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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679917/possible-impacts-of-sea-level-rise-on-disease-transmission-and-potential-adaptation-strategies-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Ana C Dvorak, Helena M Solo-Gabriele, Andrea Galletti, Bernardo Benzecry, Hannah Malone, Vicki Boguszewski, Jason Bird
Sea levels are projected to rise in response to climate change, causing the intrusion of sea water into land. In flat coastal regions, this would generate an increase in shallow water covered areas with limited circulation. This scenario raises a concern about the consequences it could have on human health, specifically the possible impacts on disease transmission. In this review paper we identified three categories of diseases which are associated with water and whose transmission can be affected by sea level rise...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679810/the-cost-effectiveness-of-seven-behavioural-interventions-to-prevent-drug-misuse-in-vulnerable-populations
#2
Becky Pennington, Brendan Collins, Simon Leigh, Antony P Martin, Lesley Owen, Alastair Fischer, Harry Sumnall, Geoff Bates
BACKGROUND: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) developed a guideline on drug misuse prevention in vulnerable populations. Part of the guideline development process involved evaluating cost-effectiveness and determining which interventions represented good value for money. METHODS: Economic models were developed for seven interventions which aimed to prevent drug use in vulnerable populations. The models compared the costs (to the health and crime sectors) and health benefits (in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)) of each intervention and its comparator...
April 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679679/activation-of-cyclic-gmp-dependent-protein-kinase-blocks-alcohol-mediated-cell-death-and-calcium-disruption-in-cerebellar-granule-neurons
#3
Dimitrios E Kouzoukas, Ramesh C Bhalla, Nicholas J Pantazis
Alcohol during brain development leads to the widespread neuronal death observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In comparison, the mature brain is less vulnerable to alcohol. Studies into maturation-acquired alcohol resistance uncovered a protective mechanism that reduces alcohol-induced neuronal death through nitric oxide-cGMP-cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (NO-cGMP-cGK) signaling. However, the downstream processes underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Alcohol can disrupt levels of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) in vulnerable neuronal populations to trigger cell death in both in vivo and in vitro models of FASD...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679641/ethanol-induced-cardiomyocyte-toxicity-involves-autophagy-nfkb-transcription-factor
#4
Jessica Maiuolo, Alessia Maretta, Micaela Gliozzi, Vincenzo Musolino, Cristina Carresi, Francesca Bosco, Rocco Mollace, Federica Scarano, Ernesto Palma, Miriam Scicchitano, Saverio Nucera, Domenico Sergi, Saverio Muscoli, Santo Gratteri, Carolina Muscoli, Vincenzo Mollace
Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption causes early detrimental consequences in many tissues including the myocardium, though the molecular mechanisms leading to the alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) still remain to be elucidated. Here, we studied several biomolecular changes occurring in cardiomyoblasts after their exposure to sublethal concentrations of EtOH and the potential synergistic effect with methylmercury (MM) or doxorubicin (DOXO), which are known to produce direct myocardial dysfunction. In addition, the possible role of autophagic responses and Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NFkB) modulation in early post-alcoholic myocardial damage has been investigated...
April 18, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679397/development-of-tools-to-measure-dignity-for-older-people-in-acute-hospitals
#5
Marcelle Tauber-Gilmore, Christine Norton, Sue Procter, Trevor Murrells, Gulen Addis, Lesley Baillie, Pauline Velasco, Preet Athwal, Saeema Kayani, Zainab Zahran
BACKGROUND: Dignity is a concept that applies to all patients. Older patients can be particularly vulnerable to experiencing a loss of dignity in hospital. Previous tools developed to measure dignity have been aimed at palliative and end of life care. No tools for measuring dignity in acute hospital care have been reported. OBJECTIVES: To develop tools for measuring patient dignity in acute hospitals. SETTING: A large UK acute hospital. We purposively selected 17 wards where at least 50% of patients are 65 or over...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679117/the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-is-a-dynamic-and-mobile-structure-which-deforms-during-knee-motion-and-has-proximal-extensions-which-wrap-around-the-patella
#6
Joanna M Stephen, Ran Sopher, Sebastian Tullie, Andrew A Amis, Simon Ball, Andy Williams
PURPOSE: The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) is a common cause of knee pain and loss of knee flexion and extension. However, its anatomy and behavior are not consistently defined. METHODS: Thirty-six unpaired fresh frozen knees (median age 34 years, range 21-68) were dissected, and IFP attachments and volume measured. The rectus femoris was elevated, suprapatellar pouch opened and videos recorded looking inferiorly along the femoral shaft at the IFP as the knee was flexed...
