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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475180/altered-neural-processing-of-reward-and-punishment-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#1
I Landes, S Bakos, G Kohls, J Bartling, G Schulte-Körne, E Greimel
BACKGROUND: Altered reward and punishment function has been suggested as an important vulnerability factor for the development of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Prior ERP studies found evidence for neurophysiological dysfunctions in reinforcement processes in adults with MDD. To date, only few ERP studies have examined the neural underpinnings of reinforcement processing in adolescents diagnosed with MDD. The present event-related potential (ERP) study aimed to investigate neurophysiological mechanisms of anticipation and consumption of reward and punishment in adolescents with MDD in one comprehensive paradigm...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475127/brief-hypoxic-cycles-improve-uterine-contractile-function-after-prolonged-hypoxia-in-term-pregnant-but-not-in-nonpregnant-rats-in-vitro
#2
Mohammed Alotaibi
During labour, the uterus itself is vulnerable to hypoxia/ischemia that can occur with each strong contraction and this may ultimately cause dysfunctional labour in some women. Periods of Intermittent re-oxygenations are beneficial to tissues subjected to hypoxia to wash out metabolic by-products that have been accumulated during hypoxic stresses which may affect the tissue viability. We proposed that short intermittent hypoxic episodes may protect the uterus from subsequent sustained long hypoxia. To investigate this, two sets of experiments were performed on term-pregnant and nonpregnant rat uterine tissues...
February 12, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475055/toxic-stress-history-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-in-a-social-stress-task-genetic-and-epigenetic-factors
#3
Hannah E Lapp, Sarah Ahmed, Celia L Moore, Richard G Hunter
Histories of early life stress (ELS) or social discrimination can reach levels of severity characterized as toxic to mental and physical health. Such toxic social stress during development has been linked to altered acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to social stress in adulthood. However, there are important individual differences in the size and direction of these effects. We explored developmental, genetic, epigenetic, and contextual sources of individual differences in the relationship between ELS, discrimination, and adult responses to acute social stress in a standard laboratory test...
February 21, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474750/suppressed-heat-shock-protein-response-in-the-kidney-of-exercise-trained-diabetic-rats
#4
J Lappalainen, N K J Oksala, D E Laaksonen, S Khanna, T Kokkola, K Kaarniranta, C K Sen, M Atalay
Impaired expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and increased oxidative stress may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes by disrupted tissue protection. Acute exercise induces oxidative stress, whereas exercise training up-regulates endogenous antioxidant defenses and HSP expression. Although diabetic nephropathy is a major contributor to diabetic morbidity, information regarding the effect of HSPs on kidney protection is limited. The present study evaluated the effects of 8-week exercise training on kidney HSP expression and markers of oxidative stress at rest and after acute exercise in rats with or without streptozotocin-induced diabetes...
February 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474679/testing-the-plant-pneumatic-method-to-estimate-xylem-embolism-resistance-in-stems-of-temperate-trees
#5
Ya Zhang, Laurent J Lamarque, José M Torres-Ruiz, Bernhard Schuldt, Zohreh Karimi, Shan Li, De-Wen Qin, Paulo Bittencourt, Régis Burlett, Kun-Fang Cao, Sylvain Delzon, Rafael Oliveira, Luciano Pereira, Steven Jansen
Methods to estimate xylem embolism resistance generally rely on hydraulic measurements, which can be far from straightforward. Recently, a pneumatic method based on air flow measurements of terminal branch ends was proposed to construct vulnerability curves by linking the amount of air extracted from a branch with the degree of embolism. We applied this novel technique for 10 temperate tree species, including six diffuse, two ring-porous and two gymnosperm species, and compared the pneumatic curves with hydraulic ones obtained from either the flow-centrifuge or the hydraulic-bench dehydration method...
