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bio chemistry

Bernd Uhl, Stephanie Hirn, Karina Mildner, Raffaele Coletti, Steffen Massberg, Christoph A Reichel, Markus Rehberg, Dagmar Zeuschner, Fritz Krombach
AIM: To optimize the design of nanoparticles for diagnosis or therapy of vascular diseases, it is mandatory to characterize the determinants of nano-bio interactions in vascular lesions. MATERIALS & METHODS: Using ex vivo and in vivo microscopy, we analyzed the interactive behavior of quantum dots with different surface functionalizations in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice. RESULTS: We demonstrate that quantum dots with different surface functionalizations exhibit specific interactive behaviors with distinct molecular and cellular components of the injured vessel wall...
January 15, 2018: Nanomedicine
Lena Simine, Heiko Lammert, Li Sun, Jose Nelson Onuchic, Peter J Rossky
The rational design of genetically encoded fluorescent bio-sensors, which can detect rearrangements of target proteins via interdomain allostery, is hindered by the absence of mechanistic understanding of the underlying photo-physics. Here, we focus on the modulation of fluorescence by mechanical perturbation in a popular biological probe: enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP). Using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum chemistry, and a set of physically motivated assumptions, we construct a map of fluorescence quantum yield as a function of a 2D electric field imposed by the protein environment on the fluorophore...
January 12, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xueshu Li, Erika B Holland, Wei Feng, Jing Zheng, Yao Dong, Isaac N Pessah, Michael W Duffel, Larry W Robertson, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Toxicological studies use "specialty chemicals" and, thus, should assess and report both identity and degree of purity (homogeneity) of the chemicals (or toxicants) under investigation to ensure that other scientists can replicate experimental results. Although detailed reporting criteria for the synthesis and characterization of organic compounds have been established by organic chemistry journals, such criteria are inconsistently applied to the chemicals used in toxicological studies. Biologically active trace impurities may lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical entity responsible for a biological response, which in turn may confound risk assessment...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Andres Fernandez-Reche, Eva S Cobos, Irene Luque, Javier Ruiz-Sanz, Jose C Martinez
In 1972 Christian B. Anfinsen received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "…his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation." The understanding of this principle is crucial for physical biochemistry students, since protein folding studies, bio-computing sciences and protein design approaches are founded on such a well-demonstrated connection. Herein, we describe a detailed and easy-to-follow experiment to reproduce the most relevant assays carried out at Anfinsen's laboratory in the 60s...
January 4, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Benmei Wei, Juntao Zhang, Xiaowen Ou, Xiaoding Lou, Fan Xia, Alexis Vallée-Bélisle
Although extensively used in all fields of chemistry, molecular recognition still suffers from a significant limitation: host-guest binding displays a fixed, hyperbolic dose-response curve, which limits its usefulness in many applications. Here we take advantage of the high programmability of DNA chemistry and propose a universal strategy to engineer bio-recognition-based sensors with dual programmable dynamic ranges. Using DNA aptamers as our model recognition element, and electrochemistry as our readout signal, we first designed a dual signaling "signal-on" and "signal-off" adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sensor composed of a ferrocene-labeled ATP aptamer in complex to a complementary, electrode-bound, methylene-blue labeled DNA...
January 4, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Anees A Ansari, Ali Aldalbahi, Joselito P Labis, Ahmed Mohamed El-Toni, Maqusood Ahamed, M Aslam Manthrammel
Monodispersed La(OH)3:Eu nanospheres(core-NSs) were synthesized by urea-based homogeneous co-precipitation process, where mesoporous silica layer was coated over the surface of luminescent La(OH)3:Eu core-NSs. The XRD data exhibit the high crystalline, single hexagonal-shaped La(OH)3:Eu core and silica modified La(OH)3:Eu@mSiO2 (core-shell) NSs. Monodispersibility, spherical shaped, high surface area and mesoporosity were identified by TEM analysis and were further confirmed by BET analysis. The as-synthesized samples are highly soluble in aqueous media at ambient conditions...
