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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933500/climate-change-mitigation-the-potential-of-agriculture-as-a-renewable-energy-source-in-nigeria
#1
Z A Elum, D M Modise, G Nhamo
Energy is pivotal to the economic development of every nation. However, its production and utilization leads to undesirable carbon emissions that aggravate global warming which results in climate change. The agriculture sector is a significant user of energy. However, it has the potential to be a major contributor to Nigeria's energy supply mix in meeting its energy deficit. More so, in the light of current and impending adverse effects of climate change, there is a need to contain GHG's emissions. This paper focuses on bioenergy utilization as a climate change mitigation strategy and one that can, through effective waste management, enhance sustainable economic development in Nigeria...
December 9, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933140/mitigating-pharmaceutical-waste-exposures-policy-and-program-considerations
#2
EDITORIAL
Eric D Amster
Pharmaceutical disposal and the environmental fate of medication metabolites directly impacts the public's health in two significant ways: accidental medication ingestion of pharmaceuticals that were not disposed of properly results in inadvertent toxicity; and environmental health consequences of pharmaceuticals that were inappropriately disposed and which contaminate municipal water supply. In reviewing the effectiveness of medication disposal policy globally, it is crucial to not only determine which policies are effective but also to assess why they are effective...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932702/incorporation-of-cerium-oxide-into-hydroxyapatite-coating-regulates-osteogenic-activity-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-and-macrophage-polarization
#3
Kai Li, Qingyi Shen, Youtao Xie, Mingyu You, Liping Huang, Xuebin Zheng
Biomedical coatings for orthopedic implants should facilitate osseointegration and mitigate implant-induced inflammatory reactions. Cerium oxide (CeO2) ceramics possess anti-oxidative properties and can be used to decrease mediators of inflammation, which makes them attractive for biomedical applications. In our work, two kinds of CeO2 incorporated hydroxyapatite coatings (HA-10Ce and HA-30Ce) were prepared via plasma spraying technique and the effects of CeO2 addition on the responses of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and RAW264...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932665/statistical-analysis-of-a-low-cost-method-for-multiple-disease-prediction
#4
Mohsen Bayati, Sonia Bhaskar, Andrea Montanari
Early identification of individuals at risk for chronic diseases is of significant clinical value. Early detection provides the opportunity to slow the pace of a condition, and thus help individuals to improve or maintain their quality of life. Additionally, it can lessen the financial burden on health insurers and self-insured employers. As a solution to mitigate the rise in chronic conditions and related costs, an increasing number of employers have recently begun using wellness programs, which typically involve an annual health risk assessment...
December 8, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932595/the-relationship-between-acute-malnutrition-hygiene-practices-water-and-livestock-and-their-program-implications-in-eastern-chad
#5
Anastasia Marshak, Helen Young, Elizabeth N Bontrager, Erin M Boyd
BACKGROUND: The causes of acute malnutrition are complex and time and geography variant and need to be better understood in order to both design more effective nutrition programs and evaluate them. The findings reported here are part of an evaluation of a 4-year multisectoral nutrition program led by Concern Worldwide in the Sila Region of eastern Chad. OBJECTIVE: To present evidence and learning about the relationships between acute malnutrition and potential drivers in Sila, Chad...
December 8, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932512/atf6-decreases-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-damage-and-links-er-stress-and-oxidative-stress-signaling-pathways-in-the-heart
#6
Jung-Kang Jin, Erik A Blackwood, Khalid M Azizi, Donna J Thuerauf, Asal G Fahem, Christoph Hofmann, Randal J Kaufman, Shirin Doroudgar, Christopher C Glembotski
RATIONALE: ER stress causes accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, activating the transcription factor, ATF6, which induces ER stress response genes. Myocardial ischemia induces the ER stress response; however, neither the function of this response nor whether it is mediated by ATF6 is known. OBJECTIVE: Here, we examined the effects of blocking the ATF6-mediated ER stress response on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in cardiac myocytes and mouse hearts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Knockdown of ATF6 in cardiac myocytes subjected to I/R increased ROS and necrotic cell death, which were mitigated by ATF6 overexpression...
December 8, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932362/predicting-functional-decline-in-older-emergency-patients-the-safe-elderly-emergency-discharge-seed-project
#7
Judy A Lowthian, Lahn D Straney, Caroline A Brand, Anna Barker, P de Villiers Smit, Harvey Newnham, Peter Hunter, Cathie Smith, Peter A Cameron
OBJECTIVE: to profile the trajectory of, and risk factors for, functional decline in older patients in the 30 days following Emergency Department (ED) discharge. METHODS: prospective cohort study of community-dwelling patients aged ≥65 years, discharged home from a metropolitan Melbourne ED, 31 July 2012 to 30 November 2013. The primary outcome was functional decline, comprising either increased dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADL) or in skills required for living independently instrumental ADL (IADL), deterioration in cognitive function, nursing home admission or death...
