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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066108/neuroprotective-effect-of-celastrus-paniculatus-on-chronic-stress-induced-cognitive-impairment
#1
V Bhagya, Thomas Christofer, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
OBJECTIVE: Several studies report that chronic stress results in impaired spatial learning and working memory and enhanced anxiety-like behavior. However, not many studies have looked into the possible ways of reversing stress-induced deficits. Celastrus paniculatus (CP), a traditional ayurvedic herbal medicine, was used to treat cognitive deficits in mentally retarded children. CP oil has been reported to have neuroprotective and antioxidant activities. However, the effects of CP oil on chronic stress-induced cognitive deficits are unclear...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059932/a-developmental-perspective-on-social-cognition-difficulties-in-youth-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#2
Sarah Hope Lincoln, Emily M Norkett, Katherine H Frost, Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich, Eugene J D'Angelo
After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Evaluate the evolution of social cognitive abilities as a developmental process• Assess the evidence regarding social cognition difficulties in youth at clinical high risk for psychosisIndividuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis exhibit a broad range of difficulties, including impaired social cognition, which may represent a target for early identification and intervention. Several studies have examined various domains of social cognition in CHR individuals...
January 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006998/supraventricular-tachycardia-during-the-first-year-of-life-is-subclinical-inflammation-the-trigger
#3
P P Bassareo, V Fanos, M Pala, L Antonucci, P Neroni, R Antonucci, G Mercuro
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and red cell distribution width (RDW) may be associated with the onset of arrhythmias in adults, thus underlining a possible inflammatory etiology. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is the most frequent pathological tachycardia in childhood. AIMS: To verify NLR and RDW levels in a group of children (<1 year) affected by SVT with a structurally normal heart and without fever nor inflammatory diseases; to compare NLR and RDW before and after SVT resolution, to verify whether the latter was related with the reduction in inflammatory state; to identify -in SVT subtypes caused by a re-entry mechanism- an NLR and RDW cut-off point beyond which adenosine was ineffective in preventing SVT recurrence...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995009/therapeutic-effects-of-electrical-stimulation-on-overactive-bladder-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
De Ting Zhu, Xiao Jun Feng, Yun Zhou, Jian Xian Wu
BACKGROUND: To systematically evaluate the therapeutic effect of electrical stimulation (ES) on overactive bladder (OB). METHOD: We retrieved information by searching databases from PubMed, CBM-disc, The Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect (from Elsevier publishers) and Springer publishers up to March 2016. We looked for randomized controlled trials that studied ES in OB treatment with subject headings and keywords using literature searches and manual retrieval. References of included studies were reviewed...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951734/caregiver-mental-health-and-hiv-infected-child-wellness-perspectives-from-ugandan-caregivers
#5
S M Murray, I Familiar, N Nakasujja, P J Winch, J J Gallo, R Opoka, J O Caesar, M J Boivin, J K Bass
Prior studies indicate a substantial link between maternal depression and early child health but give limited consideration to the direction of this relationship or the context in which it occurs. We sought to create a contextually informed conceptual framework of this relationship through semi-structured interviews with women that had lived experience of caring for an HIV-infected child while coping with depression and anxiety symptoms. Caregivers explained their role in raising healthy children as complex and complicated by poverty, stigma, and isolation...
December 13, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943261/efavirenz-or-nevirapine-in-three-drug-combination-therapy-with-two-nucleoside-or-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-for-initial-treatment-of-hiv-infection-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals
#6
REVIEW
Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Sara Mursleen, James H Irlam, Alicen B Spaulding, George W Rutherford, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the morbidity and mortality due to HIV infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines focus on three classes of antiretroviral drugs, namely nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and protease inhibitors. Two of the most common medications given as first-line treatment are the NNRTIs, efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP)...
10, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910235/the-impact-of-caregiver-mediated-jasper-on-child-restricted-and-repetitive-behaviors-and-caregiver-responses
#7
Clare Harrop, Amanda Gulsrud, Wendy Shih, Lilit Hovsepyan, Connie Kasari
Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Compared to the social-communication impairments children show, we know less about why children engage in these repetitive actions and behaviors and how to help children (and their caregivers) with these behaviors. As a result, early intervention has typically focused on social-communication. In this study, we were interested in understanding how child RRBs changed following an intervention that targeted social-communication behaviors and if the training caregivers received changed how they responded to their child's RRBs...
