geographical context (Scotland) and addressing drug supply at all levels...
June 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908502/a-method-for-separation-of-heavy-metal-sources-in-urban-groundwater-using-multiple-lines-of-evidence
#2
Emily Hepburn, Anne Northway, Dawit Bekele, Gang-Jun Liu, Matthew Currell
Determining sources of heavy metals in soils, sediments and groundwater is important for understanding their fate and transport and mitigating human and environmental exposures. Artificially imported fill, natural sediments and groundwater from 240 ha of reclaimed land at Fishermans Bend in Australia, were analysed for heavy metals and other parameters to determine the relative contributions from different possible sources. Fishermans Bend is Australia's largest urban re-development project, however, complicated land-use history, geology, and multiple contamination sources pose challenges to successful re-development...
June 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908411/transitions-through-stages-of-alcohol-involvement-the-potential-role-of-mood-disorders
#3
Rosa M Crum, Kerry M Green, Elizabeth A Stuart, Lareina N La Flair, Marc Kealhofer, Andrea S Young, Noa Krawczyk, Kayla N Tormohlen, Carla L Storr, Anika A H Alvanzo, Ramin Mojtabai, Lauren R Pacek, Bernadette A Cullen, Beth A Reboussin
INTRODUCTION: Although prior clinical and population-based studies have demonstrated comorbidity between mood and alcohol use disorders (AUD), there is a paucity of research assessing whether mood disorders predict transition across stages of alcohol involvement. METHOD: Hypothesizing that mood disorders predict transition across sex-specific alcohol involvement stages, we used prospective data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative survey of US adults, which included male (n = 14,564) and female (n = 20,089) participants surveyed in 2001-2 and re-interviewed in 2004-5...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908298/hydrogen-sulfide-epigenetically-mitigates-bone-loss-through-opg-rankl-regulation-during-hyperhomocysteinemia-in-mice
#4
Jyotirmaya Behera, Akash K George, Michael J Voor, Suresh C Tyagi, Neetu Tyagi
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a novel gasotransmitter produced endogenously in mammalian cells, which works by mediating diverse physiological functions. An imbalance in H2 S metabolism is associated with defective bone homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether H2 S plays any epigenetic role in bone loss induced by hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). We demonstrate that diet-induced HHcy, a mouse model of metabolite induced osteoporosis, alters homocysteine metabolism by decreasing plasma levels of H2 S. Treatment with NaHS (H2 S donor), normalizes the plasma level of H2 S and further alleviates HHcy induced trabecular bone loss and mechanical strength...
June 13, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908295/hyperglycaemic-impairment-of-par2-mediated-vasodilation-prevention-by-inhibition-of-aortic-endothelial-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-and-minimizing-oxidative-stress
#5
Mahmoud El-Daly, Vivek Krishna Pulakazhi Venu, Mahmoud Saifeddine, Koichiro Mihara, Sean Kang, Paul W M Fedak, Laurie A Alston, Simon A Hirota, Hong Ding, Chris R Triggle, Morley D Hollenberg
Hyperglycaemia is a major contributor to diabetic cardiovascular disease with hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction recognized as the initiating cause. Coagulation pathway-regulated proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) that can regulate vascular tone in vivo cause eNOS-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation; but, the impact of hyperglycaemia on this vasodilatory action of PAR stimulation and the signalling pathways involved are unknown. We hypothesized that vascular sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 activity and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress involving Src-kinase, EGF receptor-kinase, Rho-kinase and protein-kinase-C biochemical signalling pathways would compromise PAR2-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation...
June 13, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908268/chitosan-extracted-from-marine-biowaste-mitigates-staphyloxanthin-production-and-biofilms-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Durairajan Rubini, Sanaulla Farisa Banu, B Narayanan Vedahari, Durai Ramyadevi, Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Paramasivam Nithyanand
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of biofilm-associated and indwelling device related infections. The present study explores the anti-virulent and antibiofilm potency of chitosan extracted from the shells of the marine crab Portunus sanguinolentus against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The chemical characterization results revealed that the extracted chitosan (EC) has structural analogy to that of a commercial chitosan (CC). The extracted chitosan was found to be effective in reducing the staphyloxanthin pigment, a characteristic virulence feature of MRSA that promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species...
June 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908063/oligonucleotide-therapy-mitigates-disease-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-mice
#7
Hayley S McLoughlin, Lauren R Moore, Ravi Chopra, Robert Komlo, Megan McKenzie, Kate G Blumenstein, Hien Zhao, Holly B Kordasiewicz, Vikram G Shakkottai, Henry L Paulson
OBJECTIVE: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease, is the most common dominantly inherited ataxia. Despite advances in understanding this CAG repeat/polyglutamine expansion disease, there are still no therapies to alter its progressive fatal course. Here we investigate whether an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting the SCA3 disease gene, ATXN3, can prevent molecular, neuropathological, electrophysiological and behavioral features of the disease in a mouse model of SCA3...
