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Cardiovascular MR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224047/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-cardiovascular-thrombi-in-children
#1
Pablo Caro-Dominguez, Shi-Joon Yoo, Mike Seed, Lars Grosse-Wortmann
Cardiovascular thrombosis is rare in children and usually occurs in the presence of predisposing conditions, such as indwelling vascular catheters, tumors, aneurysms, ventricular dysfunction, or after surgery. Clots can occur in the cardiac chambers, arteries or veins, or inside conduits. Detection of thrombi is feasible with a variety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including unenhanced methods but also contrast-enhanced MR angiography. In this essay we illustrate the MRI appearance of cardiovascular thrombosis in children and suggest an imaging protocol based on our clinical experience...
December 9, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188817/dietary-sugar-intake-was-associated-with-increased-body-fatness-but-decreased-cardiovascular-mortality-in-chinese-elderly-an-11-year-prospective-study-of-mr-and-ms-os-hong-kong
#2
Z-M Liu, S L A Tse, D Chan, C Wong, Sy-S Wong
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies suggest that sugar intake contributes to weight gain and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, this association is largely undefined in the elderly population. Our aim was to investigate the effect of sugar consumption on the subsequent changes in body fatness and CVD mortality in Chinese elderly. METHODS: A total of 2000 men and 2000 women aged ⩾65 years were recruited from 2001 to 2003. Dietary sugar intake was estimated based on a validated 329-item food frequency questionnaire and a local sugar database...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177681/clinical-strategy-of-diagnosing-and-following-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-based-on-invasive-and-noninvasive-methods
#3
REVIEW
Masato Yoneda, Kento Imajo, Hirokazu Takahashi, Yuji Ogawa, Yuichiro Eguchi, Yoshio Sumida, Masashi Yoneda, Miwa Kawanaka, Satoru Saito, Katsutoshi Tokushige, Atsushi Nakajima
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important cause of chronic liver injury in many countries. The incidence of NAFLD is rising rapidly in both adults and children, because of the currently ongoing epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Notably, histological liver fibrosis is recognized as the main predictive factor for the overall long-term outcome of NAFLD, including cardiovascular disease and liver-related mortality. Thus, staging of liver fibrosis is essential in determining the prognosis and optimal treatment for patients with NAFLD and in guiding surveillance for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174559/assessment-of-the-severity-of-native-mitral-valve-regurgitation
#4
REVIEW
Kinan Carlos El-Tallawi, David Messika Zeitoun, William A Zoghbi
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. MR is classified as primary (organic) if it is due to an intrinsic valve abnormality, or secondary (functional) if the etiology is because of remodeling of left ventricular geometry and/or valve annulus. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the initial modality for MR evaluation. Parameters used for the assessment of MR include valve structure, cardiac remodeling, and color and spectral Doppler. Quantitative measurements include effective regurgitant orifice area, regurgitant volume, and regurgitant fraction...
November 21, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167167/cellular-mechanisms-underlying-obesity-induced-arterial-stiffness
#5
Annayya R Aroor, Guanghong Jia, James R Sowers
Obesity is an emerging pandemic driven by consumption of a diet rich in high fat and high refined carbohydrates (western diet [WD]) and a sedentary life style in both children and adults. There is mounting evidence that arterial stiffness in obesity is an independent and strong predictor of adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive functional decline and chronic kidney disease. Cardiovascular stiffness is a precursor to systolic hypertension, cardiac diastolic dysfunction, impairment of coronary and cerebral blood flow, and atherosclerosis...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131444/native-t1-reference-values-for-nonischemic-cardiomyopathies-and-populations-with-increased-cardiovascular-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Maaike van den Boomen, Riemer H J A Slart, Enzo V Hulleman, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Birgitta K Velthuis, Pim van der Harst, David E Sosnovik, Ronald J H Borra, Niek H J Prakken
BACKGROUND: Although cardiac MR and T1 mapping are increasingly used to diagnose diffuse fibrosis based cardiac diseases, studies reporting T1 values in healthy and diseased myocardium, particular in nonischemic cardiomyopathies (NICM) and populations with increased cardiovascular risk, seem contradictory. PURPOSE: To determine the range of native myocardial T1 value ranges in patients with NICM and populations with increased cardiovascular risk. STUDY TYPE: Systemic review and meta-analysis...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129576/cardiometabolic-outcomes-and-mortality-in-medically-treated-primary-aldosteronism-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Gregory L Hundemer, Gary C Curhan, Nicholas Yozamp, Molin Wang, Anand Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are the recommended medical therapy for primary aldosteronism. Whether this recommendation effectively reduces cardiometabolic risk is not well understood. We aimed to investigate the risk of incident cardiovascular events in patients with primary aldosteronism treated with MR antagonists compared with patients with essential hypertension. METHODS: We did a cohort study using patients from a research registry from Brigham and Women's Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, and their affiliated partner hospitals...
