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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206741/polyketide-bio-derivatization-using-the-promiscuous-acyltransferase-kircii
#1
Ewa Maria Musiol-Kroll, Florian Zubeil, Thomas Schafhauser, Thomas Härtner, Andreas Kulik, John B McArthur, Irina Koryakina, Wolfgang Wohlleben, Stephanie Grond, Gavin J Williams, Sang Yup Lee, Tilmann Weber
During polyketide biosynthesis, acyltransferases (ATs) are the essential gatekeepers which provide the assembly lines with precursors and thus contribute greatly to structural diversity. Previously, we demonstrated that the discrete AT KirCII from the kirromycin antibiotic pathway accesses non-malonate extender units. Here, we exploit the promiscuity of KirCII to generate new kirromycins with allyl- and propargyl-side chains in vivo, the latter were utilized as educts for further modification by 'click' chemistry...
February 16, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186408/functional-microgels-and-microgel-systems
#2
Felix A Plamper, Walter Richtering
Microgels are macromolecular networks swollen by the solvent in which they are dissolved. They are unique systems that are distinctly different from common colloids, such as, e.g., rigid nanoparticles, flexible macromolecules, micelles, or vesicles. The size of the microgel networks is in the range of several micrometers down to nanometers (then sometimes called "nanogels"). In a collapsed state, they might resemble hard colloids but they can still contain significant amounts of solvent. When swollen, they are soft and have a fuzzy surface with dangling chains...
February 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181430/ellipsoidal-colloids-with-a-controlled-surface-roughness-via-bio-inspired-surface-engineering-building-blocks-for-liquid-marbles-and-superhydrophobic-surfaces
#3
Pengjiao Zhang, Lu Yang, Qiang Li, Songhai Wu, Shaoyi Jia, Zhanyong Li, Zhenkun Zhang, Linqi Shi
Understanding the important role of the surface roughness of nano-/colloidal particles and harnessing them for practical applications need novel strategies to control the particles' surface topology. Although there are many examples of spherical particles with a specific surface roughness, non-spherical ones with similar surface features are rare. The current work report a one-step, straightforward and bio-inspired surface engineering strategy to prepare ellipsoidal particles with a controlled surface roughness...
February 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178887/magnesium-presence-prevents-removal-of-antigenic-nuclear-associated-proteins-from-bovine-pericardium-for-heart-valve-engineering
#4
Ailsa Dalgliesh, Zhi Zhao Liu, Leigh Griffiths
Current heart valve prostheses are associated with significant complications including aggressive immune response, limited valve life expectancy, and inability to grow in juvenile patients. Animal derived "tissue" valves undergo glutaraldehyde fixation to mask tissue antigenicity, however chronic immunological responses and associated calcification still commonly occur. A heart valve formed from an unfixed bovine pericardium (BP) extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold, in which antigenic burden has been eliminated or significantly reduced, has potential to overcome deficiencies of current bio-prostheses...
February 8, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177247/zwitterionic-polyhydroxybutyrate-electrospun-fibrous-membranes-with-a-compromise-of-bio-inert-control-and-tissue-cell-growth
#5
Antoine Venault, Andre Subarja, Yung Chang
We present the surface modification by thermal-evaporation self-assembling of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) fibrous membranes with a copolymer of hydrophobic octadecyl acrylate repeat units and hydrophilic zwitterionic 4-vinylpyrrolidine blocks, zP(4VP-r-ODA), in view of controlling the biofoulants-fiber interactions. PHB is of interest as a material for bio-scaffolding, but suffers from its hydrophobicity, leading to unwanted interactions with proteins, blood cells or bacteria. The surface modification of electrospun PHB fibers addresses this issue, as the hydrophilicity of the membranes is improved, leading to important reduction of BSA (92%), lysozyme (73%) and fibrinogen (50%) adsorption...
February 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169527/molecular-biodynamers-dynamic-covalent-analogues-of-biopolymers
#6
Yun Liu, Jean-Marie Lehn, Anna K H Hirsch
Constitutional dynamic chemistry (CDC) features the use of reversible linkages at both molecular and supramolecular levels, including reversible covalent bonds (dynamic covalent chemistry, DCC) and noncovalent interactions (dynamic noncovalent chemistry, DNCC). Due to its inherent reversibility and stimuli-responsiveness, CDC has been widely utilized as a powerful tool for the screening of bioactive compounds, the exploitation of receptors or substrates driven by molecular recognition, and the fabrication of constitutionally dynamic materials...
