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Jin Feng Han, Shuo Liu, Jun Dai, Hao Qiu
With the aim to control and reduce rainfall and snowmelt runoff in northern cities in China, the summer runoff and spring snowmelt runoff in the studied area were simulated with the establishment of storm water management model (SWMM). According to the climate characteristics and the situation of the studied area, the low impact development (LID) green ecological strategies suitable for the studied area were established. There were three kinds of management strategies being used, including extended green roof, snow and rainwater harvesting devices, and grass-swales or trenches...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Zhen Wu, Yu Bing Dong, Zheng Qin Xiong
To evaluate the long-term effects of biochar amendment on greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs), a field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of 3-year field-aged biochar (B3 ) and fresh biochar (B0 ) on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) in a typical rice-wheat rotation system. Four treatments were established as control without nitrogen fertilizer (CK), urea without biochar (N), urea with fresh biochar amended in 2015 (NB0 ), and urea with 3-year field-aged biochar amended in 2012 (NB3 )...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Sreenivasulu Basha, Lakshman Kumar Lingamgunta, Jayakumar Kannali, Swarna Kumari Gajula, Ramesh Bandikari, Sreenivasulu Dasari, Veena Dalavai, Paramageetham Chinthala, Prasada Babu Gundala, Peera Kutagolla, Vinodh Kumar Balaji
Concrete is a strong and fairly inexpensive building substance, but has several disadvantages like cracking that allows corrosion, thus reducing its lifespan. To mitigate these complications, long-lasting microbial self-healing cement is an alternative that is eco-friendly and also actively repairs cracks. The present paper describes the detailed experimental investigation on compressive strength of cement mortars, mixed with six alkaliphilic bacteria, isolated from subsurface mica mines of high alkalinity...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rupert Seidl, Günther Klonner, Werner Rammer, Franz Essl, Adam Moreno, Mathias Neumann, Stefan Dullinger
Forests mitigate climate change by sequestering large amounts of carbon (C). However, forest C storage is not permanent, and large pulses of tree mortality can thwart climate mitigation efforts. Forest pests are increasingly redistributed around the globe. Yet, the potential future impact of invasive alien pests on the forest C cycle remains uncertain. Here we show that large parts of Europe could be invaded by five detrimental alien pests already under current climate. Climate change increases the potential range of alien pests particularly in Northern and Eastern Europe...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Pravin Kesarwani, Antony Prabhu, Shiva Kant, Praveen Kumar, Stewart F Graham, Katie L Buelow, George D Wilson, Christopher Ryan Miller, Prakash Chinnaiyan
PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors designed to revert tumor-induced immune suppression have emerged as potent anti-cancer therapies. Tryptophan metabolism represents an immune checkpoint and targeting this pathway's rate limiting enzyme IDO1 is actively being investigated clinically. Here, we studied the intermediary metabolism of tryptophan metabolism in glioblastoma and evaluated the activity of the IDO1 inhibitor GDC-0919, both alone and in combination with radiation (RT).  Experimental Design: LC/GC-MS and expression profiling was performed for metabolomic and genomic analyses of patient-derived glioma...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Deepika, Sandeep Kaur, Shiv Narayan
This paper proposes a novel fractional order sliding mode control approach to address the issues of stabilization as well as tracking of an N-dimensional extended chained form of fractional order non-holonomic system. Firstly, the hierarchical fractional order terminal sliding manifolds are selected to procure the desired objectives in finite time. Then, a sliding mode control law is formulated which provides robustness against various system uncertainties or external disturbances. In addition, a novel fractional order uncertainty estimator is deduced mathematically to estimate and mitigate the effects of uncertainties, which also excludes the requirement of their upper bounds...