November 9, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127314/modulation-of-transcriptional-mineralocorticoid-receptor-activity-by-casein-kinase-2
#8
Stefanie Ruhs, Nicole Strätz, Katja Quarch, Antonia Masch, Mike Schutkowski, Michael Gekle, Claudia Grossmann
The pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases is a multifunctional process in which the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, is involved as proven by numerous clinical studies. The development of pathophysiological MR actions depends on the existence of additional factors e.g. inflammatory cytokines and seems to involve posttranslational MR modifications e.g. phosphorylation. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that can be activated under inflammatory conditions as the MR...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103240/the-need-for-medication-reconciliation-increases-with-age
#9
Rima Rappaport, Zeev Arinzon, Jacob Feldman, Shiloh Lotan, Rachel Heffez-Aizenfeld, Yitshal Berner
BACKGROUND: Medication reconciliation (MR) at hospital admission, transfer, and discharge has been designated as a required hospital practice to reduce adverse drug events. OBJECTIVES: To perform MR among elderly patients admitted to the hospital and to determine factors that influence differences between the various lists of prescribed drugs as well as their actual consumption. METHODS: We studied patients aged 65 years and older who had been admitted to the hospital and were taking at least one prescription drug...
October 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102366/time-course-of-secondary-mitral-regurgitation-in-patients-with-heart-failure-receiving-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-impact-on-long-term-outcome-beyond-left-ventricular-reverse-remodelling
#10
Camille Binda, Aymeric Menet, Ludovic Appert, Pierre-Vladimir Ennezat, François Delelis, Anne-Laure Castel, Caroline Le Goffic, Yves Guyomar, Anne Ringlé, Raphaëlle-Ashley Guerbaai, Pierre Graux, Christophe Tribouilloy, Sylvestre Maréchaux
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) at baseline versus immediately after and several months after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), beyond left ventricular (LV) reverse remodelling, has yet to be investigated. AIM: To evaluate the clinical significance of secondary MR before and at two timepoints after CRT in a large cohort of consecutive patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced LV ejection fraction. METHODS: A total of 198 patients were recruited prospectively into a registry, and underwent echocardiography at baseline and immediately after CRT (on the day of hospital discharge)...
October 25, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082115/using-mendelian-randomization-studies-to-assess-causality-and-identify-new-therapeutic-targets-in-cardiovascular-medicine
#11
Wei Zhao, Jung-Jin Lee, Asif Rasheed, Danish Saleheen
Integration of knowledge generated from genetic studies on intermediate biomarkers and CHD can provide a reliable approach to help assess causal pathways in coronary heart disease. Mendelian Randomization (MR) studies are a powerful tool to assess causal relevance of a range of pathways. These analyses use genetic variants as proxies for soluble biomarkers in association studies of disease risk. MR studies can provide unbiased estimates of causal effects and avoid distortions due to confounding factors arising later in life, because genetic variants are fixed at conception...