June 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907825/ex-vivo-biomechanical-characterization-of-syringe-needle-ejections-for-intracerebral-cell-delivery
#8
Brendon Wahlberg, Harmanvir Ghuman, Jessie R Liu, Michel Modo
Intracerebral implantation of cell suspensions is finding its clinical translation with encouraging results in patients with stroke. However, the survival of cells in the brain remains poor. Although the biological potential of neural stem cells (NSCs) is widely documented, the biomechanical effects of delivering cells through a syringe-needle remain poorly understood. We here detailed the biomechanical forces (pressure, shear stress) that cells are exposed to during ejection through different sized needles (20G, 26G, 32G) and syringes (10, 50, 250 µL) at relevant flow rates (1, 5, 10 µL/min)...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907816/fish-mitigate-trophic-depletion-in-marine-cave-ecosystems
#9
Simona Bussotti, Antonio Di Franco, Carlo Nike Bianchi, Pierre Chevaldonné, Lea Egea, Emanuela Fanelli, Christophe Lejeusne, Luigi Musco, Carlos Navarro-Barranco, Alexis Pey, Serge Planes, Jean Vincent Vieux-Ingrassia, Paolo Guidetti
Dark marine habitats are often characterized by a food-limited condition. Peculiar dark habitats include marine caves, characterized by the absence of light and limited water flow, which lead to reduced fluxes of organic matter for cave-dwelling organisms. We investigated whether the most abundant and common cave-dwelling fish Apogon imberbis has the potential to play the role of trophic vector in Mediterranean marine caves. We first analysed stomach contents to check whether repletion changes according to a nycthemeral cycle...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907679/the-tumour-suppressor-opcml-promotes-axl-inactivation-by-the-phosphatase-ptprg-in-ovarian-cancer
#10
Jane Antony, Elisa Zanini, Zoe Kelly, Tuan Zea Tan, Evdoxia Karali, Mohammad Alomary, Youngrock Jung, Katherine Nixon, Paula Cunnea, Christina Fotopoulou, Andrew Paterson, Sushmita Roy-Nawathe, Gordon B Mills, Ruby Yun-Ju Huang, Jean Paul Thiery, Hani Gabra, Chiara Recchi
In ovarian cancer, the prometastatic RTK AXL promotes motility, invasion and poor prognosis. Here, we show that reduced survival caused by AXL overexpression can be mitigated by the expression of the GPI-anchored tumour suppressor OPCML Further, we demonstrate that AXL directly interacts with OPCML, preferentially so when AXL is activated by its ligand Gas6. As a consequence, AXL accumulates in cholesterol-rich lipid domains, where OPCML resides. Here, phospho-AXL is brought in proximity to the lipid domain-restricted phosphatase PTPRG, which de-phosphorylates the RTK/ligand complex...
June 15, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907554/a-surveillance-infrastructure-for-malaria-analytics-provisioning-data-access-and-preservation-of-interoperability
#11
Mohammad Sadnan Al Manir, Jon Haël Brenas, Christopher Jo Baker, Arash Shaban-Nejad
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, malaria surveillance is weakest in countries and regions with the highest malaria burden. A core obstacle is that the data required to perform malaria surveillance are fragmented in multiple data silos distributed across geographic regions. Furthermore, consistent integrated malaria data sources are few, and a low degree of interoperability exists between them. As a result, it is difficult to identify disease trends and to plan for effective interventions...
June 15, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907503/real-time-management-of-incident-learning-reports-in-a-radiation-oncology-department
#12
REVIEW
Jean L Wright, Arti Parekh, Byung-Han Rhieu, Valentina Opris, Annette Souranis, Amanda Choflet, Akila N Viswanathan, Theodore L DeWeese, Todd McNutt, Stephanie A Terezakis
PURPOSE: The optimal approach to managing incident learning system (ILS) reports remains unclear. Here, we describe our experience with prospective coding of events reported to the ILS with comparisons of risk scores on the basis of event type and process map location. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Reported events were coded by type, origin, and method of discovery. Events were given a risk priority number (RPN) and near-miss risk index (NMRI) score. We compared workflow versus near-miss events with respect to origin and detection in the process map and by risk scores...
May 8, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907468/management-of-the-airway-in-maxillofacial-surgery-part-2
#13
REVIEW
S W Evans, R A McCahon
Prediction of the difficulty of an airway is unreliable, and failure of one technique of management increases the likelihood of failure of subsequent interventions. Part 2 of this review describes strategies to avoid or mitigate the impact of failure, and the associated airway-related morbidity and mortality.
