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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920145/three-small-receptive-field-ganglion-cells-in-the-mouse-retina-are-distinctly-tuned-to-size-speed-and-object-motion
#1
Jason Jacoby, Gregory W Schwartz
: Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are frequently divided into functional types by their ability to extract and relay specific features from a visual scene, such as the capacity to discern local or global motion, direction of motion, stimulus orientation, contrast or uniformity, or the presence of large or small objects. Here we introduce three previously uncharacterized, non-direction selective ON-OFF RGC types that represent a distinct set of feature detectors in the mouse retina. The three high definition (HD) RGCs possess small receptive field (RF) centers and strong surround suppression...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918279/the-sensory-features-of-a-food-cue-influence-its-ability-to-act-as-an-incentive-stimulus-and-evoke-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#2
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Raymond Scarff, Cody Carter, Erin Wright, Brandon J Aragona, Terry E Robinson
The sensory properties of a reward-paired cue (a conditioned stimulus; CS) may impact the motivational value attributed to the cue, and in turn influence the form of the conditioned response (CR) that develops. A cue with multiple sensory qualities, such as a moving lever-CS, may activate numerous neural pathways that process auditory and visual information, resulting in CRs that vary both within and between individuals. For example, CRs include approach to the lever-CS itself (rats that "sign-track"; ST), approach to the location of reward delivery (rats that "goal-track"; GT), or an "intermediate" combination of these behaviors...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917105/eeg-negativity-in-fixations-used-for-gaze-based-control-toward-converting-intentions-into-actions-with-an-eye-brain-computer-interface
#3
Sergei L Shishkin, Yuri O Nuzhdin, Evgeny P Svirin, Alexander G Trofimov, Anastasia A Fedorova, Bogdan L Kozyrskiy, Boris M Velichkovsky
We usually look at an object when we are going to manipulate it. Thus, eye tracking can be used to communicate intended actions. An effective human-machine interface, however, should be able to differentiate intentional and spontaneous eye movements. We report an electroencephalogram (EEG) marker that differentiates gaze fixations used for control from spontaneous fixations involved in visual exploration. Eight healthy participants played a game with their eye movements only. Their gaze-synchronized EEG data (fixation-related potentials, FRPs) were collected during game's control-on and control-off conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914429/big-brown-bats-eptesicus-fuscus-reveal-diverse-strategies-for-sonar-target-tracking-in-clutter
#4
Beatrice Mao, Murat Aytekin, Gerald S Wilkinson, Cynthia F Moss
Bats actively adjust the acoustic features of their sonar calls to control echo information specific to a given task and environment. A previous study investigated how bats adapted their echolocation behavior when tracking a moving target in the presence of a stationary distracter at different distances and angular offsets. The use of only one distracter, however, left open the possibility that a bat could reduce the interference of the distracter by turning its head. Here, bats tracked a moving target in the presence of one or two symmetrically placed distracters to investigate adaptive echolocation behavior in a situation where vocalizing off-axis would result in increased interference from distracter echoes...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913627/aberrant-interhemispheric-homotopic-functional-and-structural-connectivity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
Jiuquan Zhang, Bing Ji, Jun Hu, Chaoyang Zhou, Longchuan Li, Zhihao Li, Xuequan Huang, Xiaoping Hu
OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an idiopathic and fatal neurodegenerative disease of the human motor system. While microstructural alterations in corpus callosum (CC) have been identified as a consistent feature of ALS, studies directly examining interhemispheric neural connectivity are still lacking. To shed more light on the pathophysiology of ALS, the present study aims to examine alterations of interhemispheric structural and functional connectivity in individuals with ALS...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913373/mobile-phone-apps-to-improve-medication-adherence-a-systematic-stepwise-process-to-identify-high-quality-apps
#6
Karla Santo, Sarah S Richtering, John Chalmers, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Clara K Chow, Julie Redfern
BACKGROUND: There are a growing number of mobile phone apps available to support people in taking their medications and to improve medication adherence. However, little is known about how these apps differ in terms of features, quality, and effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review the medication reminder apps available in the Australian iTunes store and Google Play to assess their features and their quality in order to identify high-quality apps...
December 2, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910384/dual-langmuir-probe-array-for-3d-plasma-studies-in-torpex
#7
M Baquero-Ruiz, F Avino, O Chellai, A Fasoli, I Furno, R Jacquier, F Manke, S Patrick
We have designed and installed a new Langmuir-probe (LP) array diagnostic to determine basic three-dimensional (3D) features of plasmas in TORPEX. The diagnostic consists of two identical LP arrays, placed on opposite sides of the apparatus, which provide comprehensive coverage of the poloidal cross section at the two different toroidal locations. Cross correlation studies of signals from the arrays provide a basic way to extract 3D information from the plasmas, as experiments show. Moreover, the remarkable signal-to-noise performance of the front-end electronics allows us to follow a different approach in which we combine information from all probes in both arrays to reconstruct elementary 3D plasma structures at each acquisition time step...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909939/a-novel-fuzzy-approach-for-automatic-brunnstrom-stage-classification-using-surface-electromyography
#8
Luca Liparulo, Zhe Zhang, Massimo Panella, Xudong Gu, Qiang Fang
Clinical assessment plays a major role in post-stroke rehabilitation programs for evaluating impairment level and tracking recovery progress. Conventionally, this process is manually performed by clinicians using chart-based ordinal scales which can be both subjective and inefficient. In this paper, a novel approach based on fuzzy logic is proposed which automatically evaluates stroke patients' impairment level using single-channel surface electromyography (sEMG) signals and generates objective classification results based on the widely used Brunnstrom stages of recovery...
