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Tissue Characterization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449484/clinical-presentation-and-characteristics-of-25-adult-cases-of-pulmonary-sequestration
#1
Mateusz Polaczek, Inga Baranska, Malgorzata Szolkowska, Jacek Zych, Piotr Rudzinski, Janusz Szopinski, Tadeusz Orlowski, Kazimierz Roszkowski-Sliz
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is a rare congenital abnormality of lung tissue. Only few series of adult cases are reported. The aim was to describe clinical characteristics in adult cases of PS and to compare outcomes in different clinical situations. METHODS: Using MSD engine we searched for cases of PS that have been diagnosed between Jan 1st, 2005 and Dec 31st, 2015. Clinical data was retrospectively gathered. Statistica v.12 (StatSoft, Inc.) was used for statistical analyses...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449134/characterizing-exogenous-mrna-delivery-trafficking-cytoplasmic-release-and-rna-protein-correlations-at-the-level-of-single-cells
#2
Jonathan L Kirschman, Sushma Bhosle, Daryll Vanover, Emmeline L Blanchard, Kristin H Loomis, Chiara Zurla, Kathryn Murray, Blaine C Lam, Philip J Santangelo
The use of synthetic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) to express specific proteins is a highly promising therapeutic and vaccine approach that avoids many safety issues associated with viral or DNA-based systems. However, in order to optimize mRNA designs and delivery, technology advancements are required to study fundamental mechanisms of mRNA uptake and localization at the single-cell and tissue level. Here, we present a single RNA sensitive fluorescent labeling method which allows us to label and visualize synthetic mRNA without significantly affecting function...
April 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448785/a-class-ii-myosin-is-required-for-growth-conidiation-cell-wall-integrity-and-pathogenicity-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#3
Min Guo, Leyong Tan, Xiang Nie, Zhengguang Zhang
In eukaryotic organisms, myosin proteins are the major ring components that are involved in cytokinesis. To date, little is known about the biological functions of myosin proteins in Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, insertional mutagenesis conducted in M. oryzae led to identification of Momyo2, a pathogenicity gene predicted to encode a class-II myosin protein homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Myo1. According to qRT-PCR, Momyo2 is highly expressed during early infectious stage. When this gene was disrupted, the resultant mutant isolates were attenuated in virulence on rice and barley...
April 27, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448764/mechanistic-insights-into-osteoporosis-in-patients-with-lipodystrophy-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Lanhui Huang, Hong Shi, Xinli Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the underlying pathogenesis of osteoporosis occurring in patients with lipodystrophy. METHODS: MEDLINE was searched using the following key terms: lipodystrophy, osteoporosis and reduced bone mineral density. Additional studies were obtained from the bibliographies of reports and reviews above by manual search. RESULTS: Lipodystrophy is a very rare disease characterized by pathologic alterations in the distribution of adipose tissues in association with a diverse range of metabolic derangements such as hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, diabetes and abnormal bone formation...
April 27, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448704/-retrograde-intramedullary-nail-fixation-for-charcot-neuroarthropathy
#5
E López-Gavito, N A Gómez-Fuentes, P Parra-Téllez, M Lezama-Peniche, J Vázquez-Escamilla, S R León-Hernández
Charcot arthropathy is defined as an articular degenerative, chronic, progressive disease that affects one or more peripheral joints, develops as a result of a failure in the normal sensory perception (pain and proprioception) in the innervation of joints located in the foot and ankle, is characterized by destructive bone lesions without the presence of infection. Neuropathy is directly associated with diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. Surgery is indicated when there is severe involvement of soft tissue, foot joints are unstable, at the presence of chronic or recurrent ulcers or when the foot and ankle can not fit to a normal shoe, and had limitation to perform activities of daily living...
