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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054882/parkinson-s-disease-associated-lrrk2-hyperactive-kinase-mutant-disrupts-synaptic-vesicle-trafficking-in-ventral-midbrain-neurons
#1
Ping-Yue Pan, Xianting Li, Jing Wang, James Powell, Qian Wang, Yuanxi Zhang, Zhaoyu Chen, Bridget Wicinski, Patrick Hof, Timothy A Ryan, Zhenyu Yue
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized pathologically by the selective loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons. Recent evidence has suggested a role of LRRK2, linked to the most frequent familial PD, in regulating synaptic vesicle (SV) trafficking. However, the mechanism whereby LRRK2 mutants contribute to nigral vulnerability remains unclear. Here we show that the most common PD mutation LRRK2 G2019S impairs SV endocytosis in ventral midbrain (MB) neurons including DA neurons, and the slowed endocytosis can be rescued by inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054837/altered-metabolic-landscape-in-idh-mutant-gliomas%C3%A2-affects-phospholipid-energy-and-oxidative-stress-pathways
#2
Fred Fack, Saverio Tardito, Guillaume Hochart, Anais Oudin, Liang Zheng, Sabrina Fritah, Anna Golebiewska, Petr V Nazarov, Amandine Bernard, Ann-Christin Hau, Olivier Keunen, William Leenders, Morten Lund-Johansen, Jonathan Stauber, Eyal Gottlieb, Rolf Bjerkvig, Simone P Niclou
Heterozygous mutations in NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH) define the large majority of diffuse gliomas and are associated with hypermethylation of DNA and chromatin. The metabolic dysregulations imposed by these mutations, whether dependent or not on the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG), are less well understood. Here, we applied mass spectrometry imaging on intracranial patient-derived xenografts of IDH-mutant versus IDH wild-type glioma to profile the distribution of metabolites at high anatomical resolution in situ This approach was complemented by in vivo tracing of labeled nutrients followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis...
October 20, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054833/pregnant-women-s-perceptions-of-the-risks-and-benefits-of-disclosure-during-web-based-mental-health-e-screening-versus-paper-based-screening-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Dawn Kingston, Anne Biringer, Sander Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Rebecca Giallo, Sarah McDonald, Glenda MacQueen, Lydia Vermeyden, Marie-Paule Austin
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women's perceptions of the risks and benefits during mental health screening impact their willingness to disclose concerns. Early research in violence screening suggests that such perceptions may vary by mode of screening, whereby women view the anonymity of e-screening as less risky than other approaches. Understanding whether mode of screening influences perceptions of risk and benefit of disclosure is important in screening implementation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the perceptions of pregnant women randomized to a Web-based screening intervention group and a paper-based screening control group on the level of risk and benefit they perceive in disclosing mental health concerns to their prenatal care provider...
October 20, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054735/associations-between-neural-reward-processing-and-binge-eating-among-adolescent-girls
#4
Lindsay P Bodell, Jennifer E Wildes, Andrea B Goldschmidt, Rachel Lepage, Kate E Keenan, Amanda E Guyer, Alison E Hipwell, Stephanie D Stepp, Erika E Forbes
PURPOSE: Neuroimaging studies suggest that altered brain responses to food-related cues in reward-sensitive regions characterize individuals who experience binge-eating episodes. However, the absence of longitudinal data limits the understanding of whether reward-system alterations increase vulnerability to binge eating, as theorized in models of the development of this behavior. METHODS: Adolescent girls (N = 122) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging monetary reward task at age 16 years as part of an ongoing longitudinal study...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054731/the-impact-of-obesity-and-hypercaloric-diet-consumption-on-anxiety-and-emotional-behavior-across-the-lifespan
#5
REVIEW
Kathryn D Baker, Amy Loughman, Sarah J Spencer, Amy C Reichelt
Obesity is an increasing problem in young people. Childhood obesity and overweight have increased rapidly on a global scale, and have tripled in the past 30 years, to affect approximately one in five children. Diets high in refined fats and sugar are a major contributor to the development of obesity, and the effects of such obesity-inducing hypercaloric diets on brain function may contribute to the high prevalence of anxiety disorders in people with obesity. Anxiety disorders typically emerge in childhood and adolescence, and symptoms often continue into adulthood...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054633/climate-change-tourism-and-historical-grazing-influence-the-distribution-of-carex-lachenalii-schkuhr-a-rare-arctic-alpine-species-in-the-tatra-mts
#6
Patryk Czortek, Anna Delimat, Marcin K Dyderski, Antoni Zięba, Andrzej M Jagodziński, Bogdan Jaroszewicz
Mountain vegetation is highly specialized to harsh climatic conditions and therefore is sensitive to any change in environment. The rarest and most vulnerable plants occurring in alpine regions are expected to respond rapidly to environmental changes. An example of such a species is Carex lachenalii subsp. lachenalii Schkuhr, which occurs in Poland on only a few isolated sites in the Tatra Mts. The aim of this study was to assess changes in distribution of C. lachenalii in the Tatra Mts over the past 50-150years and the effects of climate change, tourism and historical grazing on the ecological niche of C...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054617/advantages-and-challenges-associated-with-implementing-an-ecosystem-services-approach-to-ecological-risk-assessment-for-chemicals
#7
Lorraine Maltby, Paul J van den Brink, Jack H Faber, Stuart Marshall
The ecosystem services (ES) approach is gaining broad interest in regulatory and policy arenas for use in landscape management and ecological risk assessment. It has the potential to bring greater ecological relevance to the setting of environmental protection goals and to the assessment of the ecological risk posed by chemicals. A workshop, organised under the auspices of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Europe, brought together scientific experts from European regulatory authorities, the chemical industry and academia to discuss and evaluate the challenges associated with implementing an ES approach to chemical ecological risk assessment (ERA)...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054544/-abnormalities-of-dna-repair-and-gynecological-cancers
#8
REVIEW
Aurélie Auguste, Alexandra Leary
The demonstration of frequent defects in the DNA damage response in high grade ovarian cancer has paved the way for a new therapeutic approach aimed at exploiting this unique vulnerability. The efficacy of poly (ADP) ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) in patients with homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair deficient ovarian cancer (OC) resulting from a BRCA1/2 mutation has provided the proof of concept for synthetic lethality. Thus, olaparib is now approved by the EMA as maintenance therapy after response to a platinum regimen for patients with recurrent, platinum-sensitive, high-grade serous, BRCA1/2-mutated ovarian cancer...