December 2, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907072/carers-medication-administration-errors-in-the-domiciliary-setting-a-systematic-review
#8
Anam Parand, Sara Garfield, Charles Vincent, Bryony Dean Franklin
PURPOSE: Medications are mostly taken in patients' own homes, increasingly administered by carers, yet studies of medication safety have been largely conducted in the hospital setting. We aimed to review studies of how carers cause and/or prevent medication administration errors (MAEs) within the patient's home; to identify types, prevalence and causes of these MAEs and any interventions to prevent them. METHODS: A narrative systematic review of literature published between 1 Jan 1946 and 23 Sep 2013 was carried out across the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, COCHRANE and CINAHL...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891819/autism-and-emotional-face-viewing
#9
Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Daniel Hovey, Nicole Zürcher, Loyse Hippolyte, Eric Lemonnier, Christopher Gillberg, Nouchine Hadjikhani
Atypical patterns of face-scanning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may contribute to difficulties in social interactions, but there is little agreement regarding what exactly characterizes face-viewing in ASD. In addition, little research has examined how face-viewing is modulated by the emotional expression of the stimuli, in individuals with or without ASD. We used eye-tracking to explore viewing patterns during perception of dynamic emotional facial expressions in relatively large groups of individuals with (n = 57) and without ASD (n = 58) and examined diagnostic- and age-related effects, after subgrouping children and adolescents (≤18 years), on the one hand, and adults (>18 years), on the other...
November 28, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875942/a-combined-study-of-meg-and-pico-tesla-tms-on-children-with-autism-disorder
#10
Photios Anninos, Athanasios Chatzimichael, Adam Adamopoulos, Athanasia Kotini, Nicolaos Tsagas
Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from the brain of 10 children with autism (6 boys and 4 girls, with ages range from 5-12 years, mean[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]SD: 8.3[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]2.1) were obtained using a whole-head 122-channel MEG system in a magnetically shielded room of low magnetic noise. A double-blind experimental design was used in order to look for possible effect of external pico-Tesla Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (pT-TMS)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865539/meta-analysis-of-prevalence-of-wheezing-and-recurrent-wheezing-in-infants
#11
I Alvarez-Alvarez, H Niu, F Guillen-Grima, I Aguinaga-Ontoso
BACKGROUND: Wheezing affects children's quality of life, and is related with asthma in childhood. Although prevalence of wheezing has been previously studied in several countries, there is no reference of worldwide prevalence in infants. The aim of this meta-analysis is to estimate the prevalence of wheezing and recurrent wheezing in infants aged up to two years, and compare the prevalence across world regions. METHODS: Literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases, looking for observational studies published up to June 2016, including as keywords "prevalence" or "epidemiology" combined with "wheeze", "wheezing" or "asthma symptoms" and "infant" or "preschool"...
November 16, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836009/how-can-we-optimise-inhaled-beta2-agonist-dose-as-reliever-medicine-for-wheezy-pre-school-children-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Somnath Mukhopadhyay, Paul Seddon, Gemma Earl, Emma Wileman, Liz Symes, Cathy Olden, Corinne Alberti, Stephen Bremner, Alison Lansley, Colin N A Palmer, Nicole Beydon
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common problem in children and, if inadequately controlled, may seriously diminish their quality of life. Inhaled short-acting beta2 agonists such as salbutamol are usually prescribed as 'reliever' medication to help control day-to-day symptoms such as wheeze. As with many medications currently prescribed for younger children (defined as those aged 2 years 6 months to 6 years 11 months), there has been no pre-licensing age-specific pharmacological testing; consequently, the doses currently prescribed (200-1000 μg) may be ineffective or likely to induce unnecessary side effects...
November 11, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812862/not-seeing-is-believing-the-role-of-invisibility-in-human-lives
#13
Koji Komatsu
Our life is full of invisibility that exerts power on our acts, relationships, and construction of the self. This paper discusses psychological processes in which invisibility plays an essential role, and constructs a typology of invisibility in society and in our lives. After a brief look at the crucial role of invisibility in prevailing theories of psychology, I first show how invisibility works in children's meaning constructions, the process in which their selves become clear for observers (the presentational self, Komatsu 2010)...