September 2016: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448534/intense-light-elicited-upregulation-of-mir-21-facilitates-glycolysis-and-cardioprotection-through-per2-dependent-mechanisms
#6
Colleen Marie Bartman, Yoshimasa Oyama, Kelley Brodsky, Ludmila Khailova, Lori Walker, Michael Koeppen, Tobias Eckle
A wide search for ischemic preconditioning (IPC) mechanisms of cardioprotection identified the light elicited circadian rhythm protein Period 2 (Per2) to be cardioprotective. Studies on cardiac metabolism found a key role for light elicited Per2 in mediating metabolic dependence on carbohydrate metabolism. To profile Per2 mediated pathways following IPC of the mouse heart, we performed a genome array and identified 352 abundantly expressed and well-characterized Per2 dependent micro RNAs. One prominent result of our in silico analysis for cardiac Per2 dependent micro RNAs revealed a selective role for miR-21 in the regulation of hypoxia and metabolic pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448526/human-alkaline-phosphatase-dephosphorylates-microbial-products-and-is-elevated-in-preterm-neonates-with-a-history-of-late-onset-sepsis
#7
Matthew Pettengill, Juan D Matute, Megan Tresenriter, Julie Hibbert, David Burgner, Peter Richmond, José Luis Millán, Al Ozonoff, Tobias Strunk, Andrew Currie, Ofer Levy
BACKGROUND: A host defense function for Alkaline phosphatases (ALPs) is suggested by the contribution of intestinal ALP to detoxifying bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) in animal models in vivo and the elevation of ALP activity following treatment of human cells with inflammatory stimuli in vitro. However the activity of ALP in human plasma (primarily tissue-nonspecific ALP; TNAP) on lipopolysaccharide and other microbial products has not been assessed, nor has its expression been studied in preterm newborns, a vulnerable population at high risk of sepsis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448418/effects-of-b-value-on-quantification-of-rapid-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-in-normal-and-acute-ischemic-brain-tissues
#8
Ming-Chung Chou, Cheng-Wen Ko, Yu-Hsien Chiu, Hsiao-Wen Chung, Ping-Hong Lai
PURPOSE: Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has been widely used to characterize brain tissue alterations. Diffusion-weighting factor or b value plays an important role in the measurement of rapid DKI and may have influential effects on them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of b value on rapid DKI indices in normal and acute ischemic brain tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study enrolled 10 healthy subjects and 4 acute ischemic stroke patients...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448233/t1-and-t2-mapping-in-recognition-of-early-cardiac-involvement-in-systemic-sarcoidosis
#9
Valentina O Puntmann, Alexander Isted, Rocio Hinojar, Lucy Foote, Gerald Carr-White, Eike Nagel
Purpose To determine whether quantitative tissue characterization with T1 and T2 mapping supports recognition of myocardial involvement in patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Materials and Methods Fifty-three consecutive patients with a biopsy-proven extracardiac diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis (21 men; median age, 45 years; interquartile range, 22 years) and 36 normotensive previously healthy control subjects (14 men; median age, 43 years; interquartile range, 18 years) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, which was performed to assess cardiac function and late gadolinium enhancement, and T1 and T2 mapping...
April 27, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448041/mass-spectrometry-and-luminogenic-based-approaches-to-characterize-phase-i-metabolic-competency-of-in-vitro-cell-cultures
#10
Andrew Baxter, Emmanuel Minet
Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes play a key function in the biotransformation of medicines and toxicants by adding functional groups that increase solubility and facilitate excretion. On some occasions those structural modifications lead to the formation of new toxic products. In order to reduce animal testing, chemical risk can be assessed using metabolically competent cells. The expression of metabolic enzymes, however, is not stable over time in many in vitro primary culture systems and is often partial or absent in cell lines...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448038/preparation-of-non-human-primate-brain-tissue-for-pre-embedding-immunohistochemistry-and-electron-microscopy
#11
Lara Eid, Martin Parent
Despite all the technological advances at the light microscopy level, electron microscopy remains the only tool in neuroscience to examine and characterize ultrastructural and morphological details of neurons, such as synaptic contacts. Good preservation of brain tissue for electron microscopy can be obtained by rigorous cryo-fixation methods, but these techniques are rather costly and limit the use of immunolabeling, which is crucial to understand the connectivity of identified neuronal systems. Freeze-substitution methods have been developed to allow the combination of cryo-fixation with immunolabeling...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448002/measurement-of-t-cell-alloreactivity-using-imaging-flow-cytometry
#12
Stephen C Juvet, Sajad Moshkelgosha, Sharon Sanderson, Joanna Hester, Kathryn J Wood, Andrew Bushell
The measurement of immunological reactivity to donor antigens in transplant recipients is likely to be crucial for the successful reduction or withdrawal of immunosuppression. The mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR), limiting dilution assays, and trans-vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay have all been applied to this question, but these methods have limited predictive ability and/or significant practical limitations that reduce their usefulness. Imaging flow cytometry is a technique that combines the multiparametric quantitative powers of flow cytometry with the imaging capabilities of fluorescent microscopy...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447991/isolation-and-characterization-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-human-umbilical-cord-and-fetal-placenta
#13
Naimisha Beeravolu, Christina McKee, Ali Alamri, Sasha Mikhael, Christina Brown, Mick Perez-Cruet, G Rasul Chaudhry
The human umbilical cord (UC) and placenta are non-invasive, primitive and abundant sources of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) that have increasingly gained attention because they do not pose any ethical or moral concerns. Current methods to isolate MSCs from UC yield low amounts of cells with variable proliferation potentials. Since UC is an anatomically-complex organ, differences in MSC properties may be due to the differences in the anatomical regions of their isolation. In this study, we first dissected the cord/placenta samples into three discrete anatomical regions: UC, cord-placenta junction (CPJ), and fetal placenta (FP)...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447985/methods-for-the-self-integration-of-megamolecular-biopolymers-on-the-drying-air-lc-interface
