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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108199/freedom-from-infection-confirming-interruption-of-malaria-transmission
#1
REVIEW
Gillian Stresman, Angus Cameron, Chris Drakeley
The global reductions in disease burden and the continued spread of drug and insecticide resistance make malaria elimination both viable and imperative, although this may be more easily achieved in some settings compared to others. Whilst the focus has been on optimal approaches to achieve elimination, less attention has been paid to how to measure the absence of malaria. Measuring the absence of transmission poses a specific challenge in that it involves proving a negative. The concept of freedom from infection, routinely used in veterinary epidemiology, can provide quantitative and reproducible estimates that, if infections were present above a predefined (low) threshold, they would be detected with a known uncertainty...
January 17, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107831/high-throughput-untargeted-screening-of-veterinary-drug-residues-and-metabolites-in-tilapia-using-high-resolution-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry
#2
Wei Jia, Xiaogang Chu, James Chang, Perry G Wang, Ying Chen, Feng Zhang
An analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of one hundred and thirty-seven veterinary drug residues and metabolites from sixteen different classes in tilapia utilizing an improved fully non-targeted way of data acquisition with fragmentation. The automated on-line extraction procedure was achieved in a simple disposable pipet extraction. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes...
March 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105335/detection-of-stanozolol-in-the-urine-of-athletes-at-a-pg-level-the-possibility-of-passive-exposure
#3
Christina Tsitsimpikou, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis
Stanozolol is a synthetic heterocyclic steroid with anabolic and androgenic properties, which has been abused by several high-profile professional athletes. Stanozolol is also used in veterinary medicine to increase appetite, cause weight gain and treat certain types of anemia. The detection of stanozolol metabolites in human urine for doping control purposes depends on the analytical method applied. The most commonly applied methods in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited doping control laboratories are gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS)...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094519/targeted-multiresidue-analysis-of-veterinary-drugs-in-milk-based-powders-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-ms
#4
James B Wittenberg, Kelli A Simon, Jon W Wong
An analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of 40 veterinary drugs in various milk-based powders. The method involves acetonitrile/water extraction, solid-phase filtration for lipid removal in fat-containing matrices, and analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The limits of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 0.02 to 82 ng/g. Acceptable recoveries (70-120%, RSD < 20%) were reached for 40 out of 52 target compounds at three fortification levels in non-fat milk powder...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093773/establishment-of-a-cell-line-for-assessing-drugs-as-canine-p-glycoprotein-substrates-proof-of-principle
#5
K L Mealey, S Dassanayake, N S Burke
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the ABCB1 (MDR1) gene, dramatically impacts drug disposition. P-gp is expressed in the intestines, biliary canaliculi, renal tubules, and brain capillaries where it functions to efflux substrate drugs. In this capacity, P-gp restricts oral absorption, enhances biliary and renal excretion, and inhibits central nervous system entry of substrate drugs. Many drugs commonly used in veterinary medicine are known substrates for canine P-gp (vincristine, loperamide, ivermectin, others)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093042/chloramphenicol-stereoisomers-need-to-be-distinguished-consequences-observed-from-a-proficiency-test
#6
Mark Sykes, Tobias Czymai, Thomas Hektor, Matthew Sharman, Michael Knaggs
Although the use of chloramphenicol (CAP) as a veterinary drug is banned in the European Union and many other countries, monitoring for CAP residues in food is routine. Positive detections are few, but taken extremely seriously. European Union laboratories analysing for CAP should validate methods according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, must be accredited to ISO 17025, and will generally participate in proficiency testing (PT) schemes, such as those offered by the Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS®)...
January 17, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090646/influence-of-p-glycoprotein-on-the-disposition-of-fexofenadine-and-its-enantiomers
#7
Fei Li, Karyn D Howard, Michael J Myers
OBJECTIVES: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is responsible for the efflux of a broad variety of human and veterinary drugs. Canine P-gp polymorphisms alter drug disposition and toxicity, but their impact on the disposition of enantiomeric drugs is unknown. Using fexofenadine as a model compound, we developed and validated HPLC-fluorescence methods to determine the effect of P-gp on the disposition of fexofenadine and its enantiomers. METHODS: A chiral CD-Ph column was used for the separation of (R) and (S)-fexofenadine...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081124/rapid-genotyping-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-polymorphisms-in-trichuris-trichiura-and-ascaris-lumbricoides
#8
Nour Rashwan, Marilyn Scott, Roger Prichard
BACKGROUND: The benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics, albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) are the most common drugs used for treatment of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Their intensive use increases the possibility that BZ resistance may develop. In veterinary nematodes, BZ resistance is caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene at codon position 200, 167 or 198, and these SNPs have also been correlated with poor response of human Trichuris trichiura to BZ treatment...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075379/veterinary-compounding-regulation-challenges-and-resources
#9
REVIEW
Gigi Davidson
The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to drug residues. As beneficial as compounded medical therapies may be to animal patients, these therapies are not without risks, and serious adverse events may occur from poor quality compounds or excipients that are uniquely toxic when administered to a given species...
