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Mass shooting

David Samuel Johnson, R Scott Warren, Linda A Deegan, Thomas J Mozdzer
In saltmarsh plant communities, bottom-up pressure from nutrient enrichment is predicted to increase productivity, alter community structure, decrease biodiversity, and alter ecosystem functioning. Previous work supporting these predictions has been based largely on short-term, plot-level (e.g., 1-300 m(2) ) studies, which may miss landscape-level phenomena that drive ecosystem-level responses. We implemented an ecosystem-scale, nine-year nutrient experiment to examine how saltmarsh plants respond to simulated conditions of coastal eutrophication...
July 27, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Ravali Alagandula, Xiang Zhou, Baochuan Guo
RATIONALE: LC-MS/MS is the gold standard of urine drug testing. However, current LC-based methods are time consuming, limiting the throughput of MS-based testing and increasing the cost. This is particularly problematic for quantification of drugs such as phenobarbital, which is often analyzed in a separate run because they must be negatively ionized. METHOD: This study examined the feasibility of using a dilute and shoot-flow injection method without LC separation to quantify drugs with phenobarbital as a model system...
October 14, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Wande Liu, Jianrong Su
Acclimation to changing light conditions plays a crucial role in determining the competitive capability of tree species. There is currently limited information about acclimation to natural light gradient and its effect on shoot structure and biomass in Taxus species. We examined the acclimation of the leaf and shoot axis morphology, structure and biomass allocation of Taxus yunnanensis and T. chinensis var. mairei under three different natural light environments, full daylight, 40-60% full daylight and <10% full daylight...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jianteng Sun, Lili Pan, Jie Chen, Kelun Li, Lizhong Zhu
Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) have been found in the environment with high toxicity. Recently, methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) were identified as new pollutants and detected in sewage sludge. This study presents a detailed investigation on the uptake, translocation, and metabolism of OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs in typical crops including maize, wheat, and rice. The interconversion between OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs were observed. Demethylation of MeO-PCBs was favored over methylation of OH-PCBs...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Eduardo Bolea-Fernandez, Kim Phan, Lieve Balcaen, Martín Resano, Frank Vanhaecke
This paper reports on an evaluation of the suitability of a novel sample collection approach, volumetric absorptive micro-sampling (VAMS), in the context of the determination of ultra-trace concentrations of prosthesis-related metals (Al, Ti, V, Co, Cr, Ni, Sr and Zr) in whole blood. In a first phase, a simple dilute-and-shoot approach (100-fold dilution) followed by tandem ICP - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) analysis was developed for the accurate and sensitive determination of the target elements. The ICP-MS/MS method relies on the use of mass shift reactions proceeding when pressurizing the collision/reaction cell (CRC) with CH3F/He for dealing with spectral overlap...
October 19, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Ana I Pardo-Garcia, Kerry L Wilkinson, Julie A Culbert, Natoiya D R Lloyd, Gonzalo L Alonso, M Rosario Salinas
Previous studies have shown that volatile compounds present within a vineyard during the growing season can be absorbed by grapevines, assimilated within grapes, and then released during fermentation to influence the final aroma of wine. For example, the accumulation of volatile phenols in glycoconjugate forms following grapevine exposure to bushfire smoke, and their subsequent release during winemaking. This study investigated the accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in the fruit, shoots and leaves of Monastrell grapevines following foliar applications (at veraison) of either an aqueous solution of guaiacol or an aqueous oak extract...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
J Vandevoorde, N Estano, G Painset
OBJECTIVES: Suicide-homicide could be defined as a "suicidal" behaviour, which also includes the death of at least one other individual and sometimes up to hundreds. This literature review intends to highlight some characteristic features that might be found amongst the various types of suicide-homicide. It is a complex phenomenon which can occur in different situations, from a familial and somehow intimate setting (filicide, uxoricide, marital homicide…) to a public one (workplace shooting, school shooting), including a wide range of victims, from a single victim in marital cases of suicide-homicide to hundreds of victims in certain types, such as suicide by aircraft or warrior-like multi-homicids in terrorist acts...
