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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427112/acute-encephalopathy-in-a-2-year-old-pot-bellied-pig-following-accidental-intoxication-with-clonazepam
#1
Emilie L Setlakwe, Amy L Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of successful management of clonazepam toxicity causing encephalopathy in a pot-bellied pig. CASE SUMMARY: A 2-year-old female pot-bellied pig weighing 13.5 kg was presented for evaluation of clinical signs of acute encephalopathy. Based on the animal's history and clinical signs, a tentative diagnosis of benzodiazepine (BZP) intoxication was made. The results of a urinary drug screening test designed to detect illicit substances in human urine indicated benzodiazepine exposure...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425390/sterility-and-stability-of-diluted-carprofen-in-a-multidose-vial-in-the-laboratory-animal-setting
#2
Gregory D Simonek Gwendolyne G Alarcio And Laurie L Brignolo
Using compounded multidose vials (cMDV) is a common practice in the laboratory animal setting, where medications oftenare diluted to provide appropriate doses to rodents. However, bacterial contamination of MDV has been well establishedin both the human and veterinary medical literature. For this study, we created 14 cMDV by diluting carprofen into sterilewater (dilution, 1:10) and stored 6 cMDV each at 5 and 24 °C. The stoppers of the cMDV were not cleaned with alcohol, andall were punctured twice daily for 28 d...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415922/host-pharmacokinetics-and-drug-accumulation-of-anthelmintics-within-target-helminth-parasites-of-ruminants
#3
A Lifschitz, C Lanusse, L Alvarez
Anthelmintic drugs require effective concentrations to be attained at the site of parasite location for a certain period to assure their efficacy. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (pharmacokinetic phase) directly influence drug concentrations attained at the site of action and the resultant pharmacological effect. The aim of the current review article was to provide an overview of the relationship between the pharmacokinetic features of different anthelmintic drugs, their availability in host tissues, accumulation within target helminths and resulting therapeutic efficacy...
April 17, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411464/development-validation-and-different-approaches-for-the-measurement-uncertainty-of-a-multi-class-veterinary-drugs-residues-lc-ms-method-for-feeds
#4
Andressa Camargo Valese, Luciano Molognoni, Naielly Coelho de Souza, Leandro Antunes de Sá Ploêncio, Ana Carolina Oliveira Costa, Fabiano Barreto, Heitor Daguer
A sensitive method for the simultaneous residues analysis of 62 veterinary drugs in feeds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated in accordance to Commission Decision 657/2002/EC. Additionally, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantitation (LOQ), matrix effects and measurement uncertainty were also assessed. Extraction was performed for all analytes and respective internal standards in a single step and chromatographic separation was achieved in only 12min. LOQ were set to 0...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410479/analysis-of-sulfonamides-tilmicosin-and-avermectins-residues-in-typical-animal-matrices-with-multi-plug-filtration-cleanup-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-detection
#5
Yuhong Qin, Freedom Jatamunua, Jingru Zhang, Yanjie Li, Yongtao Han, Nan Zou, Jihao Shan, Yanbin Jiang, Canping Pan
The frequent use of various veterinary drugs could lead to residue bioaccumulation in animal tissues, which could cause dietary risks to human health. In order to quickly analyze the residues, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for detecting Sulfonamides, Tilmicosin and Avermectins (AVMs) residues in animal samples. For sample preparation, modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods were used...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408044/determination-of-82-veterinary-drugs-in-swine-waste-lagoon-sludge-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#6
Xiaowei Li, Ping Guo, Yawen Shan, Yuebin Ke, Hui Li, Qin Fu, Yingyu Wang, Tianhe Liu, Xi Xia
This work reports the development of a multi-residue method for the identification and quantification of 82 veterinary drugs belonging to different chemical classes in swine waste lagoon. The proposed method applies a solid-phase extraction procedure with Oasis PRiME HLB cartridges that combines isolation of the compounds and sample clean-up in a single step. Analysis is performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, in one single injection with a chromatographic run time of only 9...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400212/susceptibility-to-18-drugs-and-multidrug-resistance-of-arcobacter-isolates-from-different-sources-within-the-czech-republic
#7
David Šilha, Marcela Pejchalová, Lucie Šilhová
OBJECTIVES: Arcobacter spp. are considered to be potential foodborne pathogens, and consumption of contaminated food containing these bacteria could endanger human and animal health. Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus are the species most frequently isolated from food of animal origin and from other samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of arcobacters isolated in the Czech Republic. No information about antibiotic susceptibility and multidrug resistance of arcobacters isolated in the Czech Republic is available in the literature before now...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399706/sampling-design-by-core-food-approach-for-taiwan-total-diet-study-on-veterinary-drugs
#8
Chien-Chih Chen, Ching-Lun Tsai, Chia-Chin Chang, Shih-Pei Ni, Yi-Tzu Chen, Chow-Feng Chiang
The Core Food (CF) approach, first adopted in the USA in the 1980s, has been widely used by many countries for assessing the exposure to dietary hazards at a population level. However, the reliability of exposure estimates (C×CR) depends critically on sampling methods designed for the detected chemical concentrations (C) of each CF to match with the corresponding consumption rate (CR) estimated from the surveyed intake data. In order to reduce the uncertainty of food matching, this study presents a sampling design scheme, namely the Sub-Sample method for 2016 Taiwan total diet study on veterinary drugs...
