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Language processing

Karim Yahia Jaffer, Tiffany Chang, Brigitte Vanle, Jonathan Dang, Alexander J Steiner, Natalie Loera, Marina Abdelmesseh, Itai Danovitch, Waguih William Ishak
OBJECTIVE: While trazodone is approved for the treatment of depression, the off-label use of this medication for insomnia has surpassed its usage as an antidepressant. In this systematic review, we examined the evidence for the efficacy and safety of trazodone for insomnia. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed databases from the past 33 years (1983-2016) and the keywords insomnia, trazodone, sedative, treatment, and hypnotics. The results were restricted to English language and human subjects...
July 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Rong-Quan He, Xia Yang, Liang Liang, Gang Chen, Jie Ma
The present study aimed to explore the potential clinical significance of microRNA (miR)-124-3p expression in the hepatocarcinogenesis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as well as the potential target genes of functional HCC pathways. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate the expression of miR-124-3p in 101 HCC and adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples. Additionally, the association between miR-124-3p expression and clinical parameters was also analyzed...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Elissa S Epel, Alexandra D Crosswell, Stefanie E Mayer, Aric A Prather, George M Slavich, Eli Puterman, Wendy Berry Mendes
Stress can influence health throughout the lifespan, yet there is little agreement about what types and aspects of stress matter most for human health and disease. This is in part because "stress" is not a monolithic concept but rather, an emergent process that involves interactions between individual and environmental factors, historical and current events, allostatic states, and psychological and physiological reactivity. Many of these processes has alone been labeled as "stress." Stress science would be further advanced if researchers adopted a common conceptual model that incorporates epidemiological, affective, and psychophysiological perspectives, with more precise language for describing stress measures...
March 15, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Dexter R F Irvine
Perceptual learning, improvement in discriminative ability as a consequence of training, is one of the forms of sensory system plasticity that has driven profound changes in our conceptualization of sensory cortical function. Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies of auditory perceptual learning have indicated that the characteristics of the learning, and by implication the nature of the underlying neural changes, are highly task specific. Some studies in animals have indicated that recruitment of neurons to the population responding to the training stimuli, and hence an increase in the so-called cortical "area of representation" of those stimuli, is the substrate of improved performance, but such changes have not been observed in other studies...
March 12, 2018: Hearing Research
Frank T Bergmann, Jonathan Cooper, Matthias König, Ion Moraru, David Nickerson, Nicolas Le Novère, Brett G Olivier, Sven Sahle, Lucian Smith, Dagmar Waltemath
The creation of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research poses challenges to reproduce, annotate, archive, and share such experiments. Efforts such as SBML or CellML standardize the formal representation of computational models in various areas of biology. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) describes what procedures the models are subjected to, and the details of those procedures. These standards, together with further COMBINE standards, describe models sufficiently well for the reproduction of simulation studies among users and software tools...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
Gabriele Gäbler, Michaela Coenen, Deborah Lycett, Tanja Stamm
BACKGROUND: High quality, continuity and safe interdisciplinary healthcare is essential. Nutrition and dietetics plays an important part within the interdisciplinary team in many health conditions. In order to work more effectively as an interdisciplinary team, a common terminology is needed. This study investigates which categories of the ICF-Dietetics are used in clinical dietetic care records in Austria and which are most relevant to shared language in different medical areas. METHOD: A national multicenter retrospective study was conducted to collect clinical dietetic care documentation reports...
March 3, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Megan Zirnstein, Janet G van Hell, Judith F Kroll
In this study, we examined the role that cognitive control and language regulation ability play in mediating readers' susceptibility to prediction error costs when reading in the native language (L1) or a second language (L2). Twenty-four English monolinguals (Experiment 1) and 28 Chinese-English bilinguals (Experiment 2) read sentences in English while their EEG was recorded. The sentences varied in the predictability of an upcoming expected word and in whether that prediction was confirmed. Monolinguals showed sensitivity to sentence contexts in which expectations were not met (i...
March 14, 2018: Cognition
Erin M Anderson, Yin-Juei Chang, Susan Hespos, Dedre Gentner
This research tests whether analogical learning is present before language comprehension. Three-month-old infants were habituated to a series of analogous pairs, instantiating either the same relation (e.g., AA, BB, etc.) or the different relation (e.g., AB, CD, etc.), and then tested with further exemplars of the relations. If they can distinguish the familiar relation from the novel relation, even with new objects, this is evidence for analogical abstraction across the study pairs. In Experiment 1, we did not find evidence of analogical abstraction when 3-month-olds were habituated to six pairs instantiating the relation...
March 14, 2018: Cognition
Jane Noll, Mark Lowry, Judith Bryant
An epicene pronoun is a gender-neutral singular pronoun used in sentences when the gender of the subject is unknown or unspecified. In English, he and they are commonly-used epicene pronouns. Until recently, he has been widely accepted as being grammatically correct. However, many have argued that he is sexist because it may bias people to think about males. Two experiments were performed using a lexical decision task in which participants reacted to gendered words (e.g., aunt and uncle) after reading sentences using he, they, or unrelated epicene pronouns...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Deborah Moncrieff, Elizabeth Miller, Earl Hill
Purpose: The study investigated the prevalence of risk factors for auditory processing and language disorders among adolescents residing at a local juvenile detention center. Method: A total of 782 adjudicated adolescents with normal hearing were screened with the Randomized Dichotic Digits Test (Strouse & Wilson, 1999) and the Dichotic Words Test (Moncrieff, 2015). A subset of 420 of those adolescents was also screened with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF; Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Rebecca J Mullen, James Duhig, Andrea Russell, Linda Scarazzini, Fabio Lievano, Michael S Wolf
OBJECTIVE: To present evidence supporting best-practices for prescription drug labeling and educational materials. METHODS: Articles were selected from three online databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL). Eligible manuscripts were: 1) English-language, 2) randomized, controlled trials, and 3) focused on improving prescription drug labeling practices. RESULTS: Forty-nine articles were reviewed, and included both regulated label materials and pharmacy or health systems-generated tools...
