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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138459/the-genomic-landscape-of-nepalese-tibeto-burmans-reveals-new-insights-into-the-recent-peopling-of-southern-himalayas
#1
Guido A Gnecchi-Ruscone, Choongwon Jeong, Sara De Fanti, Stefania Sarno, Michela Trancucci, Davide Gentilini, Anna M Di Blasio, Mingma G Sherpa, Phurba T Sherpa, Giorgio Marinelli, Marco Di Marcello, Luca Natali, Davide Peluzzi, Davide Pettener, Anna Di Rienzo, Donata Luiselli, Marco Sazzini
While much research attention has focused on demographic processes that enabled human diffusion on the Tibetan plateau, little is known about more recent colonization of Southern Himalayas. In particular, the history of migrations, admixture and/or isolation of populations speaking Tibeto-Burman languages, which is supposed to be quite complex and to have reshaped patterns of genetic variation on both sides of the Himalayan arc, remains only partially elucidated. We thus described the genomic landscape of previously unsurveyed Tibeto-Burman (i...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135750/student-and-educator-experiences-of-maternal-child-simulation-based-learning-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#2
Karen MacKinnon, Lenora Marcellus, Julie Rivers, Carol Gordon, Maureen Ryan, Diane Butcher
BACKGROUND: Although maternal-child care is a pillar of primary health care, there is a global shortage of maternal-child health care providers. Nurse educators experience difficulties providing undergraduate students with maternal-child learning experiences for a number of reasons. Simulation has the potential to complement learning in clinical and classroom settings. Although systematic reviews of simulation are available, no systematic reviews of qualitative evidence related to maternal-child simulation-based learning (SBL) for undergraduate nursing students and/or educators have been located...
November 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135365/deep-learning-to-classify-radiology-free-text-reports
#3
Matthew C Chen, Robyn L Ball, Lingyao Yang, Nathaniel Moradzadeh, Brian E Chapman, David B Larson, Curtis P Langlotz, Timothy J Amrhein, Matthew P Lungren
Purpose To evaluate the performance of a deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN) model compared with a traditional natural language processing (NLP) model in extracting pulmonary embolism (PE) findings from thoracic computed tomography (CT) reports from two institutions. Materials and Methods Contrast material-enhanced CT examinations of the chest performed between January 1, 1998, and January 1, 2016, were selected. Annotations by two human radiologists were made for three categories: the presence, chronicity, and location of PE...
November 13, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133332/built-to-last-the-sustainability-of-health-system-improvements-interventions-and-change-strategies-a-study-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#4
Jeffrey Braithwaite, Luke Testa, Gina Lamprell, Jessica Herkes, Kristiana Ludlow, Elise McPherson, Margie Campbell, Joanna Holt
INTRODUCTION: The sustainability of healthcare interventions and change programmes is of increasing importance to researchers and healthcare stakeholders interested in creating sustainable health systems to cope with mounting stressors. The aim of this protocol is to extend earlier work and describe a systematic review to identify, synthesise and draw meaning from studies published within the last 5 years that measure the sustainability of interventions, improvement efforts and change strategies in the health system...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132048/brain-white-matter-structure-and-language-ability-in-preschool-aged-children
#5
Matthew Walton, Deborah Dewey, Catherine Lebel
Brain alterations are associated with reading and language difficulties in older children, but little research has investigated relationships between early language skills and brain white matter structure during the preschool period. We studied 68 children aged 3.0-5.6 years who underwent diffusion tensor imaging and participated in assessments of Phonological Processing and Speeded Naming. Tract-based spatial statistics and tractography revealed relationships between Phonological Processing and diffusion parameters in bilateral ventral white matter pathways and the corpus callosum...
November 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131760/deep-learning-a-primer-for-radiologists
#6
Gabriel Chartrand, Phillip M Cheng, Eugene Vorontsov, Michal Drozdzal, Simon Turcotte, Christopher J Pal, Samuel Kadoury, An Tang
Deep learning is a class of machine learning methods that are gaining success and attracting interest in many domains, including computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing, and playing games. Deep learning methods produce a mapping from raw inputs to desired outputs (eg, image classes). Unlike traditional machine learning methods, which require hand-engineered feature extraction from inputs, deep learning methods learn these features directly from data. With the advent of large datasets and increased computing power, these methods can produce models with exceptional performance...