December 2016: Current Genetic Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080191/computational-analysis-of-the-effect-of-mitral-and-aortic-regurgitation-on-the-function-of-ventricular-assist-devices-using-3d-cardiac-electromechanical-model
#12
Yoo Seok Kim, Ana R Yuniarti, Kwang-Soup Song, Natalia A Trayanova, Eun Bo Shim, Ki Moo Lim
Valvular insufficiency affects cardiac responses and the pumping efficacy of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) when patients undergo LVAD therapy. Knowledge of the effect of valvular regurgitation on the function of LVADs is important when treating heart failure patients. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of valvular regurgitation on the ventricular mechanics of a heart under LVAD treatment and the pumping efficacy of an LVAD using a computational model of the cardiovascular system. For this purpose, a 3D electromechanical model of failing ventricles in a human heart was coupled with a lumped-parameter model of valvular regurgitation and an LVAD-implanted vascular system...
October 28, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061727/aldosterone-target-ngal-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-is-involved-in-cardiac-remodeling-after-myocardial-infarction-through-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#13
Ernesto Martínez-Martínez, Mathieu Buonafine, Ines Boukhalfa, Jaime Ibarrola, Amaya Fernández-Celis, Peter Kolkhof, Patrick Rossignol, Nicolas Girerd, Paul Mulder, Natalia López-Andrés, Antoine Ouvrard-Pascaud, Frédéric Jaisser
Myocardial infarction (MI) is accompanied by cardiac fibrosis, which contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists have beneficial effects in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after MI. We herein investigated the role of the MR target NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) in post-MI cardiac damages. Both higher baseline NGAL and a greater increase in serum NGAL levels during follow-up were significantly associated with lower 6-month LV ejection fraction recovery in a cohort of 119 post-MI patients, as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging...
October 23, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058110/computational-prediction-of-the-effects-of-the-intra-aortic-balloon-pump-on-heart-failure-with-valvular-regurgitation-using-a-3d-cardiac-electromechanical-model
#14
Chang-Hyun Kim, Kwang-Soup Song, Natalia A Trayanova, Ki Moo Lim
Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is normally contraindicated in significant aortic regurgitation (AR). It causes and aggravates pre-existing AR while performing well in the event of mitral regurgitation (MR). Indirect parameters, such as the mean systolic pressure, product of heart rate and peak systolic pressure, and pressure-volume are used to quantify the effect of IABP on ventricular workload. However, to date, no studies have directly quantified the reduction in workload with IABP. The goal of this study is to examine the effect of IABP therapy on ventricular mechanics under valvular insufficiency by using a computational model of the heart...
October 23, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058029/increased-severity-of-liver-fat-content-and-liver-fibrosis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-correlate-with-epicardial-fat-volume-in-type-2-diabetes-a-prospective-study
#15
Sharon S Brouha, Phirum Nguyen, Ricki Bettencourt, Claude B Sirlin, Rohit Loomba
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fibrosis quantitatively assessed in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM)-2 correlate with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk using non-invasive markers. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre, prospective, cross-sectional study in 100 consecutive diabetic individuals without known CHD recruited between March 2013 and September 2014. History, physical examination, serum markers, cardiac computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-estimated proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and MR elastography (MRE) were obtained for 95 participants...
