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Tissue Characterization

Emiliano Tognoli, Matte Leoni, Daniele Morelli, Elisa Sottotetti, Antonia Martinetti, Stefano Signoroni, Carlotta Galeone, Gianfranco Gallino
Unrestrained activation of the proteolytic systems in anastomotic tissue during repair has been implicated in the pathogenesis of anastomotic leakage. We hypothesized that this mechanism may promote an up-regulation of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator system and a spillover of Soluble Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) into blood. In this retrospective analysis patients with anastomotic leakage were compared to a group of matched uncomplicated patients. Anastomotic leakage complicated patients had significantly higher suPAR (p=0...
October 19, 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Marcela R Jiménez, Helena Rocchetto, Paula S Ferreira, Martin Sangueza, Silvia V Lourenço, Marcello M S Nico
Syringomas are benign adnexal tumors that are characterized histologically by the presence of small solid and cystic epithelial structures in the upper half of the reticular dermis. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic method that enables in vivo visualization of tissues with a resolution that approximates that of conventional histopathology. The use of this method in skin imaging over the past several years has improved dermatological diagnoses, creating the potential for its wide application in such diagnoses, especially for benign and malignant skin tumors...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Pier Paolo Poli, Marco CicciÃ, Mario Beretta, Carlo Maiorana
The clinical condition involving dental implants, characterized by soft tissue inflammation, bleeding, suppuration and rapid bone loss is widely known as peri implantitis. The main objective in the treatment of peri-implantis is to arrest the progression of the disease and at the same time to keep the dental implant in the mouth solving the inflammations signs of bleeding and pain. The aim of this paper is to highlight the effectiveness of the use of titanium brush and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) to decontaminate the implant surface, in association with regenerative procedures by means of autologous bone and demineralized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) in the treatment of peri-implantitis defects...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Oral Implantology
Paula D Bos
A prerequisite for tumor evolution toward a malignant state is the establishment of cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of immune suppression (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000, 2011; Schreiber, Old, and Smyth, 2011). Widespread recruitment of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (TREG) is a prevailing means to dampen antitumor immunity. Advances in the characterization of TREG cell heterogeneity and physiological function of tissue resident TREG cells unfold new possibilities for nontraditional tumor-promoting functions of intratumoral TREG cells...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
T Sheveleva, V Bejenar, E Komlichenko, A Dedul, A Malushko
Endometriosis is a chronic, progressive, relapsing estrogen-dependent disorder characterized by the growth of tissue structure and function similar to the endometrium outside the normal mucosa of the uterine cavity localization. Endometriosis is found in 10-15% of women in reproductive age and it is one of the main causes of pelvic pain syndrome and infertility. Mechanisms of the development of endometriosis and related pathological pain impulses are still poorly understood and therapeutic approaches do not always have a sufficient effect; in this connection, the study of the pathogenesis of endometriosis and endometriosis-associated pain currently is perspective...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Ajit Dash, Robert A Figler, Arun J Sanyal, B R Wamhoff
Drug induced steatohepatitis (DISH), a form of drug induced liver injury (DILI) is characterized by intracellular accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes and subsequent inflammatory events, in some ways similar to the pathology seen with other metabolic, viral and genetic causes of non alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis (NAFLD and NASH). Areas covered: This paper provides a comprehensive review of the main underlying mechanisms by which various drugs cause DISH, and outlines existing preclinical tools to predict it and study underlying pathways involved...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Shahida Moosa, Helena Böhrer-Rabel, Janine Altmüller, Filippo Beleggia, Peter Nürnberg, Yun Li, Gökhan Yigit, Bernd Wollnik
Heterozygous germline mutations in MTOR have been shown to underlie Smith-Kingsmore syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by macrocephaly, developmental delay, and dysmorphic facial features. Recently, two unrelated families with the MTOR mutation, c.5395G>A p.(Glu1799Lys), were reported. Here, we describe siblings from a non-consanguineous German family in whom we identified the same heterozygous missense mutation in MTOR. Remarkably, in all reported families with Smith-Kingsmore syndrome and the MTOR c...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Bruno Borghese, Krina T Zondervan, Mauricio S Abrao, Charles Chapron, Daniel Vaiman
Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease affecting up to 10% of the women and a major cause of pain and infertility. It is characterized by the implantation of functional endometrial tissue at ectopic positions generally within the peritoneum. This complex disease has an important genetic component with a heritability estimated at around 50%. This review aims at providing recent insights into the genetic bases of endometriosis, and present a detailed overview of evidence of epigenetic alterations specific to this disease...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Stefan Holdenrieder
Liquid profiling is a traditional concept in laboratory diagnostics using patterns of blood-derived biochemical molecules for disease detection and characterization. Beyond protein and cellular parameters, molecular biomarkers at the DNA, RNA and miRNA level have been developed as promising diagnostic tools in metabolic and malignant diseases as new technologies for ultrasensitive profiling of nucleic acids in blood and body fluids became available. In cancer disease, they are successfully applied for the stratification of patients for individually tailored therapies, treatment monitoring and the sensitive detection of minimal residual disease...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jai Prakash Soni, Ratna D Puri, Kapil Jetha, G S L Bhavani, Monika Chaudhary, Sudha Kohli, I C Verma
Infantile systemic hyalinosis (OMIM 236490) is a progressive autosomal recessive disorder characterized by widespread deposition of hyaline material in many tissues leading to multiple subcutaneous skin nodules, gingival hypertrophy and joint contractures. The authors describe five children from four unrelated families, from the "mali (farmer)" community in Jodhpur, with the disorder. All of them had classical clinical features, and four died from severe infections between age of 7 mo to 3 y. Two affected children had the same, but novel mutation in the initiation codon, in homozygous form c...
October 18, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Lien M Dos Santos, Tatiane M da Silva, Juliana H Azambuja, Priscila T Ramos, Pathise S Oliveira, Elita F da Silveira, Nathalia S Pedra, Kennia Galdino, Carlus A T do Couto, Mayara S P Soares, Rejane G Tavares, Roselia M Spanevello, Francieli M Stefanello, Elizandra Braganhol
Methionine is an essential amino acid involved in critical metabolic process, and regulation of methionine flux through metabolism is important to supply this amino acid for cell needs. Elevation in plasma methionine commonly occurs due to mutations in methionine-metabolizing enzymes, such as methionine adenosyltransferase. Hypermethioninemic patients exhibit clinical manifestations, including neuronal and liver disorders involving inflammation and tissue injury, which pathophysiology is not completely established...
October 17, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Saeed Zavareh, Milad Mahdi, Soheyla Erfanian, Hamid Hashemi-Moghaddam
PURPOSE: Carrier-mediated drug delivery systems can be used to increase the intracellular concentration of drugs in cancerous cells, thereby improving drug biodistribution and minimizing unwanted side effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of synthesized magnetic molecularly imprinted polydopamine for controlled doxorubicin (DOX) delivery in a breast adenocarcinoma model of BALB/c mice with an external magnetic field. METHODS: The synthesized DOX-imprinted polydopamine (DOX-IP) was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Rebecca Re, Edoardo Martinenghi, Alberto Dalla Mora, Davide Contini, Antonio Pifferi, Alessandro Torricelli
We report the development of a compact probe for time-domain (TD) functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based on a fast silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) that can be put directly in contact with the sample without the need of optical fibers for light collection. We directly integrated an avalanche signal amplification stage close to the SiPM, thus reducing the size of the detection channel and optimizing the signal immunity to electromagnetic interferences. The whole detection electronics was placed in a plastic screw holder compatible with the electroencephalography standard cap for measurement on brain or with custom probe holders...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
Raju Vaishya, Ahmad Tariq Azizi, Amit Kumar Agarwal, Vipul Vijay
Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a condition in which the patellar tendon insertion on the tibial tuberosity becomes inflamed. It is a well-known condition in late childhood characterized by pain and a bony prominence over the tibial tuberosity. The pain is usually exacerbated by physical activities like running, jumping, and climbing stairs. In the acute stage, the margins of the patellar tendon become blurred in radiographs due to the soft tissue swelling. After three to four months, bone fragmentation at the tibial tuberosity is viewed...