October 17, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054302/monitoring-the-biomechanical-and-physiological-effects-of-postural-changes-during-leisure-chair-sitting
#9
Peter R Worsley, Dan Rebolledo, Sally Webb, Silvia Caggiari, Dan L Bader
BACKGROUND: Individuals with limited mobility can spend prolonged periods in leisure chairs, increasing their risk of developing a seated acquired pressure ulcer. The present study aims to use objective measures of posture and tissue viability to identify the associated risks of leisure chair related pressure ulcers. METHODS: Healthy participants (n = 13) were recruited to sit on a leisure chair with either a viscoelastic foam or air cushion. Participants were asked to adopt four different postures for a period of 10 min followed by a 10 min refractory period...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054284/the-extended-evolutionary-synthesis-and-addiction-the-price-we-pay-for-adaptability
#10
Tanya Calvey
Humans are more likely to become addicted and to stay addicted than are other animals. This chapter is a neurobiological and molecular review of addiction and the cooccurring traits and psychiatric disorders from the perspective of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES). Addiction is an example of pleiotropy as many common haplotypes that are associated with individual differences in vulnerability to substance dependence express a variety of important brain-based phenotypes such as neuroadaptive processes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054135/alterations-in-the-timing-of-huperzine-a-cerebral-pharmacodynamics-in-the-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-setting
#11
Ugur Damar, Roman Gersner, Joshua T Johstone, Kush Kapur, Stephen D Collins, Steven Schachter, Alexander Rotenberg
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may affect the pharmacodynamics of centrally acting drugs. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) is a safe and noninvasive measure of cortical GABA-mediated cortical inhibition. Huperzine A (HupA) is a naturally-occurring acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with newly discovered potent GABA-mediated antiepileptic capacity, which is reliably detected by ppTMS. To test whether TBI alters cerebral HupA pharmacodynamics, we exposed rats to fluid percussion injury (FPI), and tested whether ppTMS metrics of cortical inhibition differ in magnitude and temporal pattern in injured rats...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053880/electrodiagnostic-errors-contribute-to-cidp-misdiagnosis
#12
Jeffrey A Allen, John Ney, Richard A Lewis
INTRODUCTION: Documentation of peripheral nerve demyelination is an important part of the CIDP diagnostic process. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients referred with a diagnosis of CIDP who were found to have a different condition. Electrodiagnostic study data and interpretations performed at the time of the initial diagnosis were compared to those obtained during the re-evaluation. RESULTS: Thirty-nine of 86 patients were found to not have CIDP...
October 20, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053860/clinicopathological-correlations-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#13
David C Perry, Jesse A Brown, Katherine L Possin, Samir Datta, Andrew Trujillo, Anneliese Radke, Anna Karydas, John Kornak, Ana C Sias, Gil D Rabinovici, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Adam L Boxer, Mary De May, Katherine P Rankin, Virginia E Sturm, Suzee E Lee, Brandy R Matthews, Aimee W Kao, Keith A Vossel, Maria Carmela Tartaglia, Zachary A Miller, Sang Won Seo, Manu Sidhu, Stephanie E Gaus, Alissa L Nana, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Ji-Hye L Hwang, Rik Ossenkoppele, Alainna B Brown, Eric J Huang, Giovanni Coppola, Howard J Rosen, Daniel Geschwind, John Q Trojanowski, Lea T Grinberg, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
Accurately predicting the underlying neuropathological diagnosis in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) poses a daunting challenge for clinicians but will be critical for the success of disease-modifying therapies. We sought to improve pathological prediction by exploring clinicopathological correlations in a large bvFTD cohort. Among 438 patients in whom bvFTD was either the top or an alternative possible clinical diagnosis, 117 had available autopsy data, including 98 with a primary pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), 15 with Alzheimer's disease, and four with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who lacked neurodegenerative disease-related pathology outside of the motor system...
