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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330727/evaluation-of-bam-butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine-in-captive-african-lion-panthera-leo-immobilization
#1
Aleksandr Semjonov, Vladimir Andrianov, Jacobus P Raath, Toomas Orro, Derik Venter, Liesel Laubscher, Silke Pfitzer
OBJECTIVE: The combination of butorphanol, azaperone and medetomidine (BAM) with subsequent antagonism by naltrexone-yohimbine or naltrexone-atipamezole was evaluated for reversible immobilization of captive African lions (Panthea leo). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, clinical trial. ANIMALS: Twenty lions, 11 males and nine females, weighing 38-284 kg were immobilized in South Africa. METHODS: The BAM volume dose rate administered was 0...
February 8, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325180/compounding-of-veterinary-drugs-for-equine-practitioners
#2
REVIEW
Scott D Stanley, Krysta Moffitt, Valerie Wiebe
Equine practitioners should follow these recommendations when using compounded medications: (1) the decision must be veterinary driven, based on a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship and on evidence-based medicine; (2) compliance with the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994; and (3) use limited to (a) horses for which no other method or route of drug delivery is practical; (b) those drugs for which safety, efficacy, and stability have been demonstrated; or (c) disease conditions for which a quantifiable response to therapy or drug concentration can be monitored...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318148/barriers-to-innovation-in-human-rabies-prophylaxis-and-treatment-a-causal-analysis-of-insights-from-key-opinion-leaders-and-literature
#3
L H M van de Burgwal, A M G Neevel, C A C M Pittens, A D M E Osterhaus, C E Rupprecht, E Claassen
Rabies is an essentially 100% fatal, zoonotic disease, caused by Lyssaviruses. Currently, the disease is vaccine-preventable with pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP). Still, rabies virus is estimated to cause up to 60,000 human deaths annually, of which the vast majority occurs in rural Asia and Africa, due to the inaccessibility of prophylaxis and non-existence of treatment. Despite these unmet clinical needs, rabies control mainly focuses on the sylvatic reservoir and drug innovation receives relatively little attention compared to other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)...
March 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317239/the-use-of-low-dose-metronomic-chemotherapy-in-dogs-insight-into-a-modern-cancer-field
#4
REVIEW
T B Gaspar, J Henriques, L Marconato, F L Queiroga
The era of chemotherapy, which started in the middle of the last century, has been ruled by the routine use of dose-intense protocols, based on the "maximum-tolerated dose" concept. By promoting a balance between patient's quality of life and the goal of rapidly killing as many tumour cells as possible, these protocols still play a prominent role in veterinary oncology. However, with the opening of a new millennium, metronomic chemotherapy (MC) started to be considered a possible alternative to traditional dose-intense chemotherapy...
March 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301809/evaluation-of-drug-uptake-and-deactivation-in-plant-fate-of-albendazole-in-ribwort-plantain-plantago-laceolata-cells-and-regenerants
#5
Lucie Stuchlíková Raisová, Radka Podlipná, Barbora Szotáková, Eliška Syslová, Lenka Skálová
Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole anthelmintic widely used especially in veterinary medicine. Along with other drugs, anthelmintics have become one of a new class of micro-pollutants that disturb the environment but the information about their fate in plants remains limited. The present study was designed to test the uptake and biotransformation of ABZ in the ribwort plantain (Plantago lancelota), a common meadow plant, which can come into contact with this anthelmintic through the excrements of treated animals in pastures...
March 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301522/quantification-of-santonin-in-eight-species-of-artemisia-from-kazakhstan-by-means-of-hplc-uv-method-development-and-validation
#6
Zuriyadda Sakipova, Nikki Siu Hai Wong, Tolkyn Bekezhanova, Sadykova, Alma Shukirbekova, Fabio Boylan
Santonin, a powerful anthelmintic drug that was formely used to treat worms, is Artemisia cina's main constituent. However, due to its toxicity to humans, it is no longer in use. Kazakhstan is looking to introduce this plant as an anthelmintic drug for veterinary purposes, despite the known toxic properties of the santonin. The objective of this study was to develop a fast and specific method for the identification of santonin and its precise quantitation using HPLC-UV in order to avoid unnecessary intoxication, which is paramount for the development of veterinary medicines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300871/glial-scar-modulation-as-therapeutic-tool-in-spinal-cord-injury-in-animal-models
#7
Jéssica Rodrigues Orlandin, Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio, Valéria Maria Lara
PURPOSE: Spinal Cord injury represents, in veterinary medicine, most of the neurological attendances and may result in permanent disability, death or euthanasia. Due to inflammation resulting from trauma, it originates the glial scar, which is a cell interaction complex system. Its function is to preserve the healthy circuits, however, it creates a physical and molecular barrier that prevents cell migration and restricts the neuroregeneration ability. METHODS: This review aims to present innovations in the scene of treatment of spinal cord injury, approaching cell therapy, administration of enzyme, anti-inflammatory, and other active principles capable of modulating the inflammatory response, resulting in glial scar reduction and subsequent functional improvement of animals...