April 20, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678722/circulating-zearalenone-and-its-metabolites-differ-in-women-due-to-body-mass-index-and-food-intake
#7
T Mauro, L Hao, L C Pop, B Buckley, S H Schneider, E V Bandera, S A Shapses
The environmental estrogen, zearalenone (ZEA), is found in the food supply from Fusarium fungal contamination in grains and sometimes used as a growth promoter for beef cattle. Long-term exposure to ZEA and its metabolites may present health risk due to higher estrogenic activity. Serum ZEA metabolites were measured to determine the exposure and the association with food intake in 48 overweight/obese women (52 ± 9 years). The free and conjugated ZEA indicated the highest detection rate of all the metabolites...
April 17, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678668/the-effect-of-music-on-postoperative-recovery-in-older-patients-a-systematic-review
#8
Hanneke van der Wal-Huisman, Karolien S K Dons, Rineke Smilde, Erik Heineman, Barbara L van Leeuwen
OBJECTIVE: Surgery is an important part of the treatment modalities offered to older patients with cancer. Natural ageing processes lead to deterioration of organ function, making older patients more vulnerable and at risk for experiencing less-favourable outcomes and complications after surgery. Non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as music, may be preferable to medical interventions in older people, who are at risk for adverse effects and drug interactions due to altered physiology and drug metabolism...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678643/a-systematic-review-of-neuropsychological-studies-involving-young-binge-drinkers
#9
REVIEW
Carina Carbia, Eduardo López-Caneda, Montserrat Corral, Fernando Cadaveira
Binge drinking (BD) is a public health concern with serious implications for brain development. This review is the first in which neuropsychological studies of healthy young BDs are synthesized following PRISMA guidelines. We conducted a literature search in PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed. Articles were screened using strict inclusion criteria. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality. Of the 27 studies included, 14 (52%) were of intermediate quality, 7 (26%) of poor quality and 6 (22%) of high quality...
April 17, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678427/the-psychological-impact-of-adult-traumatic-brachial-plexus-injury
#10
Zoe A Landers, Rishabh Jethanandani, Steve K Lee, Carol A Mancuso, Mavis Seehaus, Scott W Wolfe
PURPOSE: There is a high incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide risk, and psychological distress after orthopedic trauma and hand and upper-extremity injury. Although patients with traumatic adult brachial plexus injury are particularly vulnerable to psychologic distress, minimal clinical data exist about this cohort of patients. In this study, we sought to discover the prevalence of depression, PTSD, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse. METHODS: Between February, 2013 and July, 2014, during scheduled preoperative and/or postoperative appointments, the social worker at a metropolitan brachial plexus center conducted psychosocial assessments and questionnaire assessments of 21 patients evaluating for PTSD, depression, and substance use using 3 validated scales: PTSD Checklist-Specific, Patient Health Questionnaire-8, and National Institute on Drug Abuse Quick Screen...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678419/finite-element-analysis-for-transverse-carpal-ligament-tensile-strain-and-carpal-arch-area
#11
Yifei Yao, Ahmet Erdemir, Zong-Ming Li
Mechanics of carpal tunnel soft tissue, such as fat, muscle and transverse carpal ligament (TCL), around the median nerve may render the median nerve vulnerable to compression neuropathy. The purpose of this study was to understand the roles of carpal tunnel soft tissue mechanical properties and intratunnel pressure on the TCL tensile strain and carpal arch area (CAA) using finite element analysis (FEA). Manual segmentation of the thenar muscles, skin, fat, TCL, hamate bone, and trapezium bone in the transverse plane at distal carpal tunnel were obtained from B-mode ultrasound images of one cadaveric hand...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678359/role-of-maternal-tetrodotoxin-in-survival-of-larval-pufferfish
#12
Shiro Itoi, Miwa Suzuki, Kiyoshi Asahina, Eitaro Sawayama, Junki Nishikubo, Hikaru Oyama, Mitsuki Takei, Nanae Shiibashi, Tomohiro Takatani, Osamu Arakawa, Haruo Sugita
It is known that tetrodotoxin (TTX), also known as pufferfish toxin, is an extremely potent neurotoxin and had been detected in various taxa. However, the exact function of the toxin in TTX-bearing organisms has remained unclear. In Takifugu pufferfish species, it has been suggested that TTX is utilized to protect larvae from predators but no experimental proof exists. In the present study, we used pufferfish Takifugu alboplumbeus larvae from wild and cultured parents to determine the effects of the maternal TTX on the survival of toxic and non-toxic pufferfish larvae, respectively...