January 10, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063087/antimicrobial-activity-and-acute-toxicity-of-ozonated-lomefloxacin-solution
#10
Amanda Marchi Duarte de Oliveira, Milena Guedes Maniero, Caio Rodrigues-Silva, José Roberto Guimarães
Lomefloxacin (LOM) is a synthetic antimicrobial from the fluoroquinolone family (FQ) used as a veterinary and human drug. Once in the environment, LOM may pose a risk to aquatic and terrestrial microorganisms due to its antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the effect of ozonation of LOM (500 μg L(-1)), the residual antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and acute toxicity against Vibrio fischeri. In addition, degradation products were investigated by UHPLC-MS/MS and proposed. Ozonation was carried out varying the applied ozone dose from 0 to 54...
January 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061549/fast-and-simple-detection-methods-for-the-4-base-pair-deletion-of-canine-mdr1-abcb1-gene-by-pcr-and-isothermal-amplification
#11
Cathrin P Stiedl, Karin Weber
Dogs with a 4-bp deletion in the MDR1 (or ABCB1) gene show intolerance to certain drugs routinely used in veterinary medicine, such as ivermectin, vincristine, and doxorubicin. The mutation leads to a dysfunctional P-glycoprotein drug transporter, which results in drug accumulation in the brain and severe neurotoxicity. A rapid and accurate in-house test to determine the genotype of patients in cases of acute neurotoxic signs or in tumor patients is desirable. We describe a cost-effective detection method with simple technical equipment for veterinary practice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042660/determination-of-minimum-biofilm-eradication-concentrations-of-orbifloxacin-for-canine-bacterial-uropathogens-over-different-treatment-periods
#12
Takae Shimizu, Kazuki Harada
Biofilm formation can cause refractory urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs; however, minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) of veterinary drugs against canine uropathogens remain to be investigated. In this study, we determined the MBECs of orbifloxacin (OBFX), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (ACV) over different time periods for treatment of canine uropathogenic Escherichia coli (n = 10). We also determined the MBECs of OBFX for other bacterial uropathogens, including Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (n = 5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=5), and Proteus mirabilis (n=5)...
January 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035104/the-coordination-complex-structures-and-hydrogen-bonding-in-the-three-dimensional-alkaline-earth-metal-salts-mg-ca-sr-and-ba-of-4-aminophenyl-arsonic-acid
#13
Graham Smith, Urs D Wermuth
(4-Aminophenyl)arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid) is used as an antihelminth in veterinary applications and was earlier used in the monosodium salt dihydrate form as the antisyphilitic drug atoxyl. Examples of complexes with this acid are rare. The structures of the alkaline earth metal (Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) complexes with (4-aminophenyl)arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid) have been determined, viz. hexaaquamagnesium bis[hydrogen (4-aminophenyl)arsonate] tetrahydrate, [Mg(H2O)6](C6H7AsNO3)·4H2O, (I), catena-poly[[[diaquacalcium]-bis[μ2-hydrogen (4-aminophenyl)arsonato-κ(2)O:O']-[diaquacalcium]-bis[μ2-hydrogen (4-aminophenyl)arsonato-κ(2)O:O]] dihydrate], {[Ca(C6H7AsNO3)2(H2O)2]·2H2O}n, (II), catena-poly[[triaquastrontium]-bis[μ2-hydrogen (4-aminophenyl)arsonato-κ(2)O:O']], [Sr(C6H7AsNO3)2(H2O)3]n, (III), and catena-poly[[triaquabarium]-bis[μ2-hydrogen (4-aminophenyl)arsonato-κ(2)O:O']], [Ba(C6H7AsNO3)2(H2O)3]n, (IV)...