February 7, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167312/first-protein-drug-target-s-appraisal-of-lead-likeness-descriptors-to-unfold-the-intervening-chemical-space
#7
Mohd Athar, Mohsin Y Lone, Prakash C Jha
Despite the advances in combinatorial chemistry, high throughput and virtual screening experiments, plethora of clinical studies disquiet due to lead and drug-likeness attritions. For mitigation, the knowledge of physicochemical properties are really useful for guiding and selection of compounds from libraries dictated by certain rule of thumbs. However, robust bio-technological and instrumental innovations have created exponential increase in novel compounds and databases which compelled rethinking of the evaluation procedures...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151642/tyrosine-selective-functionalization-for-bio-orthogonal-cross-linking-of-engineered-protein-hydrogels
#8
Christopher M Madl, Sarah C Heilshorn
Engineered protein hydrogels have shown promise as artificial extracellular matrix materials for the 3D culture of stem cells due to the ability to decouple hydrogel biochemistry and mechanics. The modular design of these proteins allows for incorporation of various bioactive sequences to regulate cellular behavior. However, the chemistry used to cross-link the proteins into hydrogels can limit what bioactive sequences can be incorporated, in order to prevent nonspecific cross-linking within the bioactive region...
February 2, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120966/hydration-of-the-simplest-%C3%AE-keto-acid-a-rotational-spectroscopic-and-ab-initio-study-of-the-pyruvic-acid-water-complex
#9
Elijah G Schnitzler, Nathan A Seifert, Supriya Ghosh, Javix Thomas, Yunjie Xu, Wolfgang Jäger
Intermolecular interactions between pyruvic acid, the simplest α-keto acid, and water are important in bio- and atmospheric chemistry. In this context, the pure rotational spectrum of the pyruvic acid-water complex was measured from 7 to 15 GHz using a cavity-based Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. In the detected isomer, water acts as a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor, bridging the acidic hydrogen and the keto oxygen. Both a- and b-type transitions were observed; however, c-type transitions were not observed, due to vibrational averaging of the effectively barrier-less wagging motion of the free hydrogen of the water subunit, which results in an effective ground state structure with a plane of symmetry...
January 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119244/bovine-serum-albumin-adsorption-on-sio2-and-tio2-nanoparticle-surfaces-at-circumneutral-and-acidic-ph-a-tale-of-two-nano-bio-surface-interactions
#10
Brittany E Givens, Zhenzhu Xu, Jennifer Fiegel, Vicki H Grassian
The interaction of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) with two different metal oxide nanoparticles, TiO2 (∼22nm) and SiO2 (∼14nm), was studied at both physiological and acidic pH. The pH- and nanoparticle-dependent differences in protein structure and protein adsorption were determined using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated that the surface coverage of BSA decreases with decreasing pH on both TiO2 and SiO2 surfaces, and BSA coverage is higher by a factor of ca...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116390/recent-progress-in-cellulose-nanocrystals-sources-and-production
#11
REVIEW
Djalal Trache, M Hazwan Hussin, M K Mohamad Haafiz, Vijay Kumar Thakur
Cellulose nanocrystals, a class of fascinating bio-based nanoscale materials, have received a tremendous amount of interest both in industry and academia owing to its unique structural features and impressive physicochemical properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, renewability, low density, adaptable surface chemistry, optical transparency, and improved mechanical properties. This nanomaterial is a promising candidate for applications in fields such as biomedical, pharmaceuticals, electronics, barrier films, nanocomposites, membranes, supercapacitors, etc...
January 24, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111669/efficient-activation-of-a-visible-light-activatable-ca4-prodrug-through-intermolecular-photo-unclick-chemistry-in-mitochondria
#12
Moses Bio, Pallavi Rajaputra, Irene Lim, Pritam Thapa, Bomaonye Tienabeso, Robert E Hurst, Youngjae You
Photo-unclick chemistry mediates visible and near IR-controlled drug release via a singlet oxygen (SO)-cleavable linker. Due to the limited diffusion distance of SO in biological systems, a photosensitizer and the SO-cleavable linker have been conjugated in one molecule or mixed in nano-drug delivery systems. In this communication, we demonstrate a new strategy to activate prodrugs with photo-unclick chemistry in an intermolecular fashion using an SO-cleavable CA4 prodrug and a mitochondria-specific photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX, formed from prodrug hexyl-5-aminolevulinate...
