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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909372/an-international-qualitative-study-exploring-patients-experiences-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-study-set-up-and-protocol
#1
Astrid Christine Erber, Byron Arana, Issam Bennis, Afif Ben Salah, Aicha Boukthir, Maria Del Mar Castro Noriega, Mamoudou Cissé, Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Farhad Handjani, Mairie Guizaw Kebede, Trudie Lang, Liliana López Carvajal, Kevin Marsh, Dalila Martinez Medina, Emma Plugge, Piero Olliaro
INTRODUCTION: Lack of investments in drug development, lack of standardisation of clinical trials and the complexity of disease presentations contribute to the current lack of effective, safe and adapted treatments for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). One aspect concerns outcomes affecting patients' quality of life (QoL): these are hardly assessed in trials, despite potential functional and/or aesthetic impairment caused by CL, which typically affects disadvantaged and vulnerable people living in rural areas...
June 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909250/the-influence-of-uncertainty-and-intolerance-of-uncertainty-on-anxiety
#2
Siqi Chen, Nisha Yao, Mingyi Qian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the influence of uncertainty and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) on anxiety pathologies has been well-established, only a few studies examined the interaction between uncertainty and IU in producing anxiety. Meanwhile, there is a lack of research utilizing experimental methods to manipulate the situational uncertainty. Therefore, the current study aimed to more systematically investigate whether and how trait IU interacted with uncertainty in the production of anxiety...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908958/antifungal-drug-ciclopirox-olamine-reduces-hsv-1-replication-and-disease-in-mice
#3
Kaelin M Bernier, Lynda A Morrison
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 cause painful blisters and shallow ulcers in exposed skin and mucosae during primary or recurrent infection. In addition, recurrent and potentially blinding HSV-1 infections of the eye afflict nearly half a million persons in the U.S. Current clinical therapies rely on nucleoside analog drugs such as acyclovir (ACV) or ganciclovir to ameliorate primary infections and reduce the frequency and duration of reactivations. However, these treatments do not fully suppress viral shedding and drug-resistant mutants develop in the eye and in vulnerable, immunosuppressed patients...
June 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908882/mechanisms-enhancing-the-protective-functions-of-macular-xanthophylls-in-the-retina-during-oxidative-stress
#4
REVIEW
Justyna Widomska, Witold K Subczynski
Macular xanthophylls (MXs) are distinguished from other dietary carotenoids by their high membrane solubility and preferential transmembrane orientation. Additionally, these properties enhance the chemical and physical stability of MXs in the eye retina, and maximize their protective activities. The effectiveness of MXs' protection is also enhanced by their selective accumulation in the most vulnerable domains of retinal membranes. The retina is protected by MXs mainly through blue-light filtration, quenching of the excited triplet states of potent photosensitizers, and physical quenching of singlet oxygen...
June 14, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908828/the-clinical-significance-of-echo-attenuated-plaque-in-stable-angina-pectoris-compared-with-acute-coronary-syndromes-a-combined-intravascular-ultrasound-and-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#5
Shigeki Kimura, Tomoyo Sugiyama, Keiichi Hishikari, Shun Nakagama, Shun Nakamura, Toru Misawa, Masafumi Mizusawa, Kazuto Hayasaka, Yosuke Yamakami, Yuichiro Sagawa, Keisuke Kojima, Hirofumi Ohtani, Hiroyuki Hikita, Atsushi Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Echo-attenuated plaque (EA) on intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is related to poor outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. However, the clinical significance of EA in stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients compared with that in ACS patients remains unclear. We assessed the relationships between EA and unstable plaque characteristics in patients with ACS and SAP. METHODS: We investigated 609 coronary lesions in 609 patients (234 with ACS; 375 with SAP) undergoing pre-intervention IVUS and optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908409/heroism-and-nursing-a-thematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Kathleen MacDonald, Jessica De Zylva, Margaret McAllister, Donna Lee Brien
OBJECTIVES: Nursing history is replete with examples of heroic individuals acting courageously to meet the needs of vulnerable patients and communities. Heroism exemplifies the pinnacle of self-actualised behaviour. It fuels the plots of countless human stories, and enthrals and inspires people. Yet, heroism may be seen as an extreme behaviour that only exceptional individuals are capable of enacting, and may thus be seen as out of reach for ordinary nurses, and something that could be risky to teach and disseminate...
June 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908262/history-and-perspectives-on-how-to-ensure-antivenom-accessibility-in-the-most-remote-areas-in-brazil
#7
Hui Wen Fan, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
A plan to achieve self-sufficiency in manufacturing biologicals for public health has been structured for the last 40 years in Brazil, in the context of a reform in the health system. Industrial plants of the national public laboratories have been modernized, and a program for reducing morbidity and mortality of venomous snakebite has been created, as part of the National Epidemiological Surveillance System. The epidemiological data are essential to plan for the antivenom production of 400,000 vials of snake antivenoms per year, and the acquisition by the Ministry of Health, which is the exclusive purchaser in the country...