March 8, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
A Guerra-Tapia, A Buendía-Eisman, J Ferrando
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Female androgenetic alopecia (FAA) has considerable impact on quality of life. Our analysis of the clinical scales available in the literature to measure the impact of FAA led us to choose the Hair Specific Skindex 29 (HSS29) as the most appropriate for adaptation to Spanish as a tool for following patients in treatment for FAA. This tool assesses disease impact on quality of life over time so that treatments can be tailored to patients' needs. The HSS29 score reflects impact in 3 domains (emotions, symptoms, and functioning) on a scale of 0 (no effect) to 100 (maximum effect)...
March 13, 2018: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Giulia Prete, Anita D'Anselmo, Luca Tommasi, Alfredo Brancucci
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been increasingly adopted to modulate perceptual and cognitive functions, but the effects on auditory perception are still relatively uncharted. Starting from the evidence that a stronger right ear advantage effect (REA) in dichotic listening positively correlates with speech sound processing, the present study was aimed at modulating the REA by means of high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS). Stimulation was applied over the auditory cortex (AC) either unilaterally (Experiment 1, N = 50) or bilaterally (Experiment 2, N = 24) during a verbal dichotic listening task...
March 13, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Li Yin, Xueqiang Guo, Chunyan Zhang, Zhihui Cai, Cunshuan Xu
The priming stage is the first step of liver regeneration (LR). This stage is characterized by the transition from G0 to cell cycle for 4 hours in rat. In this study, individual gene level and gene set level (GSEA) was performed to identify the candidate genes and significantly changed biological processes at 2 h after partial hepatectomy (PH). The leading edge analysis is performed to identify the key genes and iRegulon was employed for transcription factor (TF) analysis. A total of 53 differentially expressed genes were identified using RMA package based on R language at 2 h after PH, including the transcription factor, enzyme and cytokine...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Aida Kamišalić, David Riaño, Tatjana Welzer
BACKGROUND: In medical practice, long term interventions are common and they require timely planning of the involved processes. Unfortunately, evidence-based statements about time are hard to find in Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) and in other sources of medical knowledge. At the same time, health care centers use medical records and information systems to register data about clinical processes and patients, including time information about the encounters, prescriptions, and other clinical actions...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Lee-Fay Low, Margaret McGrath, Kate Swaffer, Henry Brodaty
The aim of this study is to systematically review practitioners' practices and attitudes in regards to communicating a diagnosis of dementia. A systematic search was conducted of Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed for English language original empirical papers. A sequential explanatory mixed studies analysis approach was used. Twenty-five quantitative descriptive, two intervention, six mixed methods descriptive and 21 qualitative studies were included. Pooled analysis showed that 34% of GPs and 48% of specialists usually/routinely tell the person with dementia their diagnosis, and 89% of GPs and 97% specialists usually/routinely tell the family the diagnosis...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Ellyn A Riley, Elena Barbieri, Sandra Weintraub, M Marsel Mesulam, Cynthia K Thompson
Prototypical items within a semantic category are processed faster than atypical items within the same category. This typicality effect reflects normal representation and processing of semantic categories and when absent may be reflective of lexical-semantic deficits. We examined typicality effects in individuals with semantic and nonsemantic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA; semantic-PPA-S, agrammatic-PPA-G), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by specific decline in language function, and age-matched controls...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Alessandro Bosco, Justine Schneider, Donna Maria Coleston-Shields, Lidia Sousa, Martin Orrell
OBJECTIVES: Good interaction with family caregivers helps maintain positive identity in people with dementia. However, research in this area is limited. We aimed to systematically review the dyadic experience of dementia caring. METHOD: We searched on five databases: MedLine, EMBASE, PsycInfo, ASSIA, and CINAHL. Eligible studies employed qualitative or mixed method design, reported the experience of dyads of dementia with no comorbid organic or psychiatric disorders...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Jim McCambridge, Melissa Mialon, Ben Hawkins
AIMS: To summarise the substantive findings of studies of alcohol industry involvement in national or supra-national policy-making, and to produce a new synthesis of current evidence. METHODS: This study examined peer-reviewed journal reports published in the English language between 1980-2016 of studies of alcohol industry involvement in policy making. Included studies were required to provide information on data collection and analysis and to have sought explicitly to investigate interventions by alcohol industry actors within the process of public policy making...
March 15, 2018: Addiction
Wei-En J Tseng, Siew-Na Lim, Lu-An Chen, Shuo-Bin Jou, Hsiang-Yao Hsieh, Mei-Yun Cheng, Chun-Wei Chang, Han-Tao Li, Hsing-I Chiang, Tony Wu
Whether the cognitive processing of music and speech relies on shared or distinct neuronal mechanisms remains unclear. Music and language processing in the brain are right and left temporal functions, respectively. We studied patients with musicogenic epilepsy (ME) that was specifically triggered by popular songs to analyze brain hyperexcitability triggered by specific stimuli. The study included two men and one woman (all right-handed, aged 35-55 years). The patients had sound-triggered left temporal ME in response to popular songs with vocals, but not to instrumental, classical, or nonvocal piano solo versions of the same song...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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