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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915228/cytokines-il-17-and-il-22-in-the-host-response-to-infection
#1
Maria Valeri, Manuela Raffatellu
Cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 play pivotal roles in host defense against microbes and in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. These cytokines are produced by cells that are often located in epithelial barriers, including subsets of T cells and innate lymphoid cells. In general, IL-17 and IL-22 can be characterized as important cytokines in the rapid response to infectious agents, both by recruiting neutrophils and by inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides. Although each cytokine induces an innate immune response in epithelial cells, their functional spectra are generally distinct: IL-17 mainly induces an inflammatory tissue response and is involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, whereas IL-22 is largely protective and regenerative...
December 2, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915185/anti-inflammatory-analgesic-and-anti-tumor-properties-of-gold-nanoparticles
#2
Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes de Araújo, Jonas Bispo Pessoa, Franscisco Paulo Freire Neto, Gisele Ribeiro da Silva, Ana Luiza C S Leitão Oliveira, Thaís Gomes de Carvalho, Heloiza F O Silva, Mateus Eugênio, Celso Sant'Anna, Luiz H S Gasparotto
BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are regarded as potential platforms for drug delivery. However, their interaction with live organisms must be understood prior to their utilization as drug carriers. The present study reports the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-tumor effects of GNPs. The biodistribution of GNPs and their effect on various tissues have also been studied. METHODS: GNPs were synthesized through an environmentally friendly route and characterized with TEM and UV-vis...
September 21, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915129/nicotiana-benthamiana-plants-asymptomatically-infected-by-pelargonium-line-pattern-virus-show-unusually-high-accumulation-of-viral-small-rnas-that-is-neither-associated-with-dcl-induction-nor-rdr6-activity
#3
Miryam Pérez-Cañamás, Marta Blanco-Pérez, Javier Forment, Carmen Hernández
Pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV, Tombusviridae) normally establishes systemic, low-titered and asymptomatic infections in its hosts. This type of interaction may be largely determined by events related to RNA silencing, a major antiviral mechanism in plants. This mechanism is triggered by double or quasi double-stranded (ds) viral RNAs which are cut by DCL ribonucleases into virus small RNAs (vsRNAs). Such vsRNAs are at the core of the silencing process as they guide sequence-specific RNA degradation Host RNA dependent-RNA polymerases (RDRs), and particularly RDR6, strengthen antiviral silencing by promoting biosynthesis of secondary vsRNAs...
December 1, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915043/involvement-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-the-effect-of-diphenyl-diselenide-on-motor-function-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-rat-model
#4
Tuane Bazanella Sampaio, Simone Pinton, Juliana Trevisan da Rocha, Bibiana Mozzaquatro Gai, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] is a compound with pharmacological proprieties, such as antidepressant and neuroprotective. Therefore, this study investigated whether (PhSe)2 reverses motor impairment and neurochemical alterations in a model of Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. For this, male Wistar rats received 20μg/3μl of 6-OHDA or vehicle into the right striatum...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915024/extracellular-matrix-hydrogels-from-decellularized-tissues-structure-and-function
#5
REVIEW
Lindsey T Saldin, Madeline C Cramer, Sachin S Velankar, Lisa J White, Stephen F Badylak
: Extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffolds prepared from decellularized tissues have been used to facilitate constructive and functional tissue remodeling in a variety of clinical applications. The discovery that these ECM materials could be solubilized and subsequently manipulated to form hydrogels expanded their potential in vitro and in vivo utility; i.e. as culture substrates comparable to collagen or Matrigel, and as injectable materials that fill irregularly-shaped defects. The mechanisms by which ECM hydrogels direct cell behavior and influence remodeling outcomes are only partially understood, but likely include structural and biological signals retained from the native source tissue...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915019/the-impact-of-cell-surface-pegylation-and-short-course-immunotherapy-on-islet-graft-survival-in-an-allogeneic-murine-model