April 21, 2018: ISA Transactions
Hitoshi Kodamatani, Shannon L Roback, Megan H Plumlee, Kenneth P Ishida, Hiroto Masunaga, Noboru Maruyama, Takahiro Fujioka
A newly developed, ion exchange-based inline pretreatment system was used to mitigate the effect of background constituents in natural water and treated wastewater to achieve rapid, reliable, and sensitive analysis of N-nitrosamines. The pretreatment system (anion exchange module, AEM) was incorporated into a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) coupled with a photochemical reactor (PR) and chemiluminescence (CL) detector (HPLC-PR-CL), which can analyze four hydrophilic N-nitrosamines at ng/L levels...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Alice Valentin-Torres, Carine Savarin, Joslyn Barnett, Cornelia C Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Although TNF-targeted therapies have been largely unsuccessful in MS, recent preclinical data suggests selective soluble TNF inhibition can promote remyelination. This has renewed interest in regulation of TNF signaling in demyelinating disease, especially given the limited treatment options for progressive MS. Using a mouse model of progressive MS, this study evaluates the effects of sustained TNF on oligodendrocyte (OLG) apoptosis and OLG precursor cell (OPC) differentiation...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ying Wang, Shirong Guo, Lei Wang, Liwei Wang, Xueying He, Sheng Shu, Jin Sun, Na Lu
BACKGROUND: High-temperature stress inhibited the growth of cucumber seedlings. Foliar spraying of 1.0 mmol·L- 1 exogenous spermidine (Spd) to the sensitive cucumber cultivar 'Jinchun No. 2' grown at high-temperature (42 °C/32 °C) in an artificial climate box improved the high-temperature tolerance. Although there have been many reports on the response of microRNAs (miRNAs) to high-temperature stress, the mechanism by which exogenous Spd may mitigate the damage of high-temperature stress through miRNA-mediated regulation has not been studied...
April 24, 2018: BMC Genomics
Jean-Philippe Tetienne, David A Broadway, Scott E Lillie, Nikolai Dontschuk, Tokuyuki Teraji, Liam T Hall, Alastair Stacey, David A Simpson, Lloyd C L Hollenberg
Magnetic imaging with ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in diamond is a recently developed technique that allows for quantitative vector field mapping. Here we uncover a source of artefacts in the measured magnetic field in situations where the magnetic sample is placed in close proximity (a few tens of nm) to the NV sensing layer. Using magnetic nanoparticles as a test sample, we find that the measured field deviates significantly from the calculated field, in shape, amplitude and even in sign. By modelling the full measurement process, we show that these discrepancies are caused by the limited measurement range of NV sensors combined with the finite spatial resolution of the optical readout...
April 23, 2018: Sensors
Jialu Huang, Hong Ma, Jiang Jin, Hua Zhang
Recently, nonlinear blind compensation technique has attracted growing attention in array signal processing application. However, due to the nonlinear distortion stemming from array receiver which consists of multi-channel radio frequency (RF) front-ends, it is too difficult to estimate the parameters of array signal accurately. A novel nonlinear blind compensation algorithm aims at the nonlinearity mitigation of array receiver and its spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) improvement, which will be more precise to estimate the parameters of target signals such as their two-dimensional directions of arrival (2-D DOAs)...
April 22, 2018: Sensors
Nelson Arispe, Antonio De Maio
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major contemporary and escalating malady in which amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the most likely causative agent. Aβ peptides spontaneously tend to aggregate in extracellular fluids following a progression from a monomeric state, through intermediate forms, ending in amyloid fibers and plaques. It is generally accepted now that the neurotoxic agents leading to cellular death, memory loss, and other AD characteristics are the Aβ intermediate aggregated states. However, Aβ peptides are continuously produced, released into the extracellular space, and rapidly cleared from healthy brains...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Martin D Bootman, Sarah Allman, Katja Rietdorf, Geert Bultynck
The study of cellular Ca2+ signalling is indebted to Roger Tsien for the invention of fluorescent indicators that can be readily loaded into living cells and provide the means to measure cellular Ca2+ changes over long periods of time with sub-second resolution and microscopic precision. However, a recent study [1] reminds us that as useful as these tools are they need to be employed with caution as there can be off-target effects. This article summarises these recent findings within the wider context of confounding issues that can be encountered when using chemical and genetically-encoded Ca2+ indicators, and briefly discusses some approaches that may mitigate against misleading outcomes...