January 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030951/wide-scope-screening-method-for-multiclass-veterinary-drug-residues-in-fish-shrimp-and-eel-using-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#14
Sherri B Turnipseed, Joseph M Storey, Jack J Lohne, Wendy Cook Andersen, Robert Burger, Aaron S Johnson, Mark R Madson
A screening method for veterinary drug residues in fish, shrimp and eel using LC with a high resolution MS instrument has been developed and validated. The method was optimized for over 70 test compounds representing a variety of veterinary drug classes. Tissues were extracted by vortex mixing with acetonitrile acidified with 2% acetic acid and 0.2% p-toluene sulfonic acid. A centrifuged portion of the extract was passed through a novel solid phase extraction cartridge designed to remove interfering matrix components from tissue extracts...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012630/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-bovine-salmonella-enterica-isolates-submitted-to-the-wisconsin-veterinary-diagnostic-laboratory-2006-2015
#15
J R Valenzuela, A K Sethi, N A Aulik, K P Poulsen
Salmonellosis on the dairy continues to have a significant effect on animal health and productivity and in the United States. Additionally, Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica causes an estimated 1.2 million cases of human illness annually. Contributing to the morbidity and mortality in both human and domestic animal species is emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Salmonella species and increased incidence of multidrug-resistant isolates. This study describes serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns for various Salmonella serotypes isolated from bovine samples submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVDL) over the past 10 yr...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012308/development-of-a-multi-residue-method-for-the-determination-of-human-and-veterinary-pharmaceuticals-and-some-of-their-metabolites-in-aqueous-environmental-matrices-by-spe-uhplc-ms-ms
#16
P Paíga, L H M L M Santos, C Delerue-Matos
The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a multi-residue method for the analysis of 33 human and veterinary pharmaceuticals (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)/analgesics, antibiotics and psychiatric drugs), including some of their metabolites, in several aqueous environmental matrices: drinking water, surface water and wastewaters. The method is based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and it was validated for different aqueous matrices, namely bottled water, tap water, seawater, river water and wastewaters, showing recoveries between 50% and 112% for the majority of the target analytes...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011407/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-the-watercourses-of-elbe-basin-in-czech-republic
#17
Petr Marsik, Jan Rezek, Monika Židková, Barbora Kramulová, Jan Tauchen, Tomáš Vaněk
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) belong to most used pharmaceuticals in the human and veterinary medicine. The widespread consumption of NSAIDs has led to their ubiquitous occurrence in water environment including large river systems. In the present study, concentrations of the five most frequently used NSAIDs (ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen, ketoprofen and indomethacin) were determined in the watercourses of the river Elbe basin in Czech Republic. The presence of the pharmaceuticals was measured at 29 sampling sites including urban and rural areas, small creeks and main tributaries of the Elbe monthly from April to December of 2011...
December 14, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010905/an-investigation-of-antimicrobial-usage-patterns-by-small-animal-veterinarians-in-south-africa
#18
John K Chipangura, Hayley Eagar, Marcia Kgoete, Darrell Abernethy, Vinny Naidoo
AIM: At present very little information is available on antimicrobial use patterns in small animal veterinary practice in South Africa. The aim of this study was firstly to provide some indication of antimicrobial use patterns, and secondly to ascertain if the country's small animal veterinarians make use of prudent use guidelines to optimise their antimicrobial use in order to minimise the development of antimicrobial resistance. METHODOLOGY: In order to understand use patterns, a questionnaire was circulated to registered South African veterinarians, whose responses were evaluated by descriptive statistics...
January 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007369/pentobarbital-in-the-context-of-possible-suicides-analysis-of-a-case
#19
Paula Melo, Pedro Costa, Maria José Quintas, André Castro, Sónia Tarelho, João Miguel Franco, Helena M Teixeira
Pentobarbital is a barbiturate, acting as a central nervous system depressant (CNS), being used for its anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic and anaesthetic properties. Barbiturates were replaced by benzodiazepines, leading to a decrease in poisoning cases with these compounds. However, pentobarbital is still used in many countries as an anaesthetic in veterinary medicine. Due to its properties, this compound is sought after by people who wish to commit suicide, acquiring it on the black market. The authors present an unusual fatal pentobarbital intoxication case, in a 37 years-old male salesperson, with no known connection with the veterinary field, being more difficult to obtain this compound...
December 8, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001497/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-quinocetone-in-pigs-and-extrapolation-to-mequindox
#20
Xudong Zhu, Lingli Huang, Yamei Xu, Shuyu Xie, Yuanhu Pan, Dongmei Chen, Zhenli Liu, Zonghui Yuan
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are scientific methods used to predict veterinary drug residues that may occur in food-producing animals, and which have powerful extrapolation ability. Quinocetone (QCT) and mequindox (MEQ) are widely used in China for the prevention of bacterial infections and promoting animal growth, but their abuse causes a potential threat to human health. In this study, a flow-limited PBPK model was developed to simulate simultaneously residue depletion of QCT and its marker residue dideoxyquinocetone (DQCT) in pigs...
February 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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