October 6, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053835/abnormal-intrinsic-brain-functional-network-dynamics-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Jinhee Kim, Marion Criaud, Sang Soo Cho, María Díez-Cirarda, Alexander Mihaescu, Sarah Coakeley, Christine Ghadery, Mikaeel Valli, Mark F Jacobs, Sylvain Houle, Antonio P Strafella
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by nigrostriatal dopamine depletion. Previous studies measuring spontaneous brain activity using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging have reported abnormal changes in broadly distributed whole-brain networks. Although resting state functional connectivity, estimating temporal correlations between brain regions, is measured with the assumption that intrinsic fluctuations throughout the scan are stable, dynamic changes of functional connectivity have recently been suggested to reflect aspects of functional capacity of neural systems, and thus may serve as biomarkers of disease...
October 5, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053768/investigating-the-impact-of-maternal-residential-mobility-on-identifying-critical-windows-of-susceptibility-to-ambient-air-pollution-during-pregnancy
#15
Joshua L Warren, Ji-Young Son, Gavin Pereira, Brian P Leaderer, Michelle L Bell
Identifying periods of increased vulnerability during pregnancy to air pollution with respect to the development of adverse birth outcomes can improve understanding of possible mechanisms of disease development and provide guidelines for protection of the child. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is typically based on the residence at delivery, potentially resulting in exposure misclassification and biasing the estimation of critical windows. In this work, we determine the impact of maternal residential mobility during pregnancy on defining weekly exposure to PM10 and the estimation of windows of susceptibility for term low birth weight utilizing birth cohort datasets from Connecticut (1988-2008) that include information on all residential addresses for each woman between conception and delivery...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053722/impact-of-water-deficit-stress-on-tritrophic-interactions-in-a-wheat-aphid-parasitoid-system
#16
Syed Suhail Ahmed, Deguang Liu, Jean-Christophe Simon
Increasing temperature and CO2 concentrations can alter tritrophic interactions in ecosystems, but the impact of increasingly severe drought on such interactions is not well understood. We examined the response of a wheat-aphid-parasitoid system to variation in water-deficit stress levels. Our results showed that arid area clones of the aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), tended to have longer developmental times compared to semiarid and moist area clones, and the development of S. avenae clones tended to be slower with increasing levels of water-deficit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053380/indirect-effects-of-social-skills-on-health-through-stress-and-loneliness
#17
Chris Segrin
The social skills deficit vulnerability model predicts that people with inadequate social skills are at risk for a range of psychosocial problems, especially when confronted with stress. People with poor social skills often experience stress and loneliness and these two constructs were tested as potential pathways by which the poor social skills confer a risk for compromised mental and physical health. An online survey was completed by 775 adults, aged 18-91. The sample matched national demographics for race/ethnicity and age, among those over 18...
October 20, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053364/climate-effects-on-growth-body-condition-and-survival-depend-on-the-genetic-characteristics-of-the-population
#18
Cristina Romero-Diaz, Merel C Breedveld, Patrick S Fitze
Climatic change is expected to affect individual life histories and population dynamics, potentially increasing vulnerability to extinction. The importance of genetic diversity has been highlighted for adaptation and population persistence. However, whether responses of life-history traits to a given environmental condition depend on the genetic characteristics of a population remains elusive. Here we tested this hypothesis in the lizard Zootoca vivipara by simultaneously manipulating habitat humidity, a major climatic predictor of Zootoca's distribution, and adult male color morph frequency, a trait with genome-wide linkage...
November 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053152/heart-in-space-effect-of-the-extraterrestrial-environment-on-the-cardiovascular-system
#19
REVIEW
Richard L Hughson, Alexander Helm, Marco Durante
National space agencies and private corporations aim at an extended presence of humans in space in the medium to long term. Together with currently suboptimal technology, microgravity and cosmic rays raise health concerns about deep-space exploration missions. Both of these physical factors affect the cardiovascular system, whose gravity-dependence is pronounced. Heart and vascular function are, therefore, susceptible to substantial changes in weightlessness. The altered cardiovascular function in space causes physiological problems in the postflight period...
October 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052849/clinical-applications-of-iddsi-framework-for-texture-recommendation-for-dysphagia-patients
#20
Mingsong Su, Gangying Zheng, Yanqiu Chen, Hua Xie, Weijia Han, Qing Yang, Jianqin Sun, Zhihong Lv, Jianshe Chen
Dysphagia is a highly prevalent eating and swallowing disorder among elderly people, impacting negatively on the health and well-being of those afflicted. With increasing populations of elderly people, food industries are under growing pressure to produce appropriately texture-modified food for safe consumption by these vulnerable populations. Recently published IDDSI framework provides a new global guideline on texture modification and standardization for dysphagia patients. This work was designed to test the feasibility of IDDSI framework for clinical applications by assessing the correlation between swallowing capability of dysphagia patients and the IDDSI texture levels...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
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