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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291827/neighbour-presence-not-identity-influences-root-and-shoot-allocation-in-pea
#1
Cory E Jacob, Eric Tozzi, Christian J Willenborg
Competition is a key feature that structures the composition of plant communities. A growing body of evidence is showing that the presence of neighbours, especially belowground neighbours, induces varied morphological responses in plants. However, in many species, it is not known whether neighbour identity also influences plant morphological responses such as biomass allocation patterns. To assess plant response to above- and belowground neighbour presence and identity, we conducted a greenhouse experiment consisting of conspecific (pea; Pisum sativum L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290365/metabolomic-profiling-delineate-taste-qualities-of-tea-leaf-pubescence
#2
Mingzhi Zhu, Na Li, Ming Zhao, Wenliang Yu, Jian-Lin Wu
The amount of pubescence on leaf epidermis is an important morphological marker for the quality of green tea, and the tea with plenty of pubescence is generally recognized as having a better taste. However, there is no systematic study on chemical compositions of tea leaf pubescence. The contributions of pubescence to taste properties are far from clear. In this research, 114 components were identified from the tea leaf pubescence of yunkang 10, a broad-leaf tea cultivar with plenty leaf pubescence, for the first time with a non-targeted metabolomics approach using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS)...
April 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282395/bacillus-aryabhattai-srb02-tolerates-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-and-promotes-the-growth-of-soybean-by-modulating-the-production-of-phytohormones
#3
Yeon-Gyeong Park, Bong-Gyu Mun, Sang-Mo Kang, Adil Hussain, Raheem Shahzad, Chang-Woo Seo, Ah-Yeong Kim, Sang-Uk Lee, Kyeong Yeol Oh, Dong Yeol Lee, In-Jung Lee, Byung-Wook Yun
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are diverse, naturally occurring bacteria that establish a close association with plant roots and promote the growth and immunity of plants. Established mechanisms involved in PGPR-mediated plant growth promotion include regulation of phytohormones, improved nutrient availability, and antagonistic effects on plant pathogens. In this study, we isolated a bacterium from the rhizospheric soil of a soybean field in Chungcheong buk-do, South Korea. Using 16S rRNA sequencing, the bacterium was identified as Bacillus aryabhattai strain SRB02...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278066/characterization-of-exposure-to-byproducts-from-firing-lead-free-frangible-ammunition-in-an-enclosed-ventilated-firing-range
#4
Christin M Grabinski, Mark M Methner, Jerimiah M Jackson, Alexander L Moore, Laura E Flory, Trevor Tilly, Saber M Hussain, Darrin K Ott
U.S. Air Force small arms firing ranges began using copper-based, lead-free frangible ammunition in the early 2000s due to environmental and health concerns related to the use of lead-based ammunition. Exposure assessments at these firing ranges have routinely detected chemicals and metals in amounts much lower than their mass-based occupational exposure limits, yet, instructors report work-related health concerns including respiratory distress, nausea, and headache. The objective of this study at one firing range was to characterize the aerosol emissions produced by weapons during firing events and evaluate the ventilation system's effectiveness in controlling instructor exposure to these emissions...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264513/influence-of-indole-3-acetic-acid-and-gibberellic-acid-on-phenylpropanoid-accumulation-in-common-buckwheat-fagopyrum-esculentum-moench-sprouts
#5
Chang Ha Park, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Yun Ji Park, Abubaker M A Morgan, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Sang Un Park
We investigated the effects of natural plant hormones, indole-3-acetic (IAA) acid and gibberellic acid (GA), on the growth parameters and production of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in common buckwheat sprouts. A total of 17 phenolic compounds were identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Among these, seven compounds (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin) were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after treating the common buckwheat sprouts with different concentrations of the hormones IAA and GA...
February 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263737/simple-dilute-and-shoot-method-for-urinary-vanillylmandelic-acid-and-homovanillic-acid-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#6
Zlatuse D Clark, Jeaneah M Cutler, Igor Y Pavlov, Frederick G Strathmann, Elizabeth L Frank
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastomas are pediatric tumors characterized by overproduction of catecholamines. The catecholamine metabolites, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), are used in clinical evaluation of neuroblastoma. Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is an effective analytical method for measurement of VMA and HVA in urine. METHODS: Dilute-and-shoot sample preparation was performed in a 96-well format using a liquid handler. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a reverse phase column; detection was accomplished by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in positive mode...