February 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286997/antiviral-activity-of-cationic-amphiphilic-drugs
#8
Cristiano Salata, Arianna Calistri, Cristina Parolin, Aldo Baritussio, Giorgio Palù
Emerging and re-emerging viral infections represent a major concern for human and veterinary public health and there is an urgent need for the development of broad-spectrum antivirals. Areas covered: A recent strategy in antiviral research is based on the identification of molecules targeting host functions required for infection of multiple viruses. A number of FDA-approved drugs used to treat several human diseases are cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) that have the ability to accumulate inside cells affecting several structures/functions hijacked by viruses during infection...
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285851/ivermectin-old-drug-new-tricks
#9
REVIEW
Roz Laing, Victoria Gillan, Eileen Devaney
Ivermectin is one of the most important drugs in veterinary and human medicine for the control of parasitic infection and was the joint focus of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, some 35 years after its remarkable discovery. Although best described for its activity on glutamate-gated chloride channels in parasitic nematodes, understanding of its mode of action remains incomplete. In the field of veterinary medicine, resistance to ivermectin is now widespread, but the mechanisms underlying resistance are unresolved...
March 9, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283079/molecular-investigation-of-the-direct-anti-tumour-effects-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-a-panel-of-canine-cancer-cell-lines
#10
R Yoshitake, K Saeki, M Watanabe, N Nakaoka, S M Ong, M Hanafusa, N Choisunirachon, N Fujita, R Nishimura, T Nakagawa
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been suggested as effective adjunctive anti-tumour agents in human and veterinary medicine. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with their anti-tumour effects and correlations with the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) and related molecules in tumours remain controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the expression profiles of COX and related molecules with NSAID sensitivity and to explore the molecular mechanisms of anti-tumour effects...
March 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278127/veterinary-drugs-residues-a-review-of-the-latest-analytical-research-on-sample-preparation-and-lc-ms-based-methods
#11
Lucia Mainero Rocca, Alessandra Gentili, Virginia Pérez-Fernández, Pierpaolo Tomai
The world population is increasing day by day and as a result there is a growing demand for food. Inevitably livestock and crops become intensive and require an increasing use of adjuvants. Even the logic of the extreme profit acts as an engine and often leads to fraudulent use of drugs, pesticides etc. Particularly, veterinary drugs can pose a real risk to human health if their residues are allowed to enter the food chain. Parent drugs and their metabolites can occur in foodstuffs individually or as multicomponent mixtures with enhanced adverse effects...
February 22, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270538/chemotherapy-drug-handling-in-first-opinion-small-animal-veterinary-practices-in-the-united-kingdom-results-of-a-questionnaire-survey
#12
E G Edery
To investigate how first opinion small animal veterinary surgeons in the UK handled chemotherapeutic agents, a questionnaire was distributed at the 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association congress and by internet. Chemotherapy was regularly offered by 70.4 per cent of the respondents. Gold standards defined according to available guidelines for safe handling of antineoplastic drugs were poorly followed by general practitioners with only 2 per cent of respondents complying with all of them. Dedicated facilities for preparation and administration of cytotoxic drugs were variably available among participants...
March 7, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255558/buparvaquone-nanostructured-lipid-carrier-development-of-an-affordable-delivery-system-for-the-treatment-of-leishmaniases
#13
Lis Marie Monteiro, Raimar Löbenberg, Paulo Cesar Cotrim, Gabriel Lima Barros de Araujo, Nádia Bou-Chacra
Buparvaquone (BPQ), a veterinary drug, was formulated as nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for leishmaniases treatment. The formulation design addressed poor water solubility of BPQ and lack of human drug delivery system. The DSC/TG and microscopy methods were used for solid lipids screening. Softisan® 154 showed highest BPQ solubility in both methods. The BPQ solubility in liquid lipids using HPLC revealed Miglyol® 812 as the best option. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to identify the optimal Softisan154 : Miglyol 812 ratios (7 : 10 to 2 : 1) and Kolliphor® P188 and Tween® 80 concentration (>3...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250318/characterization-of-species-differences-in-xenobiotic-metabolism-in-non-experimental-animals
#14
Hazuki Mizukawa, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Mayu Kakehi, Shouta Nakayama, Mayumi Ishizuka
 The ability to metabolize xenobiotics in organisms has a wide degree of variation among organisms. This is caused by differences in the pattern of xenobiotic bioaccumulation among organisms, which affects their tolerance. It has been reported in the veterinary field that glucuronidation (UGT) activity in cats, acetylation activity in dogs and sulfation (SULT) activity in pigs are sub-vital in these species, respectively, and require close attention when prescribing the medicine. On the other hand, information about species differences in xenobiotics metabolism remains insufficient, especially in non-experimental animals...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241435/polypharmacy-in-zoological-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Robert P Hunter, Ramiro Isaza
Polypharmacy is a term that describes the inappropriate, concurrent use of multiple drugs in an individual patient. Zoological medicine practitioners must take approved agents (veterinary or human) and extrapolate their use to non-approved species often with little species-specific pharmacological evidence to support their decisions. When considering polypharmacy, even less information exists concerning multi-drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or potential drug-drug interactions in non-domestic species...