December 16, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Raphael Liffert, Karl Gademann
Synthesis of natural products via their postulated or established biosynthetic intermediates ('biomimetic synthesis' or 'bio-inspired synthesis') has the power to identify both yet undiscovered intermediates and undiscovered mechanistic pathways for their formation. In this account, we report on our recent studies on unusual hypotheses for biosynthetic transformations, such as a late-stage aldol reaction (periconianone A), benzilic acid rearrangement (taiwaniaquinone H), a redox-neutral light-driven C-H activation (taiwaniaquinol A and cyclocoulterone), a hetero Diels-Alder reaction (obtusinones), aziridinium chemistry (Securinega alkaloids), and a [3+2] nitrone olefin cycloaddition (virosaine A)...
December 1, 2017: Chimia
Bryan Grommersch, Jitendra Pant, Sean P Hopkins, Marcus James Goudie, Hitesh Handa
Diatomaceous earth (DE), a nanoporous silica material comprised of fossilized unicellular marine algae, possesses unique mechanical, molecular transport, optical, and photonic properties exploited across an array of biomedical applications. The utility of DE in these applications stands to be enhanced through the incorporation of nitric oxide (NO) technology shown to modulate a number of essential physiological processes. In this work, the preparation and characterization of a bio-templated diatomaceous earth-based nitric oxide delivery scaffold is described for the first time...
December 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
J Haas, M Schwartz, U Rengstl, M Jetter, P Michler, B Mizaikoff
Modern quantum technology currently experiences extensive advances in applicability in communications, cryptography, computing, metrology and lithography. Harnessing this technology platform for chem/bio sensing scenarios is an appealing opportunity enabling ultra-sensitive detection schemes. This is further facilliated by the progress in fabrication, miniaturization and integration of visible and infrared quantum photonics. Especially, the combination of efficient single-photon sources together with waveguiding/sensing structures, serving as active optical transducer, as well as advanced detector materials is promising integrated quantum photonic chem/bio sensors...
December 20, 2017: Analyst
Petr Vaňhara, Lukáš Kučera, Lubomír Prokeš, Lucie Jurečková, Eladia María Peña-Méndez, Josef Havel, Aleš Hampl
The stability of in vitro cell cultures is an important issue for any clinical, bio-industrial, or pharmacological use. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent; consequently, they possess the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers and are inherently prone to respond to differentiation stimuli. However, long-term culture inevitably yields clones that are best adapted to the culture conditions, passaging regimes, or differentiation sensitivity. This cellular plasticity is a major obstacle in the development of bio-industrial or clinical-grade cultures...
January 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Satoshi Abe, Basudev Maity, Takafumi Ueno
Self-assembled proteins have specific functions in biology. With inspiration provided by natural protein systems, several artificial protein assemblies have been constructed via site-specific mutations or metal coordination, which have important applications in catalysis, material and bio-supramolecular chemistry. Similar to natural protein assemblies, protein crystals have been recognized as protein assemblies formed of densely-packed monomeric proteins. Protein crystals can be functionalized with metal ions, metal complexes or nanoparticles via soaking, co-crystallization, creating new metal binding sites by site-specific mutations...
December 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Wenwei Zhan, Siruo Yu, Liang Gao, Feng Wang, Xue Fu, Gang Sui, Xiaoping Yang
Nowadays, physical absorption has become a feasible method offering an efficient and green route to remove organic pollutants from the industrial wastewater. Inspired by polydopamine (PDA) chemistry, one dimensional PDA functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-PDA) were creatively introduced into graphene aerogel framework to synthesis a robust graphene/MWCNT-PDA composite aerogel (GCPCA). The whole forming process needed no additional reducing agents, significantly reducing the contamination emissions to the environment...
December 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhongju Ye, Lin Wei, Xuyao Zeng, Rui Weng, Xingbo Shi, Naidong Wang, Langxing Chen, Lehui Xiao
Exploring the diffusion dynamics of viral capsid proteins (VCP) functionalized nanocarrier on living cell membrane could provide plenty of kinetic information for the better understanding of their biological functionality. Gold nanoparticles are excellent core material of nanocarrier because of the good bio-compatibility as well as versatile surface chemistry. However, due to the strong scattering background from subcellular organelles, it is a grand challenge to selectively image individual nanocarrier on living cell membrane...