June 12, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907407/comparative-risk-assessment-of-oil-spill-response-options-for-a-deepwater-oil-well-blowout-part-ii-relative-risk-methodology
#14
Michael Bock, Hilary Robinson, Richard Wenning, Deborah French-McCay, Jill Rowe, Ann Hayward Walker
Subsea dispersant injection (SSDI) was a new oil spill response (OSR) technology deployed during the Deepwater Horizon accident. To integrate SSDI into future OSR decisions, a hypothetical deepwater oil spill to the Gulf of Mexico was simulated and a comparative risk assessment (CRA) tool applied to contrast three response strategies: (1) no intervention; (2) mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, and surface dispersants; and, (3) SSDI in addition to responses in (2). A comparative ecological risk assessment (CRA) was applied to multiple valued ecosystem components (VECs) inhabiting different environmental compartments (ECs) using EC-specific exposure and relative VEC population density and recovery time indices...
June 12, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907275/prevention-and-treatment-of-right-ventricular-failure-during-left-ventricular-assist-device-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Amresh Raina, Maria Patarroyo-Aponte
Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are increasingly used for the treatment of end-stage heart failure. Right ventricular (RV) failure after LVAD implantation is an increasingly common clinical problem, occurring in patients early after continuous flow LVAD implant. RV failure is associated with a substantial increase in post-LVAD morbidity and mortality. RV failure can be predicted using preoperative hemodynamic, clinical, and echocardiographic variables and a variety of risk prediction algorithms. However, RV failure may also develop due to unanticipated intraoperative or perioperative factors...
July 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907155/green-leafy-vegetables-in-diets-with-a-25-1-omega-6-omega-3-fatty-acid-ratio-modify-the-erythrocyte-fatty-acid-profile-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#16
Melissa Johnson, Ralphenia D Pace, Wendell H McElhenney
BACKGROUND: In addition to the actual composition of the diet (i.e. nutrient composition, food groups), the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio has been demonstrated to influence the tissue fatty acid profile and subsequently the risk for cardiovascular and other diseases. Likewise, the consumption of green leafy vegetables (GLVs) may favorably reduce the risks associated with disease. Although an ~ 3:1 omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio (ω-6/ω-3 FAR) is recommended, the typical American diet has an ~ 25:1 ω-6/ω-3 FAR...
June 15, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907080/decadal-stability-in-genetic-variation-and-structure-in-the-intertidal-seaweed-fucus-serratus-heterokontophyta-fucaceae
#17
Alexander Jueterbock, James A Coyer, Jeanine L Olsen, Galice Hoarau
BACKGROUND: The spatial distribution of genetic diversity and structure has important implications for conservation as it reveals a species' strong and weak points with regard to stability and evolutionary capacity. Temporal genetic stability is rarely tested in marine species other than commercially important fishes, but is crucial for the utility of temporal snapshots in conservation management. High and stable diversity can help to mitigate the predicted northward range shift of seaweeds under the impact of climate change...
June 15, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906724/evaluating-the-effects-of-check-dams-on-channel-geometry-bed-sediment-size-and-riparian-vegetation-in-mediterranean-mountain-torrents
#18
Demetrio Antonio Zema, Giuseppe Bombino, Pietro Denisi, Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja, Santo Marcello Zimbone
In mountain streams possible negative impacts of check dams on soil, water and riparian vegetation due to check dam installation can be noticed. In spite of the ample literature on the qualitative effects of engineering works on channel hydrology, morphology, sedimentary effects and riparian vegetation characteristics, quantitative evaluations of the changes induced by check dams on headwater characteristics are rare. In order to fill this gap, this study has evaluated the effects of check dams located in headwaters of Calabria (Southern Italy) on hydrological and geomorphological processes and on the response of riparian vegetation to these actions...
June 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906675/soil-organic-carbon-stock-in-grasslands-effects-of-inorganic-fertilizers-liming-and-grazing-in-different-climate-settings
#19
REVIEW
Samuel Eze, Sheila M Palmer, Pippa J Chapman
Grasslands store about 34% of the global terrestrial carbon (C) and are vital for the provision of various ecosystem services such as forage and climate regulation. About 89% of this grassland C is stored in the soil and is affected by management activities but the effects of these management activities on C storage under different climate settings are not known. In this study, we synthesized the effects of fertilizer (nitrogen and phosphorus) application, liming and grazing regime on the stock of SOC in global grasslands, under different site specific climatic settings using a meta-analysis of 341 datasets...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906536/mahuang-decoction-mitigates-airway-inflammation-and-regulates-il-21-stat3-signaling-pathway-in-rat-asthma-model
#20
Yu He, Xiaohui Lou, Zhan Jin, Li Yu, Ling Deng, Haitong Wan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nowadays, bronchial asthma is still a severe disease threatening human health, and it is incumbent upon us to seek effective therapeutic drugs. Mahuang decoction (MHD), a classic famous Chinese prescription, has been used for thousands of years to prevent phlegm from forming, stop coughing and relieve asthma, but the relevant mechanism has not been thoroughly clarified. This study aims to investigate the anti-airway inflammation effect of MHD and the possible molecular mechanism underlying IL21/STAT3 signaling pathway, so as to provide guidance for the treatment of MHD on bronchial asthma...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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