April 12, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390181/perceptions-and-opinions-of-canadian-pet-owners-about-anaesthesia-pain-and-surgery-in-small-animals
#9
P V Steagall, B P Monteiro, H L M Ruel, G Beauchamp, G Luca, J Berry, S Little, E Stiles, S Hamilton, D Pang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and opinions of Canadian pet owners about anaesthesia, pain and surgery in dogs and cats. METHODS: Six Canadian veterinary hospitals participated. Each practice received 200 copies of a questionnaire that were distributed to pet owners. Questions regarding the use of analgesics, anaesthesia, surgery and onychectomy (cats) were included. Responses were transformed into ordinal scores and analysed with a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372226/multiresidue-determination-of-veterinary-medicines-in-lyophilized-egg-albumen-with-subsequent-consumer-exposure-evaluation
#10
Marta Piątkowska, Małgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Anna Gajda, Piotr Jedziniak, Tomasz Błądek, Jan Żmudzki, Andrzej Posyniak
The process of lyophilization causes that the veterinary drugs residues present in egg albumen do not decompose, as it takes place during the process of high-temperature drying. Thus, lyophilized albumen may be a potential source of their residues for consumers. As a consequence, reliable methods for the determination of veterinary medicinal products from egg albumen are needed. The method for the determination of 85 analytes in lyophilized egg albumen was developed and successfully validated. The recoveries were between 84 and 110%, within laboratory repeatability and reproducibility - in the range of 3...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369530/efficacy-of-moxidectin-versus-ivermectin-against-strongyloides-stercoralis-infections-a-randomized-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#11
Beatrice Barda, Somphou Sayasone, Khampheng Phongluxa, Syda Xayavong, Khonsavanh Keoduangsy, Peter Odermatt, Maxim Puchkov, Jörg Huwyler, Jan Hattendorf, Jennifer Keiser
Background: Infections with Strongyloides stercoralis are of considerable public health relevance. Moxidectin, a well-established drug in veterinary medicine under consideration for regulatory submission for the treatment of onchocerciasis, might serve as alternative to the most widely used ivermectin. Methods: We conducted an exploratory, randomized, single-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of moxidectin (8 mg) versus ivermectin (200 μg/kg) against S...
March 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358639/review-of-hazards-to-female-reproductive-health-in-veterinary-practice
#12
Joni M Scheftel, Brigid L Elchos, Carol S Rubin, John A Decker
OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346803/carbapenemase-producing-aeromonas-veronii-disseminated-in-the-environment-of-an-equine-specialty-hospital
#13
Rachael J Adams, Dimitria A Mathys, Dixie F Mollenkopf, Andrea Whittle, Joshua B Daniels, Thomas E Wittum
The emergence of bacterial resistance to carbapenem antibiotics is an urgent public health threat. Carbapenem drugs are a last resort treatment option for life-threatening infections. The frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics to treat hospitalized patients provides significant selection pressure favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant organisms, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). CREs have been reported in animal populations, but only rarely in horses. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of CRE in the environment of a referral equine specialty hospital...
March 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346193/when-to-compound-medications-for-veterinary-patients
#14
Lauren Eichstadt Forsythe
This article serves as a brief discussion about some of the restrictions applicable to compounding medications for veterinary patients based on U. S. Food and Drug Administration compliance policy guidelines and provides a brief summary of when it is appropriate to compound medications for veterinary patients.