#14
Kosuke Okeyoshi, Kensuke Osada, Maiko K Okajima, Tatsuo Kaneko
Living organisms that use water are always prone to drying in the environment. Their activities are driven by biopolymer-based micro- and macro-structures, as seen in the cases of moving water in vascular bundles and moisturizing water in skin layers. In this study, we developed a method for assessing the effect of aqueous liquid crystalline (LC) solutions composed of biopolymers on drying. As LC biopolymers have megamolecular weight, we chose to study polysaccharides, cytoskeletal proteins, and DNA. The observation of biopolymer solutions during drying under polarized light reveals milliscale self-integration starting from the unstable air-LC interface...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447981/isolation-characterization-and-purification-of-macrophages-from-tissues-affected-by-obesity-related-inflammation
#15
Joselyn N Allen, Adwitia Dey, Ruth Nissly, James Fraser, Shan Yu, Gayathri Balandaram, Jeffrey M Peters, Pamela A Hankey-Giblin
Obesity promotes a chronic inflammatory state that is largely mediated by tissue-resident macrophages as well as monocyte-derived macrophages. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is a valuable model in studying the role of macrophage heterogeneity; however, adequate macrophage isolations are difficult to acquire from inflamed tissues. In this protocol, we outline the isolation steps and necessary troubleshooting guidelines derived from our studies for obtaining a suitable population of tissue-resident macrophages from mice following 18 weeks of high-fat (HFD) or high-fat/high-cholesterol (HFHCD) diet intervention...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447624/wireless-power-transfer-to-millimeter-sized-gastrointestinal-electronics-validated-in-a-swine-model
#16
Abubakar Abid, Jonathan M O'Brien, Taylor Bensel, Cody Cleveland, Lucas Booth, Brian R Smith, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso
Electronic devices placed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract for prolonged periods have the potential to transform clinical evaluation and treatment. One challenge to the deployment of such gastroresident electronics is the difficulty in powering millimeter-sized electronics devices without using batteries, which compromise biocompatibility and long-term residence. We examined the feasibility of leveraging mid-field wireless powering to transfer power from outside of the body to electronics at various locations along the GI tract...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447607/genome-wide-identification-characterization-and-expression-profile-of-aquaporin-gene-family-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum
#17
S M Shivaraj, Rupesh K Deshmukh, Rhitu Rai, Richard Bélanger, Pawan K Agrawal, Prasanta K Dash
Membrane intrinsic proteins (MIPs) form transmembrane channels and facilitate transport of myriad substrates across the cell membrane in many organisms. Majority of plant MIPs have water transporting ability and are commonly referred as aquaporins (AQPs). In the present study, we identified aquaporin coding genes in flax by genome-wide analysis, their structure, function and expression pattern by pan-genome exploration. Cross-genera phylogenetic analysis with known aquaporins from rice, arabidopsis, and poplar showed five subgroups of flax aquaporins representing 16 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 17 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 13 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 2 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), and 3 uncharacterized intrinsic proteins (XIPs)...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447574/optimized-longitudinal-monitoring-of-stem-cell-grafts-in-mouse-brain-using-a-novel-bioluminescent-near-infrared-fluorescent-fusion-reporter
#18
Laura Mezzanotte, Juvita Delancy Iljas, Ivo Que, Alan Chan, Eric Kaijzel, Rob Hoeben, Clemens Löwik
<p>Biodistribution and fate of transplanted stem cells via longitudinal monitoring has been successfully achievedin the last decade using optical imaging. However, sensitive longitudinal imaging of transplanted stem cells in deep tissue like the brain remains challenging not only due to low light penetration but because of other factors such as low or inferior expression levels of optical reporters in stem cells and stem cell death after transplantation. Here we describe an optimized imaging protocol for sensitive long term monitoring of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) expressing a novel bioluminescent/near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) fusion reporter transplanted in mouse brain cortex...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447179/influence-of-inherent-mechanophenotype-on-competitive-cellular-adherence
#19
Manisha K Shah, Iris H Garcia-Pak, Eric M Darling
Understanding the role of mechanophenotype in competitive adherence of cells to other cells versus underlying substrates can inform such processes as tissue development, cancer progression, and wound healing. This study investigated how mechanophenotype, defined by whole-cell, elastic/viscoelastic properties for the perinuclear region, and cellular assembly are intertwined through the mechanosensing process. Atomic force microscopy was used to characterize the temporal elastic/viscoelastic properties of individual and assembled fibroblasts grown on substrates with elastic moduli above, below, or similar to whole-cell mechanophenotypes measured for three, genetically modified cell lines...
April 26, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447033/prokineticin-is-a-new-linker-between-obesity-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Canan G Nebigil
Obesity is a fast growing epidemic event worldwide. Fatness is associated with a number of comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although obesity can be heredity in 30-70% cases, the environmental contributions also play an important role in the increasing prevalence of obesity. The relationship between development of obesity and CVD is poorly characterized. Obesity and CVD can also be resulted from a common mechanism such as metabolic, inflammatory, and neurohormonal changes. Prokineticins are defined as cytokines (immunoregulatory proteins), adipokines (adipocyte-secreted hormone), angiogenic (increasing vessel formation), or aneroxic (lowering food intake) hormones...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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