March 3, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231504/effect-of-biochar-on-cadmium-bioavailability-and-uptake-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-grown-in-a-soil-with-aged-contamination
#7
Tahir Abbas, Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Farhat Abbas, Fakhir Hannan, Jörg Rinklebe, Yong Sik Ok
Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known and widespread toxic heavy metal while the effects of biochar (BC) on Cd bioavailability and toxicity in wheat, especially in soils with aged contamination are largely unknown. In the present study, the effect of rice straw BC on Cd immobilization in soil and uptake by wheat in an agricultural contaminated-soil was investigated. Different levels of rice straw BC (0%, 1.5%, 3.0% and 5% w/w) were incorporated into the soil and incubated for two weeks. After this, wheat plants were grown in the amended soil until maturity...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231136/volatile-composition-of-essential-oils-from-different-aromatic-herbs-grown-in-mediterranean-regions-of-spain
#8
Hussein El-Zaeddi, Juan Martínez-Tomé, Ángel Calín-Sánchez, Francisco Burló, Ángel A Carbonell-Barrachina
Volatile composition of essential oils from dill, parsley, coriander, and mint were investigated at different harvest dates to determine the most suitable harvest time for each these herbs. Hydrodistillation (HD), using a Deryng system, was used for isolating the essential oils. Isolation and identification of the volatile compounds were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument. The results of gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis (quantification) showed that the main components in the essential oil of dill shoots were α-phellandrene, dill ether, and β-phellandrene, and the optimal harvest date was D2 (second harvest, fourth week of February 2015)...
May 25, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229130/traits-affecting-early-season-nitrogen-uptake-in-nine-legume-species
#9
Elana Dayoub, Christophe Naudin, Guillaume Piva, Steven J Shirtliffe, Joëlle Fustec, Guénaëlle Corre-Hellou
Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224627/nitrogen-deposition-cancels-out-exotic-earthworm-effects-on-plant-feeding-nematode-communities
#10
Yuanhu Shao, Weixin Zhang, Nico Eisenhauer, Tao Liu, Yanmei Xiong, Chenfei Liang, Shenglei Fu
1.The activity and spread of exotic earthworms often are spatially correlated with N deposition because both arise from human activities. Exotic earthworms, in turn, can also greatly affect soil abiotic and biotic properties, as well as related ecological processes. Previous studies showed, for example, that earthworms can counteract the detrimental effects of plant-feeding nematodes on plant growth. However, potential interactive effects of N deposition and exotic earthworms on ecosystems are poorly understood...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213348/the-plant-economic-spectrum-in-bryophytes-a-comparative-study-in-subalpine-forest
#11
Zhe Wang, Xin Liu, Maaike Y Bader, Defeng Feng, Weikai Bao
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Tradeoffs among functional traits of vascular plants are starting to be better understood, but it is unclear whether bryophytes possess similar tradeoffs or how trait relationships, or the 'economic spectrum', differ between the two groups. METHODS: We determined functional-trait values [including shoot mass per area (SMA), light-saturated assimilation rate (Amass), dark respiration rate (Rdmass), N and P concentrations (Nmass and Pmass), and photosynthetic N and P use efficiency (PNUE and PPUE)] and their bivariate relationships for 28 bryophytes growing in a subalpine old-growth fir forest on the eastern Tibetan Plateau...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213176/lc-ms-ms-assay-for-the-simultaneous-quantitation-of-the-atm-inhibitor-az31-and-the-atr-inhibitor-azd6738-in-mouse-plasma
#12
Brian F Kiesel, Jeffrey C Shogan, Madani Rachid, Robert A Parise, Frank P Vendetti, Christopher J Bakkenist, Jan H Beumer
The ATM kinase inhibitor AZ31 and ATR kinase inhibitor AZD6738 are in various phases of preclinical and clinical evaluation for their ability to potentiate chemoradiation. To support the preclinical evaluation of their pharmacokinetics, we developed and validated an LC-MS/MS assay for the simultaneous quantification of AZ31 and AZD6738 in mouse plasma. A "dilute and shoot" method was used to precipitate proteins from a sample volume of 50μL. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a Phenomenex Polar-RP column and a gradient mobile phase consisting of methanol-water with 0...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206876/sample-treatment-in-pesticide-residue-determination-in-food-by-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-are-generic-extraction-methods-the-end-of-the-road
#13
Roberto Romero-González, Francisco Javier Arrebola Liébanas, Rosalía López-Ruiz, Antonia Garrido Frenich
The use of high-resolution MS (HRMS) is becoming popular in laboratories for the determination of pesticide residues in food commodities. The recent improvements in the instrumentation have helped to increase the number of active compounds and transformation products that can be monitored within a simple chromatographic run. However, prior to instrumental determination, it is necessary to perform a nonspecific, or generic, sample treatment that allows the efficient extraction of several compounds with very relevant differences in their physical and chemical properties...