November 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131714/understanding-variations-in-secondary-findings-reporting-practices-across-u-s-genome-sequencing-laboratories
#7
Sara Ackerman, Barbara Koenig
BACKGROUND: Increasingly used for clinical purposes, genome and exome sequencing can generate clinically relevant information that is not directly related to the reason for testing (incidental or secondary findings). Debates about the ethical implications of secondary findings were sparked by the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG)'s 2013 policy statement, which recommended that laboratories report pathogenic alterations in 56 genes. Although wide variation in laboratories' secondary findings policies has been reported, little is known about its causes...
November 13, 2017: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131708/processes-in-increasing-participation-of-african-american-women-in-cancer-prevention-trials-development-and-pretesting-of-an-audio-card
#8
Donna Kenerson, Saudat Fadeyi, Jianguo Liu, Mirabel Kleriwoh, Katina Beard, Margaret K Hargreaves
The enrollment of African American women into cancer prevention trials (CPTs) continues to be low despite their higher cancer mortality rates. Clinical trials are vital to the discovery of new prevention, diagnostic, and treatment methods that improve cancer outcomes. This study addressed attitudes and beliefs associated with the sub optimal participation of African American women in CPTs through the development and pretesting of an educational tool. The use of community-engaged research (CER) in the formative phase of this study was the basis for developing an audio-card...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131368/models-of-chinese-reading-review-and-analysis
#9
Erik D Reichle, Lili Yu
Our understanding of the cognitive processes involved in reading has been advanced by computational models that simulate those processes (e.g., see Reichle, 2015). Unfortunately, most of these models have been developed to explain the reading of English and other alphabetic languages, with relatively fewer efforts to examine whether or not the assumptions of these models also explain what has been learned from other languages and, in particular, non-alphabetic writing systems like Chinese (e.g., see Li, Zang, Liversedge, & Pollatsek, 2015)...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130767/using-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-to-identify-outcome-domains-for-a-core-outcome-set-for-aphasia-a-comparison-of-stakeholder-perspectives
#10
Sarah J Wallace, Linda Worrall, Tanya Rose, Guylaine Le Dorze
PURPOSE: This study synthesised the findings of three separate consensus processes exploring the perspectives of key stakeholder groups about important aphasia treatment outcomes. This process was conducted to generate recommendations for outcome domains to be included in a core outcome set for aphasia treatment trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health codes were examined to identify where the groups of: (1) people with aphasia, (2) family members, (3) aphasia researchers, and (4) aphasia clinicians/managers, demonstrated congruence in their perspectives regarding important treatment outcomes...
November 12, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128988/employing-community-voices-informing-practice-and-programming-through-camden-healthy-start-focus-groups
#11
Dianne R Browne, Sherolde Hackett, Allison Burger
Objectives Women living in communities with low-socioeconomic status, substandard healthcare, and ongoing exposure to social disparities encounter barriers to healthcare, often making it difficult to access health services. Barriers may stem from provider interactions with clients, conditions of the healthcare facility, or even language barriers. This prompts a call for providers to be keenly aware of the obstacles women encounter when attempting to access services. Methods In an effort to facilitate better access to services, Camden Healthy Start conducted six focus groups...
November 11, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128736/optimal-practice-conditions-enhance-the-benefits-of-gradually-increasing-error-opportunities-on-retention-of-a-stepping-sequence-task
#12
Danielle Levac, Kate Driscoll, Jessica Galvez, Kathleen Mercado, Lindsey O'Neil
INTRODUCTION: Physical therapists should implement practice conditions that promote motor skill learning after neurological injury. Errorful and errorless practice conditions are effective for different populations and tasks. Errorful learning provides opportunities for learners to make task-relevant choices. Enhancing learner autonomy through choice opportunities is a key component of the Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) theory of motor learning...
November 9, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128578/electrical-brain-stimulation-tes-improves-learning-more-than-performance-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Bianca A Simonsmeier, Roland H Grabner, Julia Hein, Ugne Krenz, Michael Schneider
Researchers have recently started evaluating whether stimulating the brain noninvasively with a weak and painless electrical current (transcranial Electrical Stimulation, tES) enhances physiological and cognitive processes. Some studies found that tES has weak but positive effects on brain physiology, cognition, or assessment performance, which have attracted massive public interest. We present the first meta-analytic test of the hypothesis that tES in a learning phase is more effective than tES in an assessment phase...