October 20, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055505/2017-acc-expert-consensus-decision%C3%A2-pathway-on-the-management%C3%A2-of-mitral-regurgitation-a-report-of-the-american-college-of-cardiology-task-force-on-expert-consensus-decision-pathways
#16
REVIEW
Patrick T O'Gara, Paul A Grayburn, Vinay Badhwar, Luis C Afonso, John D Carroll, Sammy Elmariah, Aaron P Kithcart, Rick A Nishimura, Thomas J Ryan, Allan Schwartz, Lynne Warner Stevenson
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a complex valve lesion that can pose significant management challenges for the cardiovascular clinician. This Expert Consensus Document emphasizes that recognition of MR should prompt an assessment of its etiology, mechanism, and severity, as well as indications for treatment. A structured approach to evaluation based on clinical findings, precise echocardiographic imaging, and when necessary, adjunctive testing, can help clarify decision making. Treatment goals include timely intervention by an experienced heart team to prevent left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, reduced quality of life, and premature death...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053451/spatially-resolved-mr-compatible-doppler-ultrasound-proof-of-concept-for-triggering-of-diagnostic-quality-cardiovascular-mri-for-function-and-flow-quantification-at-3t
#17
Lindsey A Crowe, Gibran Manasseh, Aneta Chmielewski, Anne-Lise Hachulla, Daniel Speicher, Andreas Greiser, Hajo Muller, Thomas De Perrot, Jean-Paul Vallee, Rares Salomir
OBJECTIVES: We demonstrate the use of a Magnetic-Resonance (MR)-compatible ultrasound (US) imaging probe using spatially-resolved Doppler for diagnostic quality cardiovascular MR imaging as an initial step towards hybrid US/MR fetal imaging. METHODS: A newly developed technology for a dedicated MR-compatible phased array ultrasound-imaging probe acquired pulsed color Doppler carotid images, which were converted in near-real time to a trigger signal for cardiac cine and flow quantification MRI...
October 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040868/identification-of-a-novel-proinsulin-associated-snp-and-demonstration-that-proinsulin-is-unlikely-to-be-a-causal-factor-in-subclinical-vascular-remodelling-using-mendelian-randomisation
#18
Rona J Strawbridge, Angela Silveira, Marcel den Hoed, Stefan Gustafsson, Jian'an Luan, Denis Rybin, Josée Dupuis, Ruifang Li-Gao, Maryam Kavousi, Abbas Dehghan, Kadri Haljas, Jari Lahti, Jesper R Gådin, Alexandra Bäcklund, Ulf de Faire, Karl Gertow, Phillipe Giral, Anuj Goel, Steve E Humphries, Sudhir Kurl, Claudia Langenberg, Lars L Lannfelt, Lars Lind, Cecilia C M Lindgren, Elmo Mannarino, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Andrew P Morris, Renée de Mutsert, Rainer Rauramaa, Peter Saliba-Gustafsson, Bengt Sennblad, Andries J Smit, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Elena Tremoli, Fabrizio Veglia, Björn Zethelius, Hanna M Björck, Johan G Eriksson, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Hugh Watkins, J Wouter Jukema, Jose C Florez, Nicholas J Wareham, James B Meigs, Erik Ingelsson, Damiano Baldassarre, Anders Hamsten
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased proinsulin relative to insulin levels have been associated with subclinical atherosclerosis (measured by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)) and are predictive of future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of established risk factors. The mechanisms linking proinsulin to atherosclerosis and CVD are unclear. A genome-wide meta-analysis has identified nine loci associated with circulating proinsulin levels. Using proinsulin-associated SNPs, we set out to use a Mendelian randomisation approach to test the hypothesis that proinsulin plays a causal role in subclinical vascular remodelling...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031006/the-kidney-and-cvots
#19
EDITORIAL
Zachary Bloomgarden
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects a substantial minority of persons with type 2 diabetes. Analysis of US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets from 2007 through 2012 showed stage 3 or worse disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ) in nearly one in five patients, with increasing age, blood pressure, obesity and levels of glycemia all associated with higher likelihood (1 ), comparable to findings from surveys from many other areas, which also show micro- or macroalbuminuria to be present in one sixth to one third of diabetic persons (2 )...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017166/the-role-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-inflammation-focus-on-kidney-and-vasculature
#20
Zachary Belden, Jeffrey A Deiuliis, Mirela Dobre, Sanjay Rajagopalan
BACKGROUND: The remarkable success of clinical trials in mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) inhibition in heart failure has driven research on the physiological and pathological role(s) of nonepithelial MR expression. MR is widely expressed in the cardiovascular system and is a major determinant of endothelial function, smooth muscle tone, vascular remodeling, fibrosis, and blood pressure. An important new dimension is the appreciation of the role MR plays in immune cells and target organ damage in the heart, kidney and vasculature, and in the development of insulin resistance...
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
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