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Veterinary drug

Ayodele O Majekodunmi, Charles Dongkum, Christopher Idehen, Dachung Tok Langs, Susan C Welburn
Fulani pastoralists in Nigeria lack adequate access to good quality veterinary services and often resort to treating their animals themselves. There are several negative aspects to this, including poor treatment outcomes, misuse of veterinary drugs and subsequent resistance, and further barriers to good relations between pastoralists and veterinary services. A participatory epidemiology survey was undertaken in Fulani communities, to examine their ability to diagnose and treat bovine diseases. Qualitative participatory epidemiology techniques including semi-structured interviews, ranking and participant and non-participant observations were used for data collection...
June 2018: One Health
Georgeta Serban, Oana Stanasel, Eugenia Serban, Sanda Bota
Pathogenic microorganisms are causative agents for different types of serious and even lethal infectious diseases. Despite advancements in medication, bacterial and fungal infections continue to be a growing problem in health care. As more and more bacteria become resistant to antibiotics used in therapy and an increasing number of invasive fungal species become resistant to current antifungal medications, there is considerable interest in the development of new compounds with antimicrobial activity. The compounds containing a heterocyclic ring play an important role among organic compounds with biological activity used as drugs in human and veterinary medicine or as insecticides and pesticides in agriculture...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Sindy L Piscoya, Kelly R Hume, Cheryl E Balkman
The incidence of proteinuria in humans receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been well-documented. Reports of proteinuria with this class of drugs are limited in veterinary medicine. This retrospective study describes the incidence, severity, and progression of proteinuria in 55 dogs treated with toceranib phosphate, with or without concurrent glucocorticoid or NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug). Six dogs were proteinuric at baseline. Twelve of the 49 dogs that were not proteinuric at baseline developed proteinuria while receiving toceranib phosphate...
June 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Ejikeugwu Chika, Esimone Charles, Iroha Ifeanyichukwu, Adikwu Michael
Objectives: Gram-negative bacteria represent the most relevant reservoir of resistance to antibiotics in the environment. The natural selection of resistant clones of bacteria in the environment by antimicrobial selective pressure is a relevant mechanism for spreading antibiotic resistance traits in both the community and hospital environment. This is in scenarios where antimicrobials are used irrationally, and even in the propagation of livestock, poultry birds, and for other veterinary purposes...
May 2018: Oman Medical Journal
De-Zhang Lu, Xiu-Jing Feng, Kui Hu, Sheng Jiang, Lin Li, Xin-Wu Ma, Hong-Gang Fan
Zoletil is an anesthetic and immobilizing drug that has been used in the veterinary field for over 50 years; however, the effect of Zoletil, or its constituents, on brain cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) remains unknown. Here, we aimed to determine the effect of Zoletil on rat brain CBS by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of the drug and examining hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and CBS levels in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus following three distinct behavioral phenotypes associated with the sedation procedure (e...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Abass Tanhaiean, Marjan Azghandi, Jamshid Razmyar, Elyass Mohammadi, Mohammad Hadi Sekhavati
Over the last decades, poultry industry faced to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria as a global concern. Antimicrobial peptide (AMPs) known as potential antibiotic alternative and were considered as a new antimicrobial agent. Current methods of production and purification of AMPs have several limitations such as: costly, time-consuming and killing the producing host cells in recombinant form. In the present study, a chimeric peptide derived from camel lactoferrin was produced in Escherichia coli periplasmic space using a pET-based expression system and its antibacterial activity was determined on some avian pathogens in vitro...
June 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Lihui Wang, Chuchu Wang, Hao Li
Cefquinome (CFQ), which is a fourth-generation cephalosporin approved for veterinary use only, has been widely used for treating porcine or bovine respiratory infection, bovine mastitis and other diseases. However, the antibacterial effect of CFQ is based on the duration of drug concentration remaining in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration in serum or tissues, thereby inevitably leading to CFQ residues with high levels in animal-sourced food. In this paper, four CFQ-specific ssDNA aptamers were selected via a magnetic bead-based systematic evolution of ligands by the exponential enrichment (SELEX) method...
June 6, 2018: Analyst
Kristen Zeitler, Ripal Jariwala, Ricardo Restrepo-Jaramillo, Shyam Kapadia, Beata Casanas, Sally Alrabaa, Chakrapol Sriaroon
Severe Strongyloides stercoralis , such as hyperinfection syndrome, carries a high mortality risk. Even with appropriate treatment, patients may experience infectious complications and failure of therapy. Currently, there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved parenteral therapies available for treatment in patients who develop gastrointestinal complications from hyperinfection, including small bowel obstruction. A veterinary form of ivermectin is available as a subcutaneous injection, although current literature in humans is limited...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Wenbo Yu, Tingting Zhang, Mingfang Ma, Chaochao Chen, Xiao Liang, Kai Wen, Zhanhui Wang, Jianzhong Shen
Colorimetric biosensors for the on-site visual detection of veterinary drug residues are required for food control in developing countries and other resource-constrained areas, where sophisticated instruments may not be available. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive immunoassay for amantadine residues in poultry. By introducing a novel signal generation strategy into an indirect competitive immunoassay, a highly sensitive assay for amantadine residues in chicken was achieved for naked eye readout at the part per billion (ppb) level...
October 16, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Wendelin Moser, Oliver Bärenbold, Greg J Mirams, Piet Cools, Johnny Vlaminck, Said M Ali, Shaali M Ame, Jan Hattendorf, Penelope Vounatsou, Bruno Levecke, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Over one billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH), i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura. For estimating drug efficacy and monitoring anthelminthic drug resistance, accurate diagnostic methods are critical. FECPAKG2 is a new remote-diagnostic tool used in veterinary medicine, which produces an image of the stool sample that can be stored on an internet cloud. We compared for the first time FECPAKG2 with the recommended Kato-Katz method...