September 19, 2016: L'Encéphale
Jackeline de Siqueira Castro, Maria Lúcia Calijuri, Paula Peixoto Assemany, Paulo Roberto Cecon, Igor Rodrigues de Assis, Vinícius José Ribeiro
Microalgal biofilm in soils represents an alternative fertilization method for agricultural sustainability. In the present study, greenhouse gas emission, soil ammonia volatilization, and the growth of Pennisetum glaucum were evaluated under the effect of a microalgal biofilm, commercial urea, and a control (without application of a nitrogen source). CH4 emissions were equal for the three treatments (p>0.05). CO2 emissions significantly increased in microalgal biofilm treatment (p<0.01), which was also responsible for the highest N2O emissions (p<0...
September 7, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Raffaela Esposito, Ilaria Lusini, Kristýna Večeřová, Petra Holišová, Emanuele Pallozzi, Gabriele Guidolotti, Otmar Urban, Carlo Calfapietra
Norway spruce (Picea abies) is a strong emitter of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). In the present study we investigated how shoot canopy position and high levels of stressors such as high temperature and ozone concentration, affect BVOC emission rates by means of in-situ and ex-situ experimental measurements. Therefore, BVOC emission from current-year spruce shoots was investigated under field and manipulated (temperature, ozone) laboratory conditions. Emitted BVOCs were sampled on desorption tubes, coupled with gas-exchange measurements of CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance, and detected by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry...
August 28, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Sumita Jha
This review provides an in-depth and comprehensive overview of the in vitro culture of Tylophora species, which have medicinal properties. Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr. is a climbing perennial vine with medicinal properties. The tissue culture and genetic transformation of T. indica, which has been extensively studied, is reviewed. Micropropagation using nodal explants has been reported in 25 % of all publications. Leaf explants from field-grown plants has been the explant of choice of independent research groups, which reported direct and callus-mediated organogenesis as well as callus-mediated somatic embryogenesis...
November 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Anthony R Ambrose, Wendy L Baxter, Christopher S Wong, Stephen S O Burgess, Cameron B Williams, Rikke R Næsborg, George W Koch, Todd E Dawson
Optimality theory states that whole-tree carbon gain is maximized when leaf N and photosynthetic capacity profiles are distributed along vertical light gradients such that the marginal gain of nitrogen investment is identical among leaves. However, observed photosynthetic N gradients in trees do not follow this prediction, and the causes for this apparent discrepancy remain uncertain. Our objective was to evaluate how hydraulic limitations potentially modify crown-level optimization in Sequoiadendron giganteum (giant sequoia) trees up to 90 m tall...
November 2016: Oecologia
Ariel E Turcios, Dirk Weichgrebe, Jutta Papenbrock
This project analyses the uptake and biodegradation of the antimicrobial sulfadimidine (SDI) from the culture medium and up to the anaerobic digestion. Tripolium pannonicum was grown under hydroponic conditions with different concentrations of SDI (0, 5 and 10mg·L(-1)) and the fresh biomass, containing different amounts of SDI taken up, was used as substrate for biogas production. SDI was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI LC-MS). Based on the findings, T...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
B Bender, E S Capellesso, M E Lottici, J Sentkovski, A A Mielniczki-Pereira, L M G Rosa, T L Sausen
Flood events in riparian forests of southern Brazil, can be characterized as unpredictable and of low magnitude with an average duration of less than 15 days. Inga marginata is an evergreen tree which grows in Southeast South America on a wide range of environments, including riparian forests. In this paper, the interactive effects of the light environment and soil flooding on morphological parameters of I. marginata were examined. Seedlings were acclimated in two contrasting light conditions: sun or shade for 30 days...