December 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Amir Syahir, Kotaro Kajikawa, Hisakazu Mihara
Direct bio-monitoring essentially involves optical means since the photon has insignificant effects over biomolecules. Over the years, the laser induced surface plasmon resonance method with various modifications as well as versatile localized plasmon excited by incoherent light have facilitated in recording many nanobiological activities. Yet monitoring interactions of small molecules including drugs requires signal amplification and improvement on signal-to-noise ratio. This paper focused on how the refractive index based nanobio-sensoring gold platform can produce more efficient, adaptable and more practical detection techniques to observe molecular interactions at a high degree of sensitivity...
December 13, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
Vânia André, Sílvia Quaresma, João Luís Ferreira da Silva, M Teresa Duarte
Mechanochemistry is a powerful and environmentally friendly synthetic technique successfully employed in different fields of synthetic chemistry. Application spans from organic to inorganic chemistry including the synthesis of coordination compounds. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of compounds with numerous applications, from which we highlight herein their application in the pharmaceutical field (BioMOFs), whose importance has been growing and is now assuming a relevant and promising domain. The need to find cleaner, greener and more energy and material-efficient synthetic procedures led to the use of mechanochemistry into the synthesis of BioMOFs...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Shiferaw Bekele Woyesa, Agete Tadewose Hirigo, Temesgen Bizuayehu Wube
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors such as diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Hyperuricemia is a condition in which the serum uric acid concentration is greater than 5.5 mg per deciliter for child and greater than 7.2 and 6.0 mg per deciliters for male and female adults respectively. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the magnitude of hyperuricemia and associated factors among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at Hawassa Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (HCSH) from February 28 to May 30 /2017...
December 12, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Bikram Keshari Agrawalla, Tao Wang, Andreas Riegger, Matthias P Domogalla, Kerstin Steinbrink, Thilo Dörfler, Xi Chen, Felix Boldt, Markus Lamla, Jens Michaelis, Seah Ling Kuan, Tanja Weil
The attachment of two or more different functionalities in a site-selective fashion represents a great challenge in protein chemistry. We report multiple functionalization of peptides and proteins capitalizing on reactivity differences of cysteines in their free (thiol) and protected, oxidized (disulfide) forms. The dual and triple functionalization of interleukin 2 and EYFP proceeded with no loss of bio-activity in a stepwise fashion applying maleimide and disulfide rebridging allyl-sulfone groups. In order to ensure broader applicability of the functionalization strategy, a novel, short peptide sequence that introduces a disulfide bridge was designed and site-selective triple labelling in the presence of biogenic groups was successfully demonstrated...
December 12, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Bo Wang, Emily H Pilkington, Yunxiang Sun, Thomas P Davis, Pu Chun Ke, Feng Ding
Direct exposure or intake of nanopaticles (NPs) to the human body can invoke a series of biological responses, some of which are deleterious, and as such the role of NPs in vivo requires thorough examination. Over the past decade, it has been established that biomolecules such as proteins can bind NPs to form a 'corona', where the structures and dynamics of NP-associated proteins can assign new functionality, systemic distribution and toxicity. However, the behavior and fate of NPs in biological systems are still far from being fully understood...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Science. Nano
Aleksandra Marszałek-Harych, Dawid Jędrzkiewicz, Jolanta Ejfler
The development and integration of bio- and chemocatalytic processes to convert renewable or biomass feedstocks into polymers is a vibrant field of research with enormous potential for environmental protection and the mitigation of global warming. Here, we review the biotechnological and chemical synthetic strategies for producing platform monomers from bio-based sources and transforming them into eco-polymers. We also discuss their advanced bio-application using the example of polylactide (PLA), the most valuable green polymer on the market...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
Babu Halan, Jenny Tschörtner, Andreas Schmid
Abundant solar energy can be a sustainable source of energy. This chapter highlights recent advancements, challenges, and future scenarios in bioartificial photosynthesis, which is a new subset of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) and technologies. BES technologies exploit the catalytic interactions between biological moieties and electrodes. At the nexus of BES and photovoltaics, this review focuses on light-harvesting technologies based on bioartificial photosynthesis. Such technologies are promising because electrical energy is generated from sunlight and water without the need for additional organic feedstock...
December 10, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
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