September 13, 2016: Curēus
Samuel Torres-Landa, Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Enrique Coss-Adame, Miguel A Valdovinos, Edgar Alejandro-Medrano, Bárbara Ramos-Ávalos, Braulio Martínez-Benítez, Gonzalo Torres-Villalobos
The aim of the study was to characterize the presence of diverse CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets and regulatory cells in peripheral blood and lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) from a young patient with BE/achalasia without treatment versus achalasia group. In order to characterize the circulating cells in this patient, a cytometric analysis was performed. LES tissue was evaluated by double-immunostaining procedure. Five healthy blood donors, 5 type achalasia patients, and 5 oesophagus tissue samples (gastrooesophageal junction) from transplant donors were included as control groups...
2016: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Wenjia Xia, Mantang Qiu, Rui Chen, Siwei Wang, Xuechun Leng, Jie Wang, Youtao Xu, Jingwen Hu, Gaochao Dong, Prof Lin Xu, Rong Yin
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most prevalent and deadly types of cancer worldwide especially in Eastern Asia and the prognosis of ESCC remain poor. Recent evidence suggests that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in multiple diseases, including cancer. In this study, we characterized a novel circRNA termed hsa_circ_0067934 in ESCC tumor tissues and cell lines. We analyzed a cohort of 51 patients and found that hsa_circ_0067934 was significantly overexpressed in ESCC tissues compared with paired adjacent normal tissues...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lipeng Ning, Evren Özarslan, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Yogesh Rathi
Inferring the microstructure of complex media from the diffusive motion of molecules is a challenging problem in diffusion physics. In this paper, we introduce a novel representation of diffusion MRI (dMRI) signal from tissue with spatially-varying diffusivity using a diffusion disturbance function. This disturbance function contains information about the (intra-voxel) spatial fluctuations in diffusivity due to restrictions, hindrances and tissue heterogeneity of the underlying tissue substrate. We derive the short- and long-range disturbance coefficients from this disturbance function to characterize the tissue structure and organization...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Min Sun, Yinnan Mu, Yang Ding, Jingqun Ao, Xinhua Chen
Toll-like receptor 21 (TLR21) is a non-mammalian TLR that functions similar to mammalian TLR9 in recognizing CpG DNA. In the present study, we identified a TLR21 homologue, LycTLR21, from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The complete coding sequence of LycTLR21 is 2946 nucleotides long, encoding a protein of 981 amino acids. The deduced LycTLR21 protein has typical TLR domain architecture, including a signal peptide, 13 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) in the extracellular region, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain...
October 14, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Faeze Pournaqi, Armaghan Ghiaee, Saeid Vakilian, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi
Tissue engineering is a promising emerged method trying to reconstruct lost tissues that using synthetic and biomaterials and their combination with cells. The purpose of this study is increase osteoinductivity of polyethersulfone (PES) by using polyaniline (PANi). In this study, after fabrication of PES and composited PES-PANi scaffolds by electrospinning, scaffolds were characterized morphologically and mechanically. Then osteoinductivity of scaffolds was investigated by osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on the PES and PES-PANI in comparison to the tissue culture polystyrene as a control...
October 14, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Santiago Marfà, Josep Marti, Adalgiza Reyes, Gregori Casals, Guillermo Fernández-Varo, Silvia Carvajal, J C García-Valdecasas, Josep Fuster, Wladimiro Jiménez
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the developed countries, and nearly 70% of patients with CRC develop colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs). During the last decades, several scores have been proposed to predict recurrence after CRLM resection. However, these risk scoring systems do not accurately reflect the prognosis of these patients. Therefore, this investigation was designed to identify a proteomic profile in human hepatic tumor samples to classify patients with CRLM as "mild" or "severe" based on the 5-year survival...
October 2016: Translational Oncology
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