February 21, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474486/assessing-changes-in-hiv-related-legal-and-policy-environments-lessons-learned-from-a-multi-country-evaluation
#6
Laura Ferguson, Alexandra Nicholson, Ian Henry, Amitrajit Saha, Tilly Sellers, Sofia Gruskin
INTRODUCTION: There is growing recognition in the health community that the legal environment-including laws, policies, and related procedures-impacts vulnerability to HIV and access to HIV-related services both positively and negatively. Assessing changes in the legal environment and how these affect HIV-related outcomes, however, is challenging, and understanding of appropriate methodologies nascent. METHODS: We conducted an evaluation of a UNDP project designed to strengthen legal environments to support the human rights of key populations, in particular LGBT populations, women and girls, affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474470/antibiotic-use-knowledge-and-health-literacy-among-the-general-population-in-berlin-germany-and-its-surrounding-rural-areas
#7
Florian Salm, Clemens Ernsting, Adelheid Kuhlmey, Melanie Kanzler, Petra Gastmeier, Paul Gellert
OBJECTIVES: Knowledge concerning antibiotic use in the general population is insufficient. The way health literacy is related to antibiotic use aside from knowledge needs further investigation. Our aim was to compare the levels of knowledge of antibiotics and health literacy in individuals who had taken antibiotics in recent years compared with those who not had taken antibiotics. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey of 2,000 individuals aged 35 and older from Berlin, Germany and its surrounding rural and suburban areas (response rate 59%) with strata urban/rural, sex, age, and education...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474405/phenyl-sulfate-indoxyl-sulfate-and-p-cresyl-sulfate-decrease-glutathione-level-to-render-cells-vulnerable-to-oxidative-stress-in-renal-tubular-cells
#8
Takeo Edamatsu, Ayako Fujieda, Yoshiharu Itoh
In chronic kidney disease patients, oxidative stress is generally associated with disease progression and pathogenesis of its comorbidities. Phenyl sulfate is a protein-bound uremic solute, which accumulates in chronic kidney disease patients, but little is known about its nature. Although many reports revealed that protein-bound uremic solutes induce reactive oxygen species production, the effects of these solutes on anti-oxidant level have not been well studied. Therefore, we examined the effects of protein-bound uremic solutes on glutathione levels...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474313/perception-of-patient-safety-culture-in-pediatric-long-term-care-settings
#9
Amanda J Hessels, Meghan T Murray, Bevin Cohen, Elaine L Larson
INTRODUCTION: Patient safety culture (PSC) is an emerging construct in adult long-term care settings. No measures are validated to quantify PSC in pediatric long-term care (pLTC) settings despite the importance of safety for this vulnerable population. The study purposes are to (1) describe PSC in pLTC, (2) assess the relationship of PSC to facility recommendation and overall safety rating, and (3) test the stability and reliability of the PSC survey over time. METHODS: A modified Nursing Home PSC (NHSPSC) survey was administered to employees at three pLTC facilities over 3 years; data were summarized and compared over time...
February 16, 2018: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474297/recognition-of-fungal-keratitis-in-boston-type-i-keratoprosthesis-importance-of-awareness-and-novel-identification-of-exophiala-phaeomuriformis
#10
Lindsay Machen, Felix Y Chau, Jose de la Cruz, Joel Sugar, Maria Soledad Cortina
PURPOSE: To present a case of Exophiala phaeomuriformis fungal keratitis to demonstrate the heightened concern for fungal infection in patients with a keratoprosthesis and to highlight the rare involvement of Exophiala phaeomuriformis. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: Exophiala phaeomuriformis was identified in a susceptible patient 7 years after Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro) implantation. CONCLUSIONS: Although fungal infiltration after KPro placement does not represent a novel clinical infection, identification of the rare Exophiala species in a patient with a KPro has not been reported and provides an opportunity for reflection on fungal identification, prophylaxis, and prevention in this vulnerable patient population...
February 22, 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474265/global-mental-health-and-schizophrenia
#11
Laura Asher, Abebaw Fekadu, Charlotte Hanlon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim was to synthesize recent evidence on schizophrenia illness experience and outcomes and models of care in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). RECENT FINDINGS: There is a plurality of explanatory models for psychosis and increasing evidence that context influences experiences of stigma. People with schizophrenia in LMICs are vulnerable to food insecurity, violence and physical health problems, in addition to unmet needs for mental healthcare...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473966/beyond-abstinence-changes-in-indices-of-quality-of-life-with-time-in-recovery-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-u-s-adults
#12
John F Kelly, M Claire Greene, Brandon G Bergman
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment and recovery research typically have focused narrowly on changes in alcohol/drug use (e.g., "percent days abstinent") with little attention on changes in functioning or well-being. Furthermore, little is known about whether and when such changes may occur, and for whom, as people progress in recovery. Greater knowledge would improve understanding of recovery milestones and points of vulnerability and growth. METHODS: National, probability-based, cross-sectional sample of U...