December 1, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909339/cancer-cell-motility-lessons-from-migration-in-confined-spaces
#9
Colin D Paul, Panagiotis Mistriotis, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos
Time-lapse, deep-tissue imaging made possible by advances in intravital microscopy has demonstrated the importance of tumour cell migration through confining tracks in vivo. These tracks may either be endogenous features of tissues or be created by tumour or tumour-associated cells. Importantly, migration mechanisms through confining microenvironments are not predicted by 2D migration assays. Engineered in vitro models have been used to delineate the mechanisms of cell motility through confining spaces encountered in vivo...
December 2, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903906/eupathdb-the-eukaryotic-pathogen-genomics-database-resource
#10
Cristina Aurrecoechea, Ana Barreto, Evelina Y Basenko, John Brestelli, Brian P Brunk, Shon Cade, Kathryn Crouch, Ryan Doherty, Dave Falke, Steve Fischer, Bindu Gajria, Omar S Harb, Mark Heiges, Christiane Hertz-Fowler, Sufen Hu, John Iodice, Jessica C Kissinger, Cris Lawrence, Wei Li, Deborah F Pinney, Jane A Pulman, David S Roos, Achchuthan Shanmugasundram, Fatima Silva-Franco, Sascha Steinbiss, Christian J Stoeckert, Drew Spruill, Haiming Wang, Susanne Warrenfeltz, Jie Zheng
The Eukaryotic Pathogen Genomics Database Resource (EuPathDB, http://eupathdb.org) is a collection of databases covering 170+ eukaryotic pathogens (protists & fungi), along with relevant free-living and non-pathogenic species, and select pathogen hosts. To facilitate the discovery of meaningful biological relationships, the databases couple preconfigured searches with visualization and analysis tools for comprehensive data mining via intuitive graphical interfaces and APIs. All data are analyzed with the same workflows, including creation of gene orthology profiles, so data are easily compared across data sets, data types and organisms...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903772/diverse-activities-of-viral-cis-acting-rna-regulatory-elements-revealed-using-multi-color-long-term-single-cell-imaging
#11
Ginger M Pocock, Laraine L Zimdars, Ming Yuan, Kevin W Eliceiri, Paul Ahlquist, Nathan M Sherer
Cis-acting RNA structural elements govern crucial aspects of viral gene expression. How these structures and other post-transcriptional signals affect RNA trafficking and translation in the context of single cells is poorly understood. Herein we describe a multi-color, long-term (>24 h) imaging strategy for measuring integrated aspects of viral RNA regulatory control in individual cells. We apply this strategy to demonstrate differential mRNA trafficking behaviors governed by RNA elements derived from three retroviruses (HIV-1, murine leukemia virus, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus), two hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus) and an intron-retaining transcript encoded by the cellular NXF1 gene...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903729/joint-encoding-of-object-motion-and-motion-direction-in-the-salamander-retina
#12
Norma Krystyna Kühn, Tim Gollisch
: The processing of motion in visual scenes is important for detecting and tracking moving objects as well as for monitoring self-motion through the induced optic flow. Specialized neural circuits have been identified in the vertebrate retina for detecting motion direction or for distinguishing between object motion and self-motion, although little is known about how information about these distinct features of visual motion is combined. The salamander retina, which is a widely used model system for analyzing retinal function, contains object-motion-sensitive (OMS) ganglion cells, which strongly respond to local motion signals but are suppressed by global image motion...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903009/temperature-controlled-continuous-cold-flow-device-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-randomized-controlled-trial-study
#13
Alberto Ruffilli, Francesco Castagnini, Francesco Traina, Isabella Corneti, Domenico Fenga, Sandro Giannini, Cesare Faldini
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a widely accepted and successful procedure for end-stage arthritis. Nevertheless, fast-track may be compromised by many factors, such as pain, edema, and blood loss. Cryotherapy has been advocated as a safe and effective strategy to improve the postoperative results, acting on pain, edema, and blood loss. This study is a prospective randomized controlled study, involving 50 patients after primary TKA. A power analysis was performed preoperatively. Twenty-four patients were addressed to a postoperative treatment with a continuous cold flow device (Hilotherm, Hilotherm GmbH, Germany)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902504/a-password-protected-web-site-for-mothers-expressing-milk-for-their-preterm-infants
#14
MaryAnn Blatz, Donna Dowling, Patricia W Underwood, Amy Bieda, Gregory Graham
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated that breast milk significantly decreases morbidities that impact length of stay for preterm infants, but there is a need to test interventions to improve breastfeeding outcomes. Since many Americans are using technologies such as the Intranet and smartphones to find health information and manage health, a Web site was developed for mothers who provide breast milk for their preterm hospitalized infants. PURPOSE: This study examined the efficacy of a Web site for mothers to educate them about breast milk expression and assist them in monitoring their breast milk supply...