April 17, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677994/climate-change-and-health-as-massive-open-online-courses
#13
Sandra Barteit, Ali Sié, Maurice Yé, Anneliese Depoux, Reiner Sauerborn
To teach the basics of climate change and health - such as the nature of health impacts, best practices in adoption strategies and promotion in health co-benefits, mitigation and adaptation strategies - we have developed three massive open online courses (MOOCs). We analysed the three MOOCs with regards to different factors such as course content, student motivation, instructor behaviour, co-learner effects, design and implementation effects. We conducted online surveys for all three MOOCs based on the research model of Hone et al...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677966/reducing-nosocomial-infections-in-surgical-icus-in-sri-lanka-co-creating-a-safety-culture-using-an-ehealth-intervention
#14
Nadish Kariyawasam, Ming Chao Wong, Paul Turner
Nosocomial infections are a major public health risk more prevalent among vulnerable patients in intensive care units of lower and lower-middle income countries. Despite advances in health care, the prevalence of nosocomial infections is alarming. The reasons for these infections are multifactorial and include organisational, cultural and individual factors. This paper discusses the findings associated with research undertaken in six surgical intensive care units in Sri Lanka to evaluate the impact of an eHealth system prototype in contributing to the improvement of hand hygiene compliance and thereby reduction of nosocomial infections...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677687/endothelial-dysfunction-as-a-long-term-effect-of-late-onset-hypertensive-pregnancy-disorders-high-bmi-is-key
#15
L J Alma, C J M De Groot, R X De Menezes, W Hermes, P L Hordijk, I Kovačević
OBJECTIVE: Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy increase cardiovascular risk later in life by 2 to 9-fold. Endothelial activation is one of the underlying mechanisms of cardiovascular risk. Therefore, we decided to investigate endothelial activation in primiparous women, 2.5 years after a hypertensive pregnancy disorder. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma samples were taken from women 2.5 years after gestational hypertension (GH) or late onset preeclampsia (cases) and from women 2...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677676/assessing-the-geomorphological-vulnerability-of-arid-beach-dune-systems
#16
Carolina Peña-Alonso, Juan B Gallego-Fernández, Luis Hernández-Calvento, Antonio I Hernández-Cordero, Eduard Ariza
In this study, an arid dune vulnerability index (ADVI) is developed using a system of indicators to evaluate the geomorphological vulnerability of beach-dune systems of arid regions. The indicators are comprised of three analytical dimensions (susceptibility, exposure and resilience) and their corresponding sub-indices and variables and were assessed for eleven sites located in four aeolian sedimentary systems of the Canary archipelago (Spain). The selected sites have varying geomorphological characteristics, vegetation types, marine and wind conditions and human pressure degrees, and have seen different trends in their geomorphological evolution since 1960...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677660/variation-in-bacterial-community-structure-of-aerobic-granular-and-suspended-activated-sludge-in-the-presence-of-the-antibiotic-sulfamethoxazole
#17
Abbass Jafari Kang, Alistair K Brown, Charles S Wong, Zhiyong Huang, Qiuyan Yuan
The treatment performance and bacterial community structure of conventional activated sludge and aerobic granules exposed to antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was studied. For three months, two sets of sequencing batch reactors inoculated with conventional and granular biomass were fed with a synthetic municipal wastewater containing 2 μg/L SMX. The presence of SMX had no significant impacts on treatment performance of the reactors as well as stability of the granules. Results confirmed different bacterial community structure of flocs and granules...
April 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677619/associations-of-early-childhood-adversities-with-mental-disorders-psychological-functioning-and-suitability-for-psychotherapy-in-adulthood
#18
Erkki Heinonen, Paul Knekt, Tommi Härkänen, Esa Virtala, Olavi Lindfors
Childhood adversities frequently precede adulthood depression and anxiety. Yet, how they impact needed treatment duration, type or focus in these common disorders, is unclear. For developing more individualized and precise interventions, we investigated whether specific early adversities associate with patients' distinct psychiatric problems, psychological vulnerabilities, and suitability for psychotherapy. A total of 221 depressed and anxious adult outpatients (excluding psychotic, severe personality, bipolar, and substance abuse disorders) referred from community, student, occupational, and private healthcare services filled the Childhood Family Atmosphere Questionnaire (CFAQ)...
April 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677276/annals-story-slam-on-being-vulnerable
#19
J Kevin Dorsey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677181/exploiting-glycan-topography-for-computational-design-of-env-glycoprotein-antigenicity
#20
Wen-Han Yu, Peng Zhao, Monia Draghi, Claudia Arevalo, Christina B Karsten, Todd J Suscovich, Bronwyn Gunn, Hendrik Streeck, Abraham L Brass, Michael Tiemeyer, Michael Seaman, John R Mascola, Lance Wells, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Galit Alter
Mounting evidence suggests that glycans, rather than merely serving as a "shield", contribute critically to antigenicity of the HIV envelope (Env) glycoprotein, representing critical antigenic determinants for many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). While many studies have focused on defining the role of individual glycans or groups of proximal glycans in bNAb binding, little is known about the effects of changes in the overall glycan landscape in modulating antibody access and Env antigenicity...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
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