February 23, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473841/bioenergetics-of-mycobacterium-an-emerging-landscape-for-drug-discovery
#13
REVIEW
Iram Khan Iqbal, Sapna Bajeli, Ajit Kumar Akela, Ashwani Kumar
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) exhibits remarkable metabolic flexibility that enables it to survive a plethora of host environments during its life cycle. With the advent of bedaquiline for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, oxidative phosphorylation has been validated as an important target and a vulnerable component of mycobacterial metabolism. Exploiting the dependence of Mtb on oxidative phosphorylation for energy production, several components of this pathway have been targeted for the development of new antimycobacterial agents...
February 23, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473523/drug-induced-qt-interval-prolongation-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#14
Cecilia Villa Etchegoyen, Guillermo Alberto Keller, Sebastian Mrad, Sixuan Cheng, Guillermo DiGirolamo
Drug-induced QT interval prolongation is the most frequent cause of Long QT syndrome (LQTS) in the clinical practice. This electrophysiological entity, produced by an extended duration of the myocardial repolarization and reflected as a prolonged QT interval in the superficial electrocardiogram (EKG), increases the risk of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (Torsades de Pointes) appearance and sudden death. Certain antiarrhythmic drugs such as amiodarone, sotalol, quinidine, procainamide, verapamil and diltiazem are known as drugs that, due to their mechanism of action, prolong the QT interval, demanding constant monitorization...
February 23, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473514/the-role-of-ve-cadherin-in-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-under-central-nervous-system-pathological-conditions
#15
Wenlu Li, Zhigang Chen, Ian Chin, Zhong Chen, Haibin Dai
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a layer between the blood circulation and neural tissue. It plays a pivotal role in maintaining the vulnerable extracellular microenvironment in the neuronal parenchyma. Neuroinflammatory events can result in BBB dysregulation by disturbing adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs). VE-cadherin, as one of the most important components of the vascular system, is specifically responsible for the assembly of AJs and BBB architecture. Here, we present a review, which highlights recently available insights into the relationship between the neuroinflammation and BBB dysregulation...
February 22, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473439/welfare-state-replacements-deinstitutionalization-privatization-and-the-outsourcing-to-immigrant-women-enterprise
#16
Jennifer Nazareno
The U.S. government has a long tradition of providing direct care services to many of its most vulnerable citizens through market-based solutions and subsidized private entities. The privatized welfare state has led to the continued displacement of some of our most disenfranchised groups in need of long-term care. Situated after the U.S. deinstitutionalization era, this is the first study to examine how immigrant Filipino women emerged as owners of de facto mental health care facilities that cater to the displaced, impoverished, severely mentally ill population...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473395/-introduction-low-health-literacy-hl-is-an-obstacle-to-therapeutic-patient-education-tpe-especially-for-people-in-a-vulnerable-situation-who-are-also-at-greater-risk-of-chronic-illnesses-and-their-complications-it-therefore-seems-essential-to-rethink-tpe-programmes
#17
[Introduction: Low health literacy (HL) is an obstacle to therapeutic patient education (TPE), especially for people in a vulnerable situation, who are also at greater risk of chronic illnesses and their complications. It therefore seems essential to rethink TPE programmes in order to ensure greater equity based on analysis of the characteristics of HL interventions and their possible relationships with TPE.Methods: A scoping review of the literature was performed from November 2014 to January 2016 using the following search engines: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, OpenGrey, SUDOC, thèses.fr and BDSP and the following search terms: "health literacy", "Littératie en santé", "literacy", "Littératie", "numeracy", "numératie", "compétence en santé" combined with the keywords: "programme", "program", "intervention", "méthode", "method", "technique", "outil", "tool".Results: After selecting forty out of 206 studies, interventions were classified into two main types of specific interventions to promote comprehension of resources intended for patients and generally complex interventions designed to support and improve HL skills.Discussion: While the level of health literacy has an impact on TPE programme accessibility, TPE programmes need to be made more accessible and TPE must constitute an opportunity to address health literacy needs via its own specific modalities. Creating partnerships between social/educational and health settings might be an effective strategy to strengthen the interrelationships between HL and TPE, as might training that prepares caregivers-educators to improve patient HL.Conclusion].