February 22, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236763/palmatine-inhibits-trif-dependent-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-against-inflammation-induced-by-lps-in-goat-endometrial-epithelial-cells
#16
Baoqi Yan, Dongsheng Wang, Shuwei Dong, Zhangrui Cheng, Lidong Na, Mengqi Sang, Hongzao Yang, Zhiqiang Yang, Shidong Zhang, Zuoting Yan
Palmatine, a natural pharmaceutical drug, possesses many biological activities. But its clinical application is rarely reported in the veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of palmatine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in goat endometrial epithelial cells (gEECs), and the possible molecular mechanisms. Palmatine cell toxicity was determined by MTT assay, and the production of inflammatory cytokine in the cultured medium was measured with ELISA, qRT-PCR and Western blotting...
February 21, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224246/comparison-of-veterinary-drug-residue-results-in-animal-tissues-by-ultrahigh-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-triple-quadrupole-or-quadrupole-time-of-flight-tandem-mass-spectrometry-after-different-sample-preparation-methods-including-use-of-a-commercial
#17
Tarun Anumol, Steven J Lehotay, Joan Stevens, Jerry Zweigenbaum
Veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods must be monitored to ensure food safety, verify proper veterinary practices, enforce legal limits in domestic and imported foods, and for other purposes. A common goal in drug residue analysis in foods is to achieve acceptable monitoring results for as many analytes as possible, with higher priority given to the drugs of most concern, in an efficient and robust manner. The U.S. Department of Agriculture has implemented a multiclass, multi-residue method based on sample preparation using dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) for cleanup and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QQQ) for analysis of >120 drugs at regulatory levels of concern in animal tissues...
February 21, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222788/antimicrobial-resistance-and-genomic-rep-pcr-fingerprints-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-from-animals-on-the-background-of-the-global-population-structure
#18
Isa Serrano, Manuela Oliveira, José Pedro Santos, Florence Bilocq, Alexandre Leitão, Luis Tavares, Jean-Paul Pirnay, Daniel De Vos
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human opportunistic pathogen responsible for fatal nosocomial infections worldwide, and has emerged as a relevant animal pathogen. Treatment options are dramatically decreasing, due to antimicrobial resistance and the microorganism's large versatile genome. Antimicrobial resistance profiles, serotype frequency and genomic profile of unrelated P. aeruginosa isolates of veterinary origin (n = 73), including domesticated, farm, zoo and wild animals mainly from Portugal were studied...
February 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221872/analysis-of-food-safety-and-security-challenges-in-emerging-african-food-producing-areas-through-a-one-health-lens-the-dairy-chains-in-mali
#19
Rachel Cheng, Alberto Mantovani, Chiara Frazzoli
Challenges posed by changes in livestock production in emerging food producing areas and demographic development and climate change require new approaches and responsibilities in the management of food chains. The increasingly recognized role of primary food producers requires the support of the scientific community to instruct effective approaches based on scientific data, tools, and expertise. Mali is an emerging food producing area, and this review covers (i) the dairy farming scenario and its environment, (ii) the role of dairy production in food security, including the greatly different animal rearing systems in the Sahel and tropical regions, (iii) risk management pillars as modern infrastructures, effective farmer organizations, and institutional systems to guarantee animal health and safety of products, and (iv) feasible interventions based on good practices and risk assessment at the farm level (e...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218830/rapidfire-mass-spectrometry-with-enhanced-throughput-as-an-alternative-to-liquid-liquid-salt-assisted-extraction-and-lc-ms-analysis-for-sulfonamides-in-honey
#20
Brian T Veach, Thilak K Mudalige, Peter Rye
The use of veterinary drugs in honey bees for the prevention of infectious disease is ever increasing due to the spread of colony collapse disorder around the world. The United States Food and Drug Administration is concerned about the presence of these drugs residues in honey as they often lead to health concerns or potential antibiotic resistance. Currently there is a need for a rapid screening method for the detection of veterinary drugs in honey. Herein is a method that utilizes automated solid-phase extraction that is directly coupled to a mass spectrometer for the quantitative screening of 12 different regulated sulfonamides in honey...
March 2, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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