#6
Jaime A Giraldo, R Damaris Molano, Hernán R Rengifo, Carmen Fotino, Kerim M Gattás-Asfura, Antonello Pileggi, Cherie L Stabler
: Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for Type 1 diabetes mellitus; however, host inflammatory and immune responses lead to islet dysfunction and destruction, despite potent systemic immunosuppression. Grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to the periphery of cells or tissues can mitigate inflammation and immune recognition via generation of a steric barrier. Herein, we sought to evaluate the complementary impact of islet PEGylation with a short-course immunotherapy on the survival of fully-MHC mismatched islet allografts (DBA/2 islets into diabetic C57BL/6J recipients)...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914989/transcriptome-analysis-of-adult-and-fetal-trabecular-meshwork-cornea-and-ciliary-body-tissues-by-rna-sequencing
#7
Megan Ulmer Carnes, R Rand Allingham, Allison Ashley-Koch, Michael A Hauser
PURPOSE: To characterize the transcriptional landscape of human adult and fetal trabecular meshwork (TM), cornea, and ciliary body (CB) tissues, and to evaluate the expression level of candidate genes selected from genetic association studies of primary-open angle glaucoma, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, vertical cup to disc ratio, and optic nerve parameters. METHODS: Deep RNA sequencing was performed on the selected human tissues. Transcriptome analyses were performed to 1) characterize the total number of expressed genes, 2) identify the most highly expressed genes, 3) estimate the number of novel transcripts, and 4) evaluate the expression of candidate genes in each tissue...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914980/cloning-and-characterization-of-adipogenin-and-its-overexpression-enhances-fat-accumulation-of-bovine-myosatellite-cells
#8
Yang Liu, Bijie Jiang, Changzhen Fu, Ruijie Hao
Adipogenin (ADIG) is an adipocyte-specific membrane protein highly expressed in adipose tissues and is increased during the adipocyte differentiation. However, the roles and mechanisms of ADIG on fat accumulation and adipocyte differentiation in ex vivo still largely unknown. In this study, we isolated bovine myosatellite cells based on adhesion characteristics to investigate whether ADIG overexpression could promote trans-differentiation and increase fat accumulation in myosatellite cells. Immunofluorescence labeling was then used for the phenotypic characteristics of myosatellite...
November 30, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914954/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-profile-of-kisspeptin1-and-kisspeptin1-receptor-at-brain-pituitary-gonad-bpg-axis-of-golden-mahseer-tor-putitora-hamilton-1822-during-gonadal-development
#9
Neetu Shahi, Atul Kumar Singh, Monalisa Sahoo, Sumanta Kumar Mallik, Dimpal Thakuria
Complete cDNA sequences of kiss1 (gmkiss1) and its receptor kiss1r (gmkiss1r) were cloned and characterized from brain tissue of adult golden mahseer (Tor putitora). Thereafter, quantification of gmkiss1 and gmkiss1r mRNA expression in brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis of male and female golden mahseer was carried out using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR assay during an annual reproductive cycle, at different gonadal development stages. The gmkiss1 cDNA was 508bp, with 330bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a precursor protein of 109 amino acids, whereas gmkiss1r cDNA was 1383bp with an ORF of 1004bp, which encodes a 334 amino acid protein residue...
November 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914769/clinicopathological-and-molecular-characteristics-of-ku-70-80-expression-in-nigerian-breast-cancer-and-its-potential-therapeutic-implications
#10
Ayodeji O J Agboola, Henry O Ebili, Victoria O Iyawe, Adekunbiola A F Banjo, Babatunde A Salami, Emad A Rakha, Chrstopher C Nolan, Ian O Ellis, Andrew R Green
Ku 70/80 is a regulator of the Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) roles in clinicopathological features, and has prognostic significance in breast cancer (BC) in Caucasian populations. However, its significance in the Nigerian BC population, which is characterized by a higher rate of the triple-negative and basal phenotype, p53 mutation rate and BRCA1 deficiency, still needs to be investigated. We hypothesize that Ku70/80 expression shows adverse expression in Nigerian BC and, furthermore, that it is likely to have a therapeutic implication for Black BC management...