April 15, 2018: Cell Calcium
You Dong Liu, Cheng Bo Ji, Shan Bao Li, Feng Yan, Qi Sheng Gu, Jesse J Balic, Liang Yu, Ji Kun Li
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 is a key regulator of innate immune responses and has been shown to play an important role in inflammation-associated cancers. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of TLR2 in colorectal cancer (CRC). We demonstrated that TLR2 mRNA and protein expression was significantly upregulated in tumors from CRC patients and indicated poor prognosis. Using the TLR2 agonist Pam3Cys (P3C) to activate TLR2 signaling in human CRC cell lines, we showed that TLR2 drives cellular proliferation, which was dependent upon PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways and was associated with the upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes BCL2A1, WISP1 and BIRC3...
April 21, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Adam Pastor, Casey L O'Brien, Jessie Teng, Jennifer Conn, Margaret Loh, Lisa Collins, Richard MacIsaac, Yvonne Bonomo
AIMS: Alcohol and recreational drug use is common in young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and may account for increased morbidity and mortality. This study explores the motivations and experiences unique to this population while using alcohol and recreational drugs. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews focusing on substance use were performed with 16 young adults aged 18-35 with T1DM who drink alcohol (at least 50 grams, 5 Australian standard drinks, in a single session) and/or used recreational drugs...
April 21, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Sheila Connelly, Poorani Subramanian, Nur A Hasan, Rita R Colwell, Michael Kaleko
The gut microbiome influences many, if not all, aspects of human health. Antibiotics, while lifesaving, have the unintended consequence of killing commensal microbiota inhabiting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which can lead to overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Here, porcine models were developed to evaluate changes to the gut microbiome caused by two distinct types of beta-lactam antibiotics delivered via common administration routes, oral amoxicillin and intravenous ertapenem...
April 21, 2018: Anaerobe
Bruno C Vieira, Thomas R Butts, Andre O Rodrigues, Jeffrey A Golus, Kasey Schroeder, Greg R Kruger
BACKGROUND: Herbicide particle drift reduces application efficacy and can cause severe impacts on nearby vegetation depending on the herbicide mode-of-action, exposure level, and tolerance to the herbicide. A particle drift mitigation effort placing windbreaks or barriers on the field boundaries to reduce off-target movement of spray particles has been utilized in the past. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of field corn (Zea mays L.) at different heights as a particle drift barrier...
April 24, 2018: Pest Management Science
Neil S Lagali, Stephan Allgeier, Pedro Guimarães, Reza A Badian, Alfredo Ruggeri, Bernd Köhler, Tor Paaske Utheim, Beatrice Peebo, Magnus Peterson, Lars B Dahlin, Olov Rolandsson
A dense nerve plexus in the clear outer window of the eye, the cornea, can be imaged in vivo to enable non-invasive monitoring of peripheral nerve degeneration in diabetes. However, a limited field of view of corneal nerves, operator-dependent image quality, and subjective image sampling methods have led to difficulty in establishing robust diagnostic measures relating to the progression of diabetes and its complications. Here, we use machine-based algorithms to provide wide-area mosaics of the cornea's subbasal nerve plexus (SBP) also accounting for depth (axial) fluctuation of the plexus...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Data
A N Vachev, O V Dmitriev, M Iu Stepanov, O V Tereshina
Presented herein are the results of a prospective cohort study of clinical efficacy of medicamentous treatment and operations of shunting to the third segment (V3) of the vertebral artery in patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). The study included a total of 60 patients with pronounced clinical manifestations of VBI and concomitant lesions of the V1 and V2 segments of the vertebral arteries. The patients were found to have no significant involvement of the carotid bifurcation. At the first stage, all patients during 12 months were receiving a course of optimal medicamentous therapy...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Carolina P Dahmer, Allison Rutter, Barbara A Zeeb
Point Pelee National Park (PPNP) is highly contaminated with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) due to the historical use of this persistent organochlorine pesticide. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) has previously been investigated for its role in the remediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, HPβCD's ability to promote DDT microbial degradation, enhance DDT phytoextraction by two native grasses (Schizachyrium scoparium and Panicum virgatum), and increase DDT bioavailability to redworms (Eisenia fetida) was investigated...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
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