Aurore Margat, Rémi Gagnayre, Pierre Lombrail, Vincent de Andrade, Sylvie Azogui-Levy
INTRODUCTION: Low health literacy (HL) is an obstacle to therapeutic patient education (TPE), especially for people in a vulnerable situation, who are also at greater risk of chronic illnesses and their complications. It therefore seems essential to rethink TPE programmes in order to ensure greater equity based on analysis of the characteristics of HL interventions and their possible relationships with TPE. METHODS: A scoping review of the literature was performed from November 2014 to January 2016 using the following search engines: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, OpenGrey, SUDOC, thèses...
January 30, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473059/assessing-community-cancer-care-after-insurance-expansions-access-study-protocol
#18
H Angier, N Huguet, M Marino, M Mori, K Winters-Stone, J Shannon, L Raynor, H Holderness, J E DeVoe
Background: Cancer is the second most common cause of mortality in the United States. Cancer screening and prevention services have contributed to improved overall cancer survival rates in the past 40 years. Vulnerable populations (i.e., uninsured, low-income, and racial/ethnic minorities) are disproportionately affected by cancer, receive significantly fewer cancer prevention services, poorer healthcare, and subsequently lower survival rates than insured, white, non-Hispanic populations...
September 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472621/temporal-trends-of-phthalate-exposures-during-2007-2010-in-swedish-pregnant-women
#19
Huan Shu, Bo Ag Jönsson, Chris Gennings, Åke Svensson, Eewa Nånberg, Christian H Lindh, Malin Knutz, Tim K Takaro, Carl-Gustaf Bornehag
BACKGROUND: The general population is exposed to phthalates, a group of chemicals with strong evidence for endocrine disrupting properties, commonly used in a large number of consumer products. Based on published research and evidence compiled by environmental agencies, certain phthalate applications and products have become restricted, leading to an increasing number of "new generation compounds" coming onto the market during recent years replacing older phthalates. Some examples of such newer compounds are di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP), and most recently di-isononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472484/patient-derived-organoids-model-treatment-response-of-metastatic-gastrointestinal-cancers
#20
Georgios Vlachogiannis, Somaieh Hedayat, Alexandra Vatsiou, Yann Jamin, Javier Fernández-Mateos, Khurum Khan, Andrea Lampis, Katherine Eason, Ian Huntingford, Rosemary Burke, Mihaela Rata, Dow-Mu Koh, Nina Tunariu, David Collins, Sanna Hulkki-Wilson, Chanthirika Ragulan, Inmaculada Spiteri, Sing Yu Moorcraft, Ian Chau, Sheela Rao, David Watkins, Nicos Fotiadis, Maria Bali, Mahnaz Darvish-Damavandi, Hazel Lote, Zakaria Eltahir, Elizabeth C Smyth, Ruwaida Begum, Paul A Clarke, Jens C Hahne, Mitchell Dowsett, Johann de Bono, Paul Workman, Anguraj Sadanandam, Matteo Fassan, Owen J Sansom, Suzanne Eccles, Naureen Starling, Chiara Braconi, Andrea Sottoriva, Simon P Robinson, David Cunningham, Nicola Valeri
Patient-derived organoids (PDOs) have recently emerged as robust preclinical models; however, their potential to predict clinical outcomes in patients has remained unclear. We report on a living biobank of PDOs from metastatic, heavily pretreated colorectal and gastroesophageal cancer patients recruited in phase 1/2 clinical trials. Phenotypic and genotypic profiling of PDOs showed a high degree of similarity to the original patient tumors. Molecular profiling of tumor organoids was matched to drug-screening results, suggesting that PDOs could complement existing approaches in defining cancer vulnerabilities and improving treatment responses...
February 23, 2018: Science
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