June 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Naoufal Rahmatallah, Hicham El Rhaffouli, Idriss Lahlou Amine, Yassine Sekhsokh, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri, Mohammed El Houadfi
Monitoring the use of antibacterial agents in food-producing animals is crucial in order to reduce antimicrobial resistance, selection and dissemination of resistant bacterial strains, and drug residues in the animal food products. The broiler production sector is considered a great consumer of antibacterials and incriminated in the rise of antimicrobial resistance level in zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter. Following recommendations from the OIE and WHO, a survey was conducted about the use and consumption of several antibacterial agents in Moroccan broiler flocks...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
David M Neilson, Jaime Viscasillas, Hatim Alibhai, Patrick J Kenny, Stijn Jm Niessen, Sandra Sanchis-Mora
Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the anaesthetic management and perianaesthetic complications encountered during hypophysectomy surgery in acromegalic cats. We explored relationships between animal demographic data, the anaesthetic protocol used and presence of perioperative complications. Methods Cats having undergone hypophysectomy surgery for the treatment of feline acromegaly at a single veterinary referral hospital were identified from hospital records. The anaesthesia records and clinical notes of these animals were retrospectively reviewed...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Dorota Olender, Justyna Żwawiak, Lucjusz Zaprutko
The current concept in searching for new bioactive products, including mainly original active substances with potential application in pharmacy and medicine, is based on compounds with a previously determined structure, well-known properties, and biological activity profile. Nowadays, many commonly used drugs originated from natural sources. Moreover, some natural materials have become the source of leading structures for processing further chemical modifications. Many organic compounds with great therapeutic significance have the nitro group in their structure...
May 29, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
David Leitsch, Catrin F Williams, Ivan Hrdý
The microaerophilic parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Giardia lamblia jointly cause hundreds of millions of infections in humans every year. Other microaerophilic parasites such as Tritrichomonas foetus and Spironucleus spp. pose a relevant health problem in veterinary medicine. Unfortunately, vaccines against these pathogens are unavailable, but their microaerophilic lifestyle opens opportunities for specifically developed chemotherapeutics. In particular, their high sensitivity towards oxygen can be exploited by targeting redox enzymes...
May 25, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Marilyn N Martinez, Ronette Gehring, Jonathan P Mochel, Devendra Pade, Ludovic Pelligand
During the 2017 Biennial meeting, the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics hosted a 1-day session on the influence of population variability on dose-exposure-response relationships. In Part I, we highlighted some of the sources of population variability. Part II provides a summary of discussions on modelling and simulation tools that utilize existing pharmacokinetic data, can integrate drug physicochemical characteristics with species physiological characteristics and dosing information or that combine observed with predicted and in vitro information to explore and describe sources of variability that may influence the safe and effective use of veterinary pharmaceuticals...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Amanda L Root, Tim D Parkin, Pippa Hutchison, Caroline Warnes, Philippa S Yam
BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of literature on pseudopregnancy in the bitch, with only a few treatment-based studies published since the 1990s. Pseudopregnancy may be under-recognised in bitches and may account for a proportion of behavioural cases seen in veterinary practices including aggression. Little is known about commonly used treatments for overtly pseudopregnant bitches and it is possible that current regimes may not be prescribed for a sufficient duration to control any clinical signs including, physical and behavioural changes...
May 24, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Blessing A Aderibigbe, Tobeka Naki
Nanogels are drug delivery systems that can bypass the blood-brain barrier and deliver drugs to the desired site when administered intranasally. They have been used as a drug delivery platform for the management of brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, migraine, schizophrenia and depression. nanogels have also been developed as vaccine carriers for the protection of bacterial infections such as influenza, meningitis, pneumonia and as veterinary vaccine carriers for the protection of animals from encephalomyelitis and mouth to foot disease...
May 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jennifer A Beninson, Jennifer L Lofgren, Patrick A Lester, Madeline M Hileman, Daniel J Berkowitz, Daniel D Myers
NSAID analgesics may confound models that require inflammation to mimic disease development in humans. This effect presents a challenge for veterinary staff and investigators, because surgery is often necessary to create mouse models of disease and NSAID are first-line analgesics used to treat postoperative pain. We evaluated robenacoxib, a NSAID highly selective for cyclooxygenase 2, in a carrageenan paw edema (CPE) assay and surgical model of venous thrombosis (VT). We generated a mouse-specific dose-response curve by using the CPE assay for robenacoxib doses of 3...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Paisley Thomson, Valerie S Langlois
Environmental gestagens are an emerging class of contaminants that have been recently measured in surface water and can interfere with reproduction in aquatic vertebrates. Gestagens include endogenous progestogens, such as progesterone (P4), which bind P4-receptors and have critically important roles in vertebrate physiology and reproduction. Gestagens also include synthetic progestins, which are components of human and veterinary drugs, such as melengestrol acetate (MGA). Endogenous progestogens are essential in the regulation of reproduction in mammalian species, but the role of P4 in amphibian larval development remains unclear...
May 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
J Casado, D Santillo, P Johnston
A quantitative targeted screening method for the determination of residues of a broad group of more than 250 pesticides in surface water samples was developed and validated. Substances were isolated from the sample matrix by solid-phase extraction (SPE), using hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced polymeric sorbents (HLB), and analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) - Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Compounds were quantified in full scan acquisition mode, while accurate data dependant MS2 analysis was simultaneously triggered for the unambiguous identification of the targeted substances...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
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