November 3, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753766/impact-of-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-conjugate-vaccines-on-nasopharyngeal-carriage-in-hiv-infected-children-and-their-parents-from-west-bengal-india
#14
Bikas K Arya, Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, Subhasish Bhattacharyya, Sunil Hemram, William J Moss, Samiran Panda, Ranjan Saurav Das, Sutapa Mandal, Dennis Robert, Pampa Ray
BACKGROUND: In addition to reducing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in vaccinated individuals, the Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) has indirect effects; it reduces Hib disease in unvaccinated individuals by decreasing carriage. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children are at increased risk for Hib disease and live in families where multiple members may have HIV. The aim of this study is to look at the impact of 2 doses of the HibCV on nasopharyngeal carriage of Hib in HIV-infected Indian children (2-15 years) and the indirect impact on carriage in their parents...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727430/withdrawn-day-care-for-pre-school-children
#15
REVIEW
Bozhena Zoritch, Ian Roberts, Ann Oakley
BACKGROUND: The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727030/immunisation-practices-in-centres-caring-for-children-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-a-call-for-harmonisation
#16
Alasdair Bamford, Emma C Manno, Maria Jose Mellado, Vana Spoulou, Laura Marques, Henriette J Scherpbier, Tim Niehues, Agnieszka Oldakowska, Paolo Rossi, Paolo Palma
BACKGROUND: Current national immunisation schedules differ between countries in terms of vaccine formulation, timing of vaccinations and immunisation programme funding and co-ordination. As a result, some HIV infected paediatric population may be left susceptible to vaccine preventable infections. Vaccines used in healthy population should be subjected to high quality ethical research and be explicitly validated for use in children with special vaccination needs such as those infected with HIV...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723907/ultrasonography-for-acute-appendicitis-the-way-it-looks-today
#17
B Lembcke
Despite sophisticated physical examination and laboratory support, diagnosis of acute appendicitis remained challenging in clinical practice with a negative appendectomy rate of 15 - 30 %. As a remarkable clue and as early as 1986, ultrasonography (US) has been proven a reliable diagnostic method that is also explicitly helpful in difficult cases with atypical presentation and enables to rule out many differential diagnoses.Recent publications emphasized the role of multidetector computed tomography (CT) resulting in a significant reduction of false negative findings at operation...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697406/diagnostic-value-of-ultrasonography-in-elbow-trauma-in-children-prospective-study-of-34-cases
#18
M Burnier, G Buisson, A Ricard, V Cunin, J P Pracros, F Chotel
INTRODUCTION: Among the various elbow injuries in children that initially have normal radiographs, a certain number of occult fractures are only diagnosed correctly after the fact, during a follow-up visit. PURPOSE: This study evaluated the diagnostic contribution of ultrasonography in the treatment of acute elbow injuries in children and the strategic and economic impact of using this tool alongside radiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During this prospective study performed between January 1 and April 1 2014, elbow ultrasonography was performed within 6 days in all children under 15 years of age with a suspected occult fracture...
September 30, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687330/delayed-obstruction-with-asymptomatic-loss-of-renal-function-after-dextranomer-hyaluronic-acid-copolymer-deflux-injection-for-vesicoureteral-reflux-a-close-look-at-a-disturbing-outcome
#19
Dimitri Papagiannopoulos, Ilina Rosoklija, Earl Cheng, Elizabeth Yerkes
Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) first received Food and Drug Administration approval in 2001 for endoscopic injection in children with grade II-IV vesicoureteral reflux VUR. As experience has grown, Deflux has been used more liberally with encouraging results. We report 3 cases where Deflux was used in off-label fashion, resulting in delayed ureteral obstruction and loss of renal function (range 18-52 months postoperatively). We now place increased emphasis on the need for long-term follow-up after Deflux in both routine and complex cases, particularly in situations of off-label use...
September 26, 2016: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659826/supratentorial-tumors-typical-of-the-infantile-age-desmoplastic-infantile-ganglioglioma-dig-and-astrocytoma-dia-a-review
#20
F Bianchi, G Tamburrini, L Massimi, M Caldarelli
OBJECT: Desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIGs) and desmoplastic infantile astrocytomas (DIAs) are tumors typical of the infantile age. A large size, with a mixed solid and cystic component, clinical presentation with progressing signs of increased intracranial pressure, a prominent benign desmoplastic structure at histological examination, and a favorable clinical course in the majority of cases are the prominent features of these tumors. The objective of the present paper was to review the pertinent literature on the topic together with our personal experience, with the aim of an updated review of the subject...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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