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Veterinary drug

Marike Visser, Seth C Oster
Lack of species-specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data is a challenge for pharmaceutical and dose selection. If available, dose extrapolation can be accomplished via basic equations. If unavailable, several methods have been described. Linear scaling uses an established milligrams per kilograms dose based on weight. This does not allow for differences in species drug metabolism, sometimes resulting in toxicity. Allometric scaling correlates body weight and metabolic rate but fails for drugs with significant hepatic metabolism and cannot be extrapolated to avians or reptiles...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Marike Visser
Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) publications provide scientific evidence for incorporation in evidence-based veterinary medicine, aiding the clinician in selecting doses and dosing intervals. PK and PD studies have reported wide variations within exotic species, due to physiologic differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. PK studies offer species-specific data to help tailor doses and dosing routes to individual patients, minimize toxicity, and provide a cornerstone for PD studies to determine drug efficacy...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Chansik Kim, Hong-Duck Ryu, Eu Gene Chung, Yongseok Kim, Jae-Kwan Lee
Medically important (MI) antibiotics are defined by the United States Food and Drug Administration as drugs containing certain active antimicrobial ingredients that are used for the treatment of human diseases or enteric pathogens causing food-borne diseases. The presence of MI antibiotic residues in environmental water is a major concern for both aquatic ecosystems and public health, particularly because of their potential to contribute to the development of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. In this article, we present a review of global trends in the sales of veterinary MI antibiotics and the analytical methodologies used for the simultaneous determination of antibiotic residues in environmental water...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Carlos Valdes, Gonzalo Bustos, Jose L Martinez, Claudio Laurido
Pain is a sensory experience of a complex physiological nature in which is not only involved the nervous system. Among its many features is the development of chronic pain that is more complicated to treat because of the central somatization processes involved, becoming inefficient treatments used in other forms of pain. Among them is the role of glial cells, whose participation is such that some authors have proposed to chronic pain as a gliopathy. Because of this, the drug target of possible treatments focuses on modulating nociceptive response affecting transduction into the central nervous system through affecting synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord...
2018: PloS One
Ziyan Wei, Jinhua Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Jun Wang, Guodong Zhu
Enrofloxacin (EFX) is one of the most frequently used broad-spectrum veterinary drugs, and copper (Cu) is a heavy metal that could easily bind to certain antibiotic molecules. Hence EFX and Cu were chosen as representatives of antibiotics and heavy metals to explore the abundance and variation of soil microbial populations with a plate-counting technique, as well as the copy numbers of amoA gene in ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) by quantitative PCR methods in Argosols samples...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Iman Dandachi, Elie S Sokhn, Elias A Dahdouh, Eid Azar, Bassel El-Bazzal, Jean-Marc Rolain, Ziad Daoud
Currently, antimicrobial resistance is one of the most prominent public health issues. In fact, there is increasing evidence that animals constitute a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance. In collaboration with the Lebanese Ministry of Agriculture, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal carriage of multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative Bacilli in poultry farms at the national level. Between August and December 2015, 981 fecal swabs were obtained from 49 poultry farms distributed across Lebanon...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Qijing Zhang, Jianzhong Shen
Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and has become increasingly resistant to clinically important antimicrobials. To cope with the selection pressure from antimicrobial use in both veterinary and human medicine, Campylobacter has developed multiple mechanisms for antibiotic resistance, including modification or mutation of antimicrobial targets, modification or inactivation of antibiotics, and reduced drug accumulation by drug efflux pumps. Some of these mechanisms confer resistance to a specific class of antimicrobials, while others give rise to multidrug resistance...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Zhanna Polova, Lyudmyla Almakayeva, Tetiana Nehoda
The goal of the present study was to develop a new intramammary combination preparation for veterinary use based on silver citrate, arginine and dexpanthenol for the treatment and prophylaxis of subclinical mastitis in cattle. When creating combined medicines for veterinary use, attention must be paid to the factors that influence their stability in a combined presence, and the composition of drugs, as well as the technology for their preparation should be determined. In the current study, a qualitative and quantitative control of model mixtures of active ingredients, as well as of a silver citrate-based combined preparation was carried out...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
Fang-Fei Zhu, Juan Peng, Zhen Huang, Li-Ming Hu, Gang-Gang Zhang, Dao-Feng Liu, Ke-Yu Xing, Kai-Yi Zhang, Wei-Hua Lai
Amantadine (AMD), a banned antiviral veterinary drug, is still being abused. This study developed a novel enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the colorimetric detection of AMD involving DNA hybridization reaction and non-crosslinking gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) aggregation. Accordingly, the Primer 1-AuNPs-anti-AMD monoclonal antibody (mAb) could be captured by AMD artificial antigen on ELISA wells. Primer 2, which was complementary paired to Primer 1, was eventually added into the ELISA wells. After the hybridization reaction, the free Primer 2 in the supernatant was mixed with AuNPs and NaCl and induced a rapid color change of AuNPs...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Juan Li, Xueling Ren, Yanyan Diao, Yu Chen, Qingli Wang, Wenting Jin, Piao Zhou, Qiqi Fan, Yanbing Zhang, Hongmin Liu
The aim of this work was to develop a simple and rapid analytical method for the simultaneous determination of a wide range of drug residues in milk by UHPLC-MS/MS. A total of 25 typical veterinary drugs investigated belong to six families including β-lactams, quinolones, β-agonists, phenicols, glucocorticoids and nitrofurans. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile and defatted with n-hexane twice. Electrospray ionization and positive/negative polarity switching were utilized for the analysis of 25 veterinary drugs in a single chromatographic run...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
R Peter, C Müntener, D Demuth, D Heim, F Stucki, M Mevissen, C Gerspach, M Kaske, A Steiner, M Meylan, M Bodmer, G Schüpbach-Regula, M Feldmann, H Naegeli
The administration of antibiotics in livestock has been criticized for many years, in particular because of an inappropriate use and the appearance of antibiotic residues in the environment, which can promote the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. However, antibiotics are essential for the successful and sustainable control of bacterial pathogens. With the aim of optimizing the use of antibiotics in food animals and minimizing the prevalence of resistant bacteria, AntibioticScout. ch provides a decision aid for the prudent use of antimicrobial drugs...