November 29, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901510/genetic-heterogeneity-underlying-variation-in-a-locally-adaptive-clinal-trait-in-pinus-sylvestris-revealed-by-a-bayesian-multipopulation-analysis
#15
S T Kujala, T Knürr, K Kärkkäinen, D B Neale, M J Sillanpää, O Savolainen
Local adaptation is a common feature of plant and animal populations. Adaptive phenotypic traits are genetically differentiated along environmental gradients, but the genetic basis of such adaptation is still poorly known. Genetic association studies of local adaptation combine data over populations. Correcting for population structure in these studies can be problematic since both selection and neutral demographic events can create similar allele frequency differences between populations. Correcting for demography with traditional methods may lead to eliminating some true associations...
November 30, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900318/templated-sequence-insertion-polymorphisms-in-the-human-genome
#16
REVIEW
Masahiro Onozawa, Peter D Aplan
Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphism (TSIP) is a recently described form of polymorphism recognized in the human genome, in which a sequence that is templated from a distant genomic region is inserted into the genome, seemingly at random. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; Class 1 TSIPs show features of insertions that are mediated via the LINE-1 ORF2 protein, including (1) target-site duplication (TSD), (2) polyadenylation 10-30 nucleotides downstream of a "cryptic" polyadenylation signal, and (3) preference for insertion at a 5'-TTTT/A-3' sequence...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899667/rice-snp-seek-database-update-new-snps-indels-and-queries
#17
Locedie Mansueto, Roven Rommel Fuentes, Frances Nikki Borja, Jeffery Detras, Juan Miguel Abriol-Santos, Dmytro Chebotarov, Millicent Sanciangco, Kevin Palis, Dario Copetti, Alexandre Poliakov, Inna Dubchak, Victor Solovyev, Rod A Wing, Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton, Ramil Mauleon, Kenneth L McNally, Nickolai Alexandrov
We describe updates to the Rice SNP-Seek Database since its first release. We ran a new SNP-calling pipeline followed by filtering that resulted in complete, base, filtered and core SNP datasets. Besides the Nipponbare reference genome, the pipeline was run on genome assemblies of IR 64, 93-11, DJ 123 and Kasalath. New genotype query and display features are added for reference assemblies, SNP datasets and indels. JBrowse now displays BAM, VCF and other annotation tracks, the additional genome assemblies and an embedded VISTA genome comparison viewer...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894062/echocardiographic-comparison-between-left-ventricular-non-compaction-and-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#18
Trine F Haland, Jørg Saberniak, Ida S Leren, Thor Edvardsen, Kristina H Haugaa
BACKGROUND: Modern imaging technology has improved detection of left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) shares morphological features with LVNC, but prognosis and treatment strategies differ between LVNC and HCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: We aimed to compare global and regional LV myocardial function in LVNC and HCM. We hypothesized that apical function is reduced in LVNC due to the embryonic reduced compaction of the apex...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893272/action-effects-are-coded-as-transitions-from-current-to-future-stimulation-evidence-from-compatibility-effects-in-tracking
#19
Wilfried Kunde, Constantin Schmidts, Robert Wirth, Oliver Herbort
There is ample evidence that motor actions are stored in terms of, and controlled by, the sensory effects that these actions produce. At present it is unclear, though, whether action control is governed by intended sensory changes (e.g., the transition from darkness to brightness when switching on a light) or only by intended sensory end states (e.g., the light being on). The present study explored the role of sensory changes for action control. To address this issue, participants engaged in a spatial tracking task...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891074/interactive-sonification-of-spontaneous-movement-of-children-cross-modal-mapping-and-the-perception-of-body-movement-qualities-through-sound
#20
Emma Frid, Roberto Bresin, Paolo Alborno, Ludvig Elblaus
In this paper we present three studies focusing on the effect of different sound models in interactive sonification of bodily movement. We hypothesized that a sound model characterized by continuous smooth sounds would be associated with other movement characteristics than a model characterized by abrupt variation in amplitude and that these associations could be reflected in spontaneous movement characteristics. Three subsequent studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between properties of bodily movement and sound: (1) a motion capture experiment involving interactive sonification of a group of children spontaneously moving in a room, (2) an experiment involving perceptual ratings of sonified movement data and (3) an experiment involving matching between sonified movements and their visualizations in the form of abstract drawings...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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