November 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128453/getting-the-most-out-of-on-line-literature-searches-tips-for-advanced-searches
#14
Dirk M Elston
Thorough and efficient literature searches are important to authors and practicing physicians alike, and modern search engines have many tools to expedite the process. In databases such as PubMed, new logic, or natural language, is set up to answer questions by simply typing them in.
November 8, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128432/czech-version-of-the-patient-dignity-inventory-translation-and-validation-in-incurable-patients
#15
Helena Kisvetrová, David Školoudík, Libuše Danielová, Kateřina Langová, Renáta Váverková, Milena Bretšnajdrová, Yukari Yamada
CONTEXT: The Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI) is a valid, reliable screening tool to assess a range of issues that have been reported to affect the sense of dignity in patients with life-limiting conditions. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the item characteristics, factor structure, and reliability of the Czech version of the PDI (PDI-CZ) among cancer and non-cancer patients. METHODS: The PDI was translated into the Czech language following state-of-the-art criteria (a five-stage proceeding method for the translation)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126825/artificial-intelligence-in-medical-practice-the-question-to-the-answer
#16
REVIEW
D Douglas Miller, Eric W Brown
Computer science advances and ultra-fast computing speeds find artificial intelligence (AI) broadly benefitting modern society - forecasting weather, recognizing faces, detecting fraud, and deciphering genomics. AI's future role in medical practice remains an unanswered question. Machines (computers) learn to detect patterns not decipherable using biostatistics by processing massive datasets (big data) through layered mathematical models (algorithms). Correcting algorithm mistakes (training) adds to AI predictive model confidence...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126650/plasticity-in-the-auditory-system
#17
REVIEW
Dexter R F Irvine
Over the last 30 years a wide range of manipulations of auditory input and experience have been shown to result in plasticity in auditory cortical and subcortical structures. The time course of plasticity ranges from very rapid stimulus-specific adaptation to longer-term changes associated with, for example, partial hearing loss or perceptual learning. Evidence for plasticity as a consequence of these and a range of other manipulations of auditory input and/or its significance is reviewed, with an emphasis on plasticity in adults and in the auditory cortex...
October 31, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126298/what-proportion-of-people-who-try-one-cigarette-become-daily-smokers-a-meta-analysis-of-representative-surveys
#18
Max Birge, Stephen Duffy, Joanna Astrid Miler, Peter Hajek
Introduction: The 'conversion rate' from initial experimentation to daily smoking is a potentially important metric of smoking behavior, but estimates of it based on current representative data are lacking. Methods: The Global Health Data Exchange was searched for representative surveys conducted in English speaking, developed countries after year 2000 that included questions about ever trying a cigarette and ever smoking daily. The initial search identified 2776 surveys that were further screened for language, location, year, sample size, survey structure and representativeness...
November 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124719/morpholex-a-derivational-morphological-database-for-70-000-english-words
#19
Claudia H Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Hugo Mailhot, S Hélène Deacon, Maximiliano A Wilson
Most of the new words a reader will find are morphologically complex. Also, theoretical models of language processing propose that morphology plays an important role in visual word processing. Nevertheless, studies on the subject show contradicting results that are difficult to reconcile. One factor that may explain this is the lack of a sizeable and reliable morphological database. As a consequence, there are enormous methodological differences in the way the values for morphological variables are calculated across studies...
November 9, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123465/autoimmunity-as-a-driving-force-of-cognitive-evolution
#20
Serge Nataf
In the last decades, increasingly robust experimental approaches have formally demonstrated that autoimmunity is a physiological process involved in a large range of functions including cognition. On this basis, the recently enunciated "brain superautoantigens" theory proposes that autoimmunity has been a driving force of cognitive evolution. It is notably suggested that the immune and nervous systems have somehow co-evolved and exerted a mutual selection pressure benefiting to both systems. In this two-way process, the evolutionary-determined emergence of neurons expressing specific immunogenic antigens (brain superautoantigens) has exerted a selection pressure on immune genes shaping the T-cell repertoire...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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