April 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Ts R Balabekyan, K J Karapetyan, T V Khachatryan, G E Khachatryan, S Sh Tatikyan
Use of antimicrobials in both human and animal populations over the past several decades has led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria populations that are resistant to many commercially available drugs. For example, acquired resistance to first-line antimicrobial agents increasingly complicates the management of extra-intestinal infections due to Escherichia coli, which are a major source of illness and death. The continued development of new classes of natural antimicrobial agents, possessing antibacterial activity, has become of increasing importance for medicine and veterinary...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Annette N Smith, Shawna Klahn, Brenda Phillips, Lisa Parshley, Peter Bennett, Andi Flory, Rosemary Calderon
The purpose of this report is to offer a consensus opinion of ACVIM oncology diplomates and technicians on the safe use of cytotoxic chemotherapeutics in veterinary practice. The focus is on minimizing harm to the personnel exposed to the drugs: veterinary practitioners, veterinary technicians, veterinary staff, and pet owners. The safety of the patient receiving these drugs is also of paramount importance, but is not addressed in this statement. Much of the information presented is based on national recommendations by Occupational Safety and Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, United States Pharmacopeia, and other published regulations...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
J Fuchs, A Moritz, E Grußendorf, J Lechner, F Neuerer, R Nickel, T Rieker, C Schwedes, D B DeNicola, J Russell, N Bauer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the proportion of blood samples diagnosed with reticulocytosis without anaemia in cats and dogs and report the aetiology and mortality rate of affected animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective multicentre study including haematological examination of 3956 cats and 11,087 dogs admitted to seven German veterinary clinics (2012 to 2014). The proportion of blood samples with reticulocytosis without anaemia was calculated, and after exclusion of multiple measurements of the same animal, clinical data were evaluated...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Pedro Jose Guzmán Ramos, Cristina Fernández Pérez, Tania Ayllón Santiago, M Rosario Baquero Artigao, Gustavo Ortiz-Díez
BACKGROUND: Infection rate associated with intravenous (IV) catheter placement is emerging as an important issue in small animal veterinary medicine, mostly because of the economic costs associated with these infections. Identification of possible associated factors may provide useful information for the surveillance and prevention of such infections. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of positive bacterial cultures obtained from IV catheters used in dogs hospitalized for at least 48 hours and removed because of clinical complication...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Mostafa Zamanian, Daniel E Cook, Stefan Zdraljevic, Shannon C Brady, Daehan Lee, Junho Lee, Erik C Andersen
Parasitic nematodes impose a debilitating health and economic burden across much of the world. Nematode resistance to anthelmintic drugs threatens parasite control efforts in both human and veterinary medicine. Despite this threat, the genetic landscape of potential resistance mechanisms to these critical drugs remains largely unexplored. Here, we exploit natural variation in the model nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control sensitivity to benzimidazoles widely used in human and animal medicine...
March 30, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Christian Stutzer, Sabine A Richards, Mariette Ferreira, Samantha Baron, Christine Maritz-Olivier
Eukaryotic parasites and pathogens continue to cause some of the most detrimental and difficult to treat diseases (or disease states) in both humans and animals, while also continuously expanding into non-endemic countries. Combined with the ever growing number of reports on drug-resistance and the lack of effective treatment programs for many metazoan diseases, the impact that these organisms will have on quality of life remain a global challenge. Vaccination as an effective prophylactic treatment has been demonstrated for well over 200 years for bacterial and viral diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Limian Zhao, Derick Lucas, David Long, Bruce Richter, Joan Stevens
This study presents the development and validation of a quantitation method for the analysis of multi-class, multi-residue veterinary drugs using lipid removal cleanup cartridges, enhanced matrix removal lipid (EMR-Lipid), for different meat matrices by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection. Meat samples were extracted using a two-step solid-liquid extraction followed by pass-through sample cleanup. The method was optimized based on the buffer and solvent composition, solvent additive additions, and EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Michael Worboys, Elizabeth Toon
In this article we explore the different trajectories of this one drug, phenylbutazone, across two species, humans and horses in the period 1950-2000. The essay begins by following the introduction of the drug into human medicine in the early 1950s. It promised to be a less costly alternative to cortisone, one of the "wonder drugs" of the era, in the treatment of rheumatic conditions. Both drugs appeared to offer symptomatic relief rather than a cure, and did so with the risk of side effects, which with phenylbutazone were potentially so severe that it was eventually banned from human use, for all but a few diseases, in the early 1980s...
March 26, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Meiyu Zhang, Erfen Li, Yijuan Su, Xuqin Song, Jingmeng Xie, Yingxia Zhang, Limin He
Seven drugs from different classes, namely, fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin), sulfonamides (sulfadimidine, sulfamonomethoxine) and macrolides (tilmicosin, tylosin), were used as test compounds in chickens by oral administration, a simple extraction step after cryogenic freezing might allow the effective extraction of multi-class veterinary drug residues from minced chicken muscles by mix vortexing. On basis of the optimized freeze-thaw approach, a convenient, selective and reproducible liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
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