June 13, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907914/asylum-seekers-in-a-time-of-record-forced-global-displacement-the-role-of-physicians
#8
Katherine C McKenzie, Jon Bauer, P Preston Reynolds
In 2016, over 65 million individuals were displaced from their homes due to human rights abuses, and 262,000 people applied for asylum in the USA. Individuals who have experienced persecution are present in many primary and specialty clinics. A medical forensic evaluation can increase the likelihood of a successful asylum case. This paper reviews the legal framework for asylum and the contribution forensic evaluations can make to this vulnerable population. Physicians without asylum expertise can help these patients by recognizing their legal right to residential protection and referring them to lawyers and physicians with expert skills...
June 15, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907381/implementation-of-the-frailty-index-in-hospitalized-older-patients-results-from-the-reposi-register
#9
M Cesari, C Franchi, L Cortesi, A Nobili, I Ardoino, P M Mannucci
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, associated to poor health outcomes. The aim of this study was to design and introduce a Frailty Index (FI; according to the age-related accumulation of deficit model) in a large cohort of hospitalized older persons, in order to benefit from its capacity to comprehensively weight the risk profile of the individual. METHODS: Patients aged 65 and older enrolled in the REPOSI register from 2010 to 2016 were considered in the present analyses...
June 12, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907247/climate-change-and-temperature-extremes-a-review-of-heat-and-cold-related-morbidity-and-mortality-concerns-of-municipalities
#10
REVIEW
Carina J Gronlund, Kyle P Sullivan, Yonathan Kefelegn, Lorraine Cameron, Marie S O'Neill
Cold and hot weather are associated with mortality and morbidity. Although the burden of temperature-associated mortality may shift towards high temperatures in the future, cold temperatures may represent a greater current-day problem in temperate cities. Hot and cold temperature vulnerabilities may coincide across several personal and neighborhood characteristics, suggesting opportunities for increasing present and future resilience to extreme temperatures. We present a narrative literature review encompassing the epidemiology of cold- and heat-related mortality and morbidity, related physiologic and environmental mechanisms, and municipal responses to hot and cold weather, illustrated by Detroit, Michigan, USA, a financially burdened city in an economically diverse metropolitan area...
August 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907160/non-culprit-plaque-characteristics-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-with-raised-hemoglobina1c-an-intravascular-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#11
Shaotao Zhang, Jiannan Dai, Haibo Jia, Sining Hu, Hongwei Du, Ning Li, Yongpeng Zou, Yanan Zou, Shenhong Jing, Yan Wang, Rong Sun, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: Raised hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c) is an indicator of pre-diabetes, which is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. However, the detailed morphological characteristics of non-culprit plaques in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients remain largely unknown. METHODS: A total of 305 non-culprit plaques from 216 ACS patients were analyzed by intravascular optical coherence tomography. These patients were divided into three groups according to the serum glycosylated hemoglobin level: normal HbA1c (< 5...
June 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906645/more-than-cholesterol-catabolism-regulatory-vulnerabilities-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Amber C Bonds, Nicole S Sampson
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the epitome of persistent. Mtb is the pathogen that causes tuberculosis, the leading cause of death by infection worldwide. The success of this pathogen is due in part to its clever ability to adapt to its host environment and its effective manipulation of the host immune system. A major contributing factor to the survival and virulence of Mtb is its acquisition and metabolism of host derived lipids including cholesterol. Accumulating evidence suggests that the catabolism of cholesterol during infection is highly regulated by cholesterol catabolites...
June 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906620/effects-of-food-availability-on-growth-performance-and-immune-related-gene-expression-of-juvenile-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#13
Seunghyung Lee, Young Mee Lee, Kyung-Hee Kim, Hyun Chul Kim, Choul-Ji Park, Jong-Won Park, Gyeong Eon Noh, Woo-Jin Kim, Hyung-Kyu Hwang
Unfavorable environmental conditions and inappropriate culture practices have increased the vulnerability of cultured fish to disease infection. Up to date many studies have aimed to determine a feeding regimen to maximize productivity; however, very little information on immune responses of cultured fish in response to underfeeding or overfeeding is available. Therefore, a preliminary study was conducted to evaluate effects of graded feeding levels (i.e., food availability) on growth performance and immune-related gene expression of juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)...