November 1, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189071/blood-lead-levels-following-consumption-of-game-meat-in-italy
#14
Silvia Fustinoni, Sabrina Sucato, Dario Consonni, Pier Mannuccio Mannucci, Angelo Moretto
The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179912/a-simple-rapid-method-for-determination-of-melatonin-in-plant-tissues-by-uplc-coupled-with-high-resolution-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry
#15
Tiantian Ye, Yan-Hong Hao, Lei Yu, Haitao Shi, Russel J Reiter, Yu-Qi Feng
Melatonin (MLT) was involved in regulating various stages of plant growth and development. However, due to the low concentration and complex matrixes of plant, the analysis of MLT is a challenging task. In this study, we developed a rapid and efficient method with simplified sample preparation by employing UPLC coupled with a high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry, and stable isotope-labeled MLT (MLT-d4) was first used as internal standard in the developed analytical method. In the developed method, we used one-step liquid-liquid extraction to purify the crude extracts both from shoot and root of rice for the analysis, which remarkably simplify the sample preparation process...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160742/determination-of-rodenticides-and-related-metabolites-in-rabbit-liver-and-biological-matrices-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-orbitrap-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#16
Marina López-García, Roberto Romero-González, Antonia Garrido Frenich
An analytical method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of rodenticides (bromadiolone, brodifacoum, difenacoum, chlorophacinone, diphacinone, coumachlor and warfarin) in liver matrix. Different extraction conditions were tested, obtaining the best results when the "dilute and shoot" method (acidified acetonitrile as extraction solvent) and a clean-up step with primary secondary amine (PSA) were used...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153402/assessment-of-biotransfer-and-bioaccumulation-of-cadmium-lead-and-zinc-from-fly-ash-amended-soil-in-mustard-aphid-beetle-food-chain
#17
Mudasir Irfan Dar, Iain D Green, Mohd Irfan Naikoo, Fareed Ahmad Khan, Abid Ali Ansari, Mohd Iqbal Lone
The present study investigates the extent of biotransfer and bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from fly ash amended soil in mustard (Brassica juncea)-aphid (Lipaphis erysimi)-beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) food chain and its subsequent implications for the beetle. The soil was amended with fly ash at the rates of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40% (w/w). Our results showed that the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn from soil to mustard root increased with the increase in fly ash application rates, but their root to shoot translocation was relatively restricted...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149209/performance-outcomes-after-metacarpal-fractures-in-national-basketball-association-players
#18
Michael S Guss, John P Begly, Austin J Ramme, Richard M Hinds, Raj J Karia, John T Capo
Background: The aim was to determine whether players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who sustain metacarpal fractures demonstrate decreased performance upon return to competition when compared with their performance before injury and that of their control-matched peers. Methods: Data for 32 NBA players with metacarpal fractures incurred over 11 seasons (2002-2003 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, and player profiles (www.nba.com and www.basketballreference.com). Player age, body mass index (BMI), position, shooting hand, number of years in the league, and treatment (surgical vs nonsurgical) were recorded...
December 2016: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148311/special-considerations-for-mass-violence-events-in-senior-living-facilities-a-case-report-on-the-pinelake-health-and-rehab-center-shooting
#19
Cody Martin, David Powell
The 2009 Pinelake Health and Rehab Center shooting in Carthage, North Carolina, presents a unique case study for examining the specific considerations for mass violence events in senior living facilities. A variety of factors, including reduced sensory perception, reduced mobility, and cognitive decline, may increase the vulnerability of the populations of senior living facilities during mass violence events. Management of response aspects such as evacuation, relocation, and reunification also require special consideration in the context of mass violence at senior living facilities...
February 2, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124241/protocol-for-extraction-and-isolation-of-brassinosteroids-from-plant-tissues
#20
Danuše Tarkowská, Miroslav Strnad
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of steroid plant hormones that participate with other plant hormones in the regulation of numerous developmental processes, including root and shoot growth, vascular differentiation, fertility, and seed germination. A characteristic feature of all plant hormones, including BRs, is that their concentration is extremely low in plant tissues and, therefore, the methods dealing with their determination belong to ultra-trace analysis, for which very sensitive analytical tools are needed...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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