December 7, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932028/race-based-differences-in-duration-of-stay-among-universally-insured-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-patients-in-military-versus-civilian-hospitals
#8
Ritam Chowdhury, W Austin Davis, Muhammad A Chaudhary, Wei Jiang, Cheryl K Zogg, Andrew J Schoenfeld, Michael T Jaklitsch, Tsuyoshi Kaneko, Peter A Learn, Adil H Haider, Eric B Schneider
BACKGROUND: Duration of stay for coronary artery bypass graft operation outcomes differs for black versus white patients, with differences often attributed to insurance. We examined black versus white differences in duration of stay among TRICARE-covered patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. METHODS: Patients aged 18-64 years with TRICARE who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass graft (ICD-9CM 36.10-36.20) between 2006-2010 and who identified as black or white race were identified...
December 5, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931926/evaluating-wildlife-cattle-contact-rates-to-improve-the-understanding-of-dynamics-of-bovine-tuberculosis-transmission-in-michigan-usa
#9
Michael J Lavelle, Shannon L Kay, Kim M Pepin, Daniel A Grear, Henry Campa, Kurt C VerCauteren
Direct and indirect contacts among individuals drive transmission of infectious disease. When multiple interacting species are susceptible to the same pathogen, risk assessment must include all potential host species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an example of a disease that can be transmitted among several wildlife species and to cattle, although the potential role of several wildlife species in spillback to cattle remains unclear. To better understand the complex network of contacts and factors driving disease transmission, we fitted proximity logger collars to beef and dairy cattle (n=37), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; n=29), raccoon (Procyon lotor; n=53), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; n=79) for 16 months in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, USA...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931925/investigating-interactions-between-uk-horse-owners-and-prescribers-of-anthelmintics
#10
Stephanie Easton, Gina L Pinchbeck, Thomas Tzelos, David J Bartley, Emily Hotchkiss, Jane E Hodgkinson, Jacqueline B Matthews
Helminths are common pathogens of equids and anthelmintic resistance is a major issue in cyathostomin species and Parascaris equorum. At the heart of mitigating the impact of increasing anthelmintic resistance levels, is the responsible dissemination and use of these medicines following best practice principles. There is a paucity of information on interactions between horse owners and anthelmintic prescribers and how this shapes control. Here, a study was undertaken to determine opinions and experiences of horse owners as they relate to anthelmintics purchase and implementation of best practice control...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931830/cancer-treatment-induced-metabolic-syndrome-improving-outcome-with-lifestyle
#11
REVIEW
N L Westerink, J Nuver, J D Lefrandt, A H Vrieling, J A Gietema, A M E Walenkamp
Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but effective treatment and prevention methods are probably similar. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms leading to the development of CTIMetS after various types of cancer treatment. Furthermore, we propose a safe and accessible method to treat or prevent CTIMetS through lifestyle change...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931681/mycobacterial-contamination-of-bronchoscopes-challenges-and-possible-solutions-in-low-resource-settings
#12
Dania Khalid Saeed, Sadia Shakoor, Seema Irfan, Rumina Hasan
The use of bronchoscopes has increased in tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics to circumvent the diagnostic challenges that are associated with low sputum volume and smear-negative TB. In healthcare facilities situated in low income countries that have a high burden of TB, adequate decontamination of bronchoscopes is a challenge and often overlooked to save on time and costs. This amplifies the risk of outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculosis mycobacteria. In this minireview, we review published literature of contaminated bronchoscopes causing pseudo-outbreaks of M...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931396/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-environment
#13
Maggie R Williams, Robert D Stedtfeld, Xueping Guo, Syed A Hashsham
This review summarizes important publications from 2015 pertaining to the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment. Emphasis is placed on sources of antibiotic resistance in the aquatic environment including wastewater treatment plants, hospitals, and agriculture, treatment and mitigation techniques, and surveillance and analysis methodologies for characterizing abundance data. As such, this review is organized into the following sections: i) occurrence of AMR in the environment, including surface waters, aquaculture, and wastewater ii) treatment technologies, and iii) technologies for rapid surveillance of AMR, iv) transmission between matrices, v) databases and analysis methods, and vi) gaps in AMR understanding...