June 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906509/photothrombotically-induced-unilateral-selective-hippocampal-ischemia-in-rat
#14
Sayed Masoud Hosseini, Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Nima Naderi, Mohammad Sayyah, Mohammad Ismail Zibaii
INTRODUCTION: The vulnerability of hippocampal formation to ischemic insult has been documented in both humans and animal models. Ischemic injury induction through photothrombosis is an invasive and reproducible model of ischemic stroke which provides the ability to induce ischemia selectively in any desired area. In this study, we describe a method to induce selective unilateral hippocampal ischemia in rat through modified photothrombotic model. METHODS: Male wistar rats (n = 66) were subjected to stereotaxic surgery to insert a guide cannula just above the ascending part of hippocampal fissure...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906495/hiv-infection-across-aging-synergistic-effects-on-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-brain
#15
Anna R Egbert, Bharat Biswal, Keerthana Karunakaran, Agnieszka Pluta, Tomasz Wolak, Stephen Rao, Robert Bornstein, Bogna Szymańska, Andrzej Horban, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Marta Sobańska, Natalia Gawron, Przemysław Bieńkowski, Halina Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Anna Ścińska-Bieńkowska, Emilia Łojek
The objective of the study was to examine additive and synergistic effects of age and HIV infection on resting state (RS) intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) of the brain. We also aimed to assess relationships with neurocognition and determine clinical-, treatment-, and health-related factors moderating intrinsic brain activity in aging HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. The current report presents data on 54 HIV+ individuals (age M = 41, SD = 12 years) stabilized on cART and 54 socio-demographically matched healthy (HIV-) comparators (age M = 43, SD = 12 years), with cohort education mean of 16 years (SD = 12)...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906429/death-or-debt-national-estimates-of-financial-toxicity-in-persons-with-newly-diagnosed-cancer
#16
Adrienne M Gilligan, David S Alberts, Denise J Roe, Grant H Skrepnek
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of cancer upon a patient's depletion of net worth and incursion of debt in the U.S. METHODS: This longitudinal study used the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) from 1998-2014. Persons ≥50 years with newly-diagnosed malignancies were included, excluding minor skin cancers. Multivariable generalized linear models were employed to assess changes in net worth and debt (consumer, mortgage, home equity) at two-and four-years following diagnosis (Year+2 , Year+4 ) after controlling for demographic and clinically-related variables, cancer-specific attributes, economic factors, and mortality...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906399/drivers-visual-search-behavior-toward-vulnerable-road-users-at-junctions-as-a-function-of-cycling-experience
#17
Chloe Jade Robbins, Peter Chapman
OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the behavior and visual attention of two groups of drivers with differing pedal cycling experience (pedal cyclists and nonpedal cyclists) towards vulnerable road users at junctions in a driving simulator. BACKGROUND: Pedal cyclists and motorcyclists are involved in a disproportionate number of crashes given the distance they travel, with a high proportion of these crashes occurring at junctions. Many studies have found that car drivers who also hold a motorcycle license have increased awareness towards motorcycles...
June 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906244/de-novo-lipogenesis-represents-a-therapeutic-target-in-mutant-kras-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Anju Singh, Christian Ruiz, Kavita Bhalla, John A Haley, Qing Kay Li, George Acquaah-Mensah, Emily Montal, Kuladeep R Sudini, Ferdinandos Skoulidis, Ignacio I Wistuba, Vassiliki Papadimitrakopoulou, John V Heymach, Laszlo G Boros, Edward Gabrielson, Julian Carretero, Kwok-Kin Wong, John D Haley, Shyam Biswal, Geoffrey D Girnun
Oncogenic Kras mutations are one of the most common alterations in non-small cell lung cancer and are associated with poor response to treatment and reduced survival. Driver oncogenes, such as Kras are now appreciated for their ability to promote tumor growth via up-regulation of anabolic pathways. Therefore, we wanted to identify metabolic vulnerabilities in Kras-mutant lung cancer. Using the Kras LSL-G12D lung cancer model, we show that mutant Kras drives a lipogenic gene-expression program. Stable-isotope analysis reveals that mutant Kras promotes de novo fatty acid synthesis in vitro and in vivo...
June 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906119/how-first-shell-second-shell-interactions-and-metal-substitution-modulate-protein-function
#19
Karine Mazmanian, Todor Dudev, Carmay Lim
Hydrogen bonds to metal-ligands in proteins play a vital role in biological function. They help to stabilize/protect the metal complex and enhance metal-binding affinity/specificity, enzyme-substrate recognition, and enzyme activation. Yet, knowledge of the preferred hydrogen-bonding partners of metal ligands in different metalloproteins is lacking. Using well-calibrated methods, we have determined the preferred hydrogen-bonding partners of Cys- bound to native Zn2+ or xenobiotic Cd2+ in Zn-fingers of varying net charge and solvent accessibility as well as the key factors underlying the observed preference...
June 15, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906101/dopamine-oxidation-products-as-mitochondrial-endotoxins-a-potential-molecular-mechanism-for-preferential-neurodegeneration-in-parkinson-disease
#20
Alice Biosa, Irene Arduini, Maria Eugenia Soriano, Valentina Giorgio, Paolo Bernardi, Marco Bisaglia, Luigi Bubacco
The preferential degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta is responsible for the motor impairment associated with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine is a highly reactive molecule, which is usually stored inside synaptic vesicles where it is stabilized by the ambient low pH. However, free cytosolic dopamine can auto-oxidize, generating reactive oxygen species, and lead to the formation of toxic quinones. In the present work, we have analyzed the mechanisms through which the dysfunction of dopamine homeostasis could induce cell toxicity, by focusing in particular on the damage induced by dopamine oxidation products at the mitochondrial level...
June 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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