October 25, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914563/differential-effects-of-testosterone-and-estradiol-on-clitoral-function-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#11
Paolo Comeglio, Ilaria Cellai, Sandra Filippi, Chiara Corno, Francesca Corcetto, Annamaria Morelli, Elena Maneschi, Elisa Maseroli, Edoardo Mannucci, Massimiliano Fambrini, Mario Maggi, Linda Vignozzi
INTRODUCTION: Female sexual response is a complex phenomenon in which psychological, neurologic, and vascular mechanisms and hormonal factors interact. During the arousal phase, they cooperate to increase genital blood flow, thus inducing engorgement of the clitoris and lubrication of the vagina. Regulation of vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle tone is the crucial event in the erectile process. Preclinical studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO) is the main vasodilator neurotransmitter modulating, through the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), clitoral flow vessels...
December 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914545/potential-mode-of-action-of-a-novel-plumbagin-as-a-mosquito-repellent-against-the-malarial-vector-anopheles-stephensi-culicidae-diptera
#12
Venkatraman Pradeepa, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Subbiah Sathish-Narayanan, Selvaraj Selin-Rani, Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Athirstam Ponsankar, Edward-Sam Edwin, Muthiah Sakthi-Bagavathy, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Kadarkarai Murugan, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
Plumbagin was isolated and characterized from the roots of Plumbago zeylanica using chromatography: TLC, Column chromatogram, HPLC, FTIR and (1)H NMR. The isolated pure compounds were assayed for potency as inhibitors of: acetylcholine esterase (AchE), glutathione S-transferases (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), cytochrome P450 and α, β-esterase, and for repellency with Anopheles stephensi at four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100ppm). The enzyme assay against the pure compound reveals that the level of esterase and SOD was decreased significantly in contrast the level of GST and cytochrome P450 was increased significantly...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914524/the-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase-gene-family-in-isatis-indigotica-fort-molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis
#13
Rui-Fang Ma, Qian-Zi Liu, Ying Xiao, Lei Zhang, Qing Li, Jun Yin, Wan-Sheng Chen
Phenolic compounds, metabolites of the phenylpropanoid pathway, play an important role in the growth and environmental adaptation of many plants. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway. The present study was designed to investigate whether there is a multi-gene family in I. Indigotic and, if so, to characterize their properties. We conducted a comprehensive survey on the transcription profiling database by using tBLASTn analysis. Several bioinformatics methods were employed to perform the prediction of composition and physicochemical characters...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914325/fabrication-of-metronidazole-loaded-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-zein-core-shell-nanofiber-membranes-via-coaxial-electrospinning-for-guided-tissue-regeneration
#14
Min He, Huiyi Jiang, Rui Wang, Yi Xie, Changsheng Zhao
To develop a biologically mimetic guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane with localized sustained drug release function to prevent infection, coaxial electrospinning technique was conducted to fabricate metronidazole (MNA)-loaded poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/zein core/shell nanofibers. The nanofibers displayed a uniform bead-free round morphology as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a core/shell structure as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) characterizations demonstrated that the MNA was well dispersed in the nanofibers matrix...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914293/diethylcarbamazine-attenuates-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-by-apoptosis-of-inflammatory-cells
#15
Ingrid Tavares Fragoso, Edlene Lima Ribeiro, Fabiana Oliveira Dos Santos Gomes, Mariana Aragão Matos Donato, Amanda Karolina Soares Silva, Amanda Costa O de Oliveira, Shyrlene Meiry da Rocha Araújo, Karla Patrícia Sousa Barbosa, Laise Aline Martins Santos, Christina Alves Peixoto
BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by extensive neutrophil infiltration, and apoptosis delay considered part of the pathogenesis of the condition. Despite great advances in treatment strategies, few effective therapies are known for ALI. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is used against lymphatic filariasis, a number of studies have described its anti-inflammatory activities and pro-apoptotic effect. These properties have been associated with nuclear factor kappa-B inactivation...