January 23, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096391/network-based-integration-of-systems-genetics-data-reveals-pathways-associated-with-lignocellulosic-biomass-accumulation-and-processing
#13
Eshchar Mizrachi, Lieven Verbeke, Nanette Christie, Ana C Fierro, Shawn D Mansfield, Mark F Davis, Erica Gjersing, Gerald A Tuskan, Marc Van Montagu, Yves Van de Peer, Kathleen Marchal, Alexander A Myburg
As a consequence of their remarkable adaptability, fast growth, and superior wood properties, eucalypt tree plantations have emerged as key renewable feedstocks (over 20 million ha globally) for the production of pulp, paper, bioenergy, and other lignocellulosic products. However, most biomass properties such as growth, wood density, and wood chemistry are complex traits that are hard to improve in long-lived perennials. Systems genetics, a process of harnessing multiple levels of component trait information (e...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094920/antifouling-thin-film-composite-membranes-by-controlled-architecture-of-zwitterionic-polymer-brush-layer
#14
Caihong Liu, Jongho Lee, Jun Ma, Menachem Elimelech
In this study, we demonstrate a highly antifouling thin-film-composite (TFC) membrane by grafting a zwitterionic polymer brush via atom-transfer radical-polymerization (ATRP), a controlled, environmentally benign chemical process. Initiator molecules for polymerization were immobilized on the membrane surface by bio-inspired catechol chemistry, leading to the grafting of a dense zwitterionic polymer brush layer. Surface characterization revealed that the modified membrane exhibits reduced surface roughness, enhanced hydrophilicity, and lower surface charge...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093670/natural-colorants-historical-processing-and-sustainable-prospects
#15
REVIEW
Mohd Yusuf, Mohd Shabbir, Faqeer Mohammad
With the public's mature demand in recent times pressurized the textile industry for use of natural colorants, without any harmful effects on environment and aquatic ecosystem, and with more developed functionalities simultaneously. Advanced developments for the natural bio-resources and their sustainable use for multifunctional clothing are gaining pace now. Present review highlights historical overview of natural colorants, classification and predominantly processing of colorants from sources, application on textiles surfaces with the functionalities provided by them...
January 16, 2017: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088137/forces-on-nuclei-moving-on-autoionizing-molecular-potential-energy-surfaces
#16
Nimrod Moiseyev
Autoionization of molecular systems occurs in diatomic molecules and in small biochemical systems. Quantum chemistry packages enable calculation of complex potential energy surfaces (CPESs). The imaginary part of the CPES is associated with the autoionization decay rate, which is a function of the molecular structure. Molecular dynamics simulations, within the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, require the definition of a force field. The ability to calculate the forces on the nuclei in bio-systems when autoionization takes place seems to rely on an understanding of radiative damages in RNA and DNA arising from the release of slow moving electrons which have long de Broglie wavelengths...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051175/continuous-fabrication-of-nanostructure-arrays-for-flexible-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-substrate
#17
Chengpeng Zhang, Peiyun Yi, Linfa Peng, Xinmin Lai, Jie Chen, Meizhen Huang, Jun Ni
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been a powerful tool for applications including single molecule detection, analytical chemistry, electrochemistry, medical diagnostics and bio-sensing. Especially, flexible SERS substrates are highly desirable for daily-life applications, such as real-time and in situ Raman detection of chemical and biological targets, which can be used onto irregular surfaces. However, it is still a major challenge to fabricate the flexible SERS substrate on large-area substrates using a facile and cost-effective technique...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047744/we-a-201-01-memorial-introduction
#18
C Marshall
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047091/we-a-201-02-modern-statistical-modeling
#19
A Niemierko
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046561/we-a-201-00-anne-and-donald-herbert-distinguished-lectureship-on-modern-statistical-modeling
#20
Joseph Deasy
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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