January 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344363/electrochemical-determination-of-closantel-in-the-commercial-formulation-by-square-wave-adsorptive-stripping-voltammetry
#15
Mariola Brycht, Agnieszka Nosal-Wiercińska, Karolina Sipa, Konrad Rudnicki, Sławomira Skrzypek
ABSTRACT: In this paper, the square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (SWAdSV) determination of the veterinary drug closantel using a renewable silver amalgam film electrode (Hg(Ag)FE) is presented. As observed in SWAdSV, closantel provided one well-shaped reduction peak suitable for analytical purposes at potential ca. -1.4 V in the Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer at pH 7.0. At optimal conditions, the SWAdSV response of Hg(Ag)FE for determining closantel was linear over two concentration ranges of 5...
2017: Monatshefte Für Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340744/simultaneous-multi-residue-determination-of-twenty-one-veterinary-drugs-in-poultry-litter-by-modeling-three-way-liquid-chromatography-with-fluorescence-and-absorption-detection-data
#16
Carla M Teglia, Paola M Peltzer, Silvia N Seib, Rafael C Lajmanovich, María J Culzoni, Héctor C Goicoechea
A method for the simultaneous investigation of twenty one veterinary active ingredients in poultry litter based on MCR-ALS modeling of three-way liquid chromatography with fluorescence and UV detection data is presented. The chromatographic procedure was optimized in terms of both the nature of the organic solvent and the pH of the mobile phase to maximize the resolution of the analytes. In order to improve the simultaneous extraction efficiency of the twenty one veterinary drugs, a simplex-centroid design with combinations of the three components of the extracting mixture, i...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339384/evaluation-of-the-most-frequently-prescribed-extemporaneously-compounded-veterinary-medications-at-a-large-independent-community-pharmacy
#17
Adel H Karara, Ryan Hines, Zehra Demir, Bethran Nnorom, Robert Horsey, Geoffrey Twigg
Extemporaneous drug formulation is essential to provide optimal pharmaceutical care to veterinary patients. The need for this is exacerbated by the fact that commercially produced veterinary-specific products, without a human indication, require specialty veterinary manufacturing facilities and a new animal drug application process to gain marketing approval. This study examined the prescription patterns of extemporaneously compounded veterinary preparations in the compounding department at a large independent community pharmacy...
November 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336470/bioassay-guided-isolation-of-active-principles-from-nigerian-medicinal-plants-identifies-new-trypanocides-with-low-toxicity-and-no-cross-resistance-to-diamidines-and-arsenicals
#18
Godwin Unekwuojo Ebiloma, John Ogbaji Igoli, Evangelos Katsoulis, Anne-Marie Donachie, Anthonius Eze, Alexander Ian Gray, Harry P de Koning
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaves from the plant species studied herein are traditionally used in northern Nigeria against various protozoan infections. However, none of these herbal preparations have been standardized, nor have their toxicity to mammalian cells been investigated. In search of improved and non-toxic active antiprotozoal principles that are not cross-resistant with current anti-parasitics, we here report the results of the in vitro screening of extracts from seven selected medicinal plant species (Centrosema pubescens, Moringa oleifera, Tridax procumbens, Polyalthia longifolia, Newbouldia laevis, Eucalyptus maculate, Jathropha tanjorensis), used traditionally to treat kinetoplastid infections in Nigeria, and the isolation of their bioactive principles...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330727/evaluation-of-bam-butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine-in-captive-african-lion-panthera-leo-immobilization
#19
Aleksandr Semjonov, Vladimir Andrianov, Jacobus P Raath, Toomas Orro, Derik Venter, Liesel Laubscher, Silke Pfitzer
OBJECTIVE: The combination of butorphanol, azaperone and medetomidine (BAM) with subsequent antagonism by naltrexone-yohimbine or naltrexone-atipamezole was evaluated for reversible immobilization of captive African lions (Panthea leo). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, clinical trial. ANIMALS: Twenty lions, 11 males and nine females, weighing 38-284 kg were immobilized in South Africa. METHODS: The BAM volume dose rate administered was 0...
February 8, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325180/compounding-of-veterinary-drugs-for-equine-practitioners
#20
REVIEW
Scott D Stanley, Krysta Moffitt, Valerie Wiebe
Equine practitioners should follow these recommendations when using compounded medications: (1) the decision must be veterinary driven, based on a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship and on evidence-based medicine; (2) compliance with the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994; and (3) use limited to (a) horses for which no other method or route of drug delivery is practical; (b) those drugs for which safety, efficacy, and stability have been demonstrated; or (c) disease conditions for which a quantifiable response to therapy or drug concentration can be monitored...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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