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930997/copper-exposure-to-soil-under-single-and-repeated-application-selection-for-the-microbial-community-tolerance-and-effects-on-the-dissipation-of-antibiotics
#14
Bei Liu, Yanxia Li, Shiying Gao, Xingcai Chen
In order to be more practical on evaluating the response of soil microbial communities to Cu contamination, we compared the microbial activity and selection for the microbial tolerance after a high level Cu exposure in single and corresponding repeated addition. It was shown that the activities of microorganisms in soils were largely inhibited by the exposure of Cu in a level of 32.9mmol/kg. Specifically, single application displayed larger toxicity and longer-term effects on the microbial activity than the same amount of Cu that were repeatedly added by several times...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930649/multiple-factors-affect-socioeconomics-and-wellbeing-of-artisanal-sea-cucumber-fishers
#15
Steven W Purcell, Poasi Ngaluafe, Simon J Foale, Nicole Cocks, Brian R Cullis, Watisoni Lalavanua
Small-scale fisheries are important to livelihoods and subsistence seafood consumption of millions of fishers. Sea cucumbers are fished worldwide for export to Asia, yet few studies have assessed factors affecting socioeconomics and wellbeing among fishers. We interviewed 476 men and women sea cucumber fishers at multiple villages within multiple locations in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and New Caledonia using structured questionnaires. Low rates of subsistence consumption confirmed a primary role of sea cucumbers in income security...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930612/potential-impact-of-integrated-stigma-mitigation-interventions-in-improving-hiv-aids-service-delivery-and-uptake-for-key-populations-in-senegal
#16
Carrie E Lyons, Sosthenes Ketende, Daouda Diouf, Fatou M Drame, Benjamin Liestman, Karleen Coly, Cheikh Ndour, Gnilane Turpin, Souleymane Mboup, Karim Diop, Coumba Toure-Kane, Delivette Castor, Nafissatou Leye-Diouf, Stefan Baral
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW) are consistently shown to have a higher burden of HIV compared with other adults in Senegal. This study, HIV Prevention 2.0, evaluates the impact of the 3-tiered integrated stigma mitigation interventions (ISMIs) approach to optimizing HIV service delivery for key populations in Senegal. METHODS: Baseline assessment includes a questionnaire and biological testing for HIV. A proportion of participants enrolled into a 24-month longitudinal cohort with questionnaires and biological testing every 3 months...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930338/pegylated-ifn-%C3%AE-suppresses-hepatitis-c-virus-by-promoting-the-dapk-mtor-pathway
#17
Wei-Liang Liu, Hung-Chih Yang, Ching-Sheng Hsu, Chih-Chiang Wang, Tzu-San Wang, Jia-Horng Kao, Ding-Shinn Chen
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) has been found to be induced by IFN, but its antiviral activity remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated whether DAPK plays a role in the pegylated IFN-α (peg-IFN-α)-induced antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Primary human hepatocytes, Huh-7, and infectious HCV cell culture were used to study the relationship between peg-IFN-α and the DAPK-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. The activation of DAPK and signaling pathways were determined using immunoblotting...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929719/nad-the-convergence-of-dna-repair-and-mitophagy
#18
Evandro F Fang, Vilhelm A Bohr
ATM is a 350 kDa serine/threonine kinase best known for its role in DNA repair and multiple cellular homeostasis pathways. Mutation in ATM causes the disease ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) with clinical features including ataxia, severe cerebellar atrophy and Purkinje cell loss. In a cross-species study, using primary rat neurons, the roundworm C. elegans, and a mouse model of A-T, we showed that loss of ATM induces mitochondrial dysfunction and compromised mitophagy due to NAD(+) insufficiency. Remarkably, NAD(+) repletion mitigates both the DNA repair defect and mitochondrial dysfunction in ATM-deficient neurons...
December 8, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929672/long-term-consequences-of-adolescent-cannabis-use-examining-intermediary-processes
#19
Kerry M Green, Elaine E Doherty, Margaret E Ensminger
BACKGROUND: In the United States, perceptions of marijuana's acceptability are at an all-time high, risk perceptions among youth are low, and rates are rising among Black youth. Thus, it is imperative to increase the understanding of long-term effects of adolescent marijuana use and ways to mitigate adverse consequences. OBJECTIVES: To identify the midlife consequences of heavy adolescent marijuana use and the mechanisms driving effects among a Black, urban population...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929520/the-minimum-area-requirements-mar-for-giant-panda-an-empirical-study
#20
Jing Qing, Zhisong Yang, Ke He, Zejun Zhang, Xiaodong Gu, Xuyu Yang, Wen Zhang, Biao Yang, Dunwu Qi, Qiang Dai
Habitat fragmentation can reduce population viability, especially for area-sensitive species. The Minimum Area Requirements (MAR) of a population is the area required for the population's long-term persistence. In this study, the response of occupancy probability of giant pandas against habitat patch size was studied in five of the six mountain ranges inhabited by giant panda, which cover over 78% of the global distribution of giant panda habitat. The probability of giant panda occurrence was positively associated with habitat patch area, and the observed increase in occupancy probability with patch size was higher than that due to passive sampling alone...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
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