September 24, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914265/automated-quantification-of-three-dimensional-organization-of-fiber-like-structures-in-biological-tissues
#16
Zhiyi Liu, Dimitra Pouli, Disha Sood, Aswin Sundarakrishnan, Carrie K Hui Mingalone, Lisa M Arendt, Carlo Alonzo, Kyle P Quinn, Charlotte Kuperwasser, Li Zeng, Thomas Schnelldorfer, David L Kaplan, Irene Georgakoudi
Fiber-like structures are prevalent in biological tissues, yet quantitative approaches to assess their three-dimensional (3D) organization are lacking. We develop 3D directional variance, as a quantitative biomarker of truly 3D fibrillar organization by extending the directional statistics formalism developed for describing circular data distributions (i.e. when 0° and 360° are equivalent) to axial ones (i.e. when 0° and 180° are equivalent). Significant advantages of this analysis include its time efficiency, sensitivity and ability to provide quantitative readouts of organization over different size scales of a given data set...
November 25, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914026/limbal-stem-cell-and-oral-mucosal-epithelial-transplantation-from-ex-vivo-cultivation-in-lscd-induced-rabbits-histology-and-immunologic-study-of-the-transplant-epithelial-sheet
#17
Napaporn Tananuvat, Kanokkan Bumroongkit, Chainarong Tocharusa, Umnat Mevatee, Aphisek Kongkaew, Somsanguan Ausayakhun
PURPOSE: To evaluate the results of cultivated limbal epithelial and oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (CLET and COMET) in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD)-induced rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of three rabbits each. Limbal tissue was harvested from the first group, and oral mucosal biopsy was obtained from the second group. The tissues were cultured using an explant technique with amniotic membrane as a substrate and co-culture with the 3T3 fibroblast and air-lifting method...
December 2, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913937/hypotensive-effect-and-accumulation-of-dinitrosyl-iron-complexes-in-blood-and-tissues-after-intravenous-and-subcutaneous-injection
#18
A A Timoshin, V L Lakomkin, A A Abramov, E K Ruuge, A F Vanin
Subcutaneous injection of Oxacom with glutathione-bound dinitrosyl iron complex as the active principle produced a slower drop of mean BP and longer accumulation of protein-bound dinitrosyl iron complexes in whole blood and tissues than intravenous injection of this drug, while durations of hypotensive effect in both cases were practically identical. In contrast to intravenous injection of the drug, its subcutaneous administration was not characterized by a high concentration of protein-bound dinitrosyl iron complexes in the blood at the onset of experiment; in addition, accumulation of these NO forms in the lungs was more pronounced after subcutaneous injection than after intravenous one...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913780/multifocal-polymorphous-hemangioendothelioma-of-the-liver-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#19
Siba El Hussein, Yumna Omarzai
We report a case of polymorphous hemangioendothelioma, a rare vascular neoplasm, arising in the liver of a 51-year-old woman. Microscopically, this neoplasm is characterized by a polymorphous blend of solid, primitive vascular and angiomatous areas in variable proportions. Polymorphous hemangioendothelioma is considered to be an intermediate-grade vascular neoplasm. In most of the reported cases, its occurrence has been in lymph nodes, but a few cases have been found in extranodal sites such as the mediastinum, spinal cord, and liver...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913750/congenital-heart-block-and-immune-mediated-sensorineural-hearing-loss-possible-cross-reactivity-of-immune-response
#20
C Bason, I Pagnini, A Brucato, S Maestroni, A Puccetti, C Lunardi, R Cimaz
Immune-mediated sensorineural hearing loss may complicate systemic autoimmune diseases. We have previously reported the presence of antibodies directed against inner ear antigens in patients with Cogan syndrome, a disease characterized by sudden hearing loss and interstitial keratitis. Such autoantibodies cross-react with an epitope of SSA/Ro60 protein. Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies in pregnant women cross the placenta and reach the fetal tissues inducing an immune-mediated damage of the cardiac conduction system...
December 2, 2016: Lupus
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