August 15, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Anthony LaPorta, A W Kirkpatrick, J L Mckee, D J Roberts, H Tien, A Beckett, C G Ball, I Mckee, D Louw, J B Holcomb
BACKGROUND: In a care under fire situation, a first line response to haemorrhage is to apply a tourniquet and return fire. However, there is little understanding of how tourniquets and other haemorrhage control devices impact marksmanship. METHODS: We compared the impact of the iTClamp and the Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT) on marksmanship. Following randomisation (iTClamp or CAT), trained marksmen fired an AR15 at a scaled silhouette target in prone unsupported position (shooting task)...
August 16, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Yuan Yuan, Mei Huang, Yu-Xin Pang, Fu-Lai Yu, Ce Chen, Li-Wei Liu, Zhen-Xia Chen, Ying-Bo Zhang, Xiao-Lu Chen, Xuan Hu
Blumea balsamifera, also named Ainaxiang, is widely used as an ancient medicinal herb in tropical and subtropical Asia. It is rich in essential oils. In this work the essential oils of B. balsamifera from different plant organs and in different months were extracted, and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that essential oil yield of young leaves was the highest (0.65 mL/100 g), followed by mature leaves (0.57 mL/100 g), and the oil yield was higher in October (0.47 mL/100 g) than other months...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Huayu Sun, Lichao Li, Yongfeng Lou, Hansheng Zhao, Yihong Yang, Zhimin Gao
UDP-galactose-4-epimerase (UGE) is a key enzyme involved in galactose metabolism by catalyzing the interconversion of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose. The cDNA encoding UGE was isolated from Phyllostachys edulis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and was designated as PeUGE. The full-length cDNA of PeUGE was 1778 bp, which contained an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a peptide of 420 amino acids, with a calculated molecular mass of 46.58 kDa and a theoretic isoelectric point of 9...
August 15, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
Xin-Sheng Chen, Zheng-Miao Deng, Yong-Hong Xie, Feng Li, Zhi-Yong Hou, Chao Wu
Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Margaret E Wilson, Matthew Mixdorf, R Howard Berg, Elizabeth S Haswell
The balance between proliferation and differentiation in the plant shoot apical meristem is controlled by regulatory loops involving the phytohormone cytokinin and stem cell identity genes. Concurrently, cellular differentiation in the developing shoot is coordinated with the environmental and developmental status of plastids within those cells. Here, we employ an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant exhibiting constitutive plastid osmotic stress to investigate the molecular and genetic pathways connecting plastid osmotic stress with cell differentiation at the shoot apex...
September 15, 2016: Development
Claudia Giuliani, Lorenzo Lazzaro, Roberto Calamassi, Luca Calamai, Riccardo Romoli, Gelsomina Fico, Bruno Foggi, Marta Mariotti Lippi
The species of Helichrysum sect. Stoechadina (Asteraceae) are well-known for their secondary metabolite content and the characteristic aromatic bouquets. In the wild, populations exhibit a wide phenotypic plasticity which makes critical the circumscription of species and infraspecific ranks. Previous investigations on Helichrysum italicum complex focused on a possible phytochemical typification based on hydrodistilled essential oils. Aims of this paper are three-fold: (i) characterizing the volatile profiles of different populations, testing (ii) how these profiles vary across populations and (iii) how the phytochemical diversity may contribute in solving taxonomic problems...
October 2016: Phytochemistry
Xiaogang Liu, Fusheng Li, Qiliang Yang, Xinle Wang
To obtain optimal irrigation management for young coffee tree, the effects of alternate drip irrigation (ADI) and superabsorbent polymers on physiology, growth, dry mass accumulation and water use on one-year old Coffea arabica L. tree were investigated. This experiment had three drip irrigation methods, i.e., conventional drip irrigation (CDI), alternate drip irrigation (ADI) and fixed drip irrigation (FDI), and two levels of superabsorbent polymers, i.e., no superabsorbent polymers (NSAP) and added superabsorbent polymers (SAP)...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
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