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Looked after children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636664/looking-at-paintings-in-the-vincent-van-gogh-museum-eye-movement-patterns-of-children-and-adults
#1
Francesco Walker, Berno Bucker, Nicola C Anderson, Daniel Schreij, Jan Theeuwes
In the present study, we examined the eye movement behaviour of children and adults looking at five Van Gogh paintings in the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. The goal of the study was to determine the role of top-down and bottom-up attentional processes in the first stages of participants' aesthetic experience. Bottom-up processes were quantified by determining a salience map for each painting. Top-down processing was manipulated by first allowing participants to view the paintings freely, then providing background information about each painting, and then allowing them to view the paintings a second time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626438/sensitivity-to-stroke-emerges-in-kindergartners-reading-chinese-script
#2
Su Li, Li Yin
To what extent are young children sensitive to individual stroke, the smallest unit of writing in Chinese that carries no phonological or semantic information? The present study examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to stroke and the contribution of reading ability and age to stroke sensitivity. Fifty five children from Beijing, including 28 4-year-olds (Mage = 4.55 years, SD = 0.28, 16 males) and 29 5-year-olds (Mage = 5.58 years, SD = 0.30, 14 males), were administered an orthographic matching task and assessed on non-verbal IQ and Chinese word reading...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593633/a-sequence-analysis-of-patterns-in-self-harm-in-young-people-with-and-without-experience-of-being-looked-after-in-care
#3
Ruth Wadman, David Clarke, Kapil Sayal, Marie Armstrong, Caroline Harroe, Pallab Majumder, Panos Vostanis, Ellen Townsend
OBJECTIVES: Young people in the public care system ('looked-after' young people) have high levels of self-harm. DESIGN: This paper reports the first detailed study of factors leading to self-harm over time in looked-after young people in England, using sequence analyses of the Card Sort Task for Self-harm (CaTS). METHODS: Young people in care (looked-after group: n = 24; 14-21 years) and young people who had never been in care (contrast group: n = 21; 13-21 years) completed the CaTS, describing sequences of factors leading to their first and most recent episodes of self-harm...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593052/scaling-up-contraceptives-use-in-the-division-with-lowest-contraceptives-use-in-bangladesh-sources-methods-and-determinants
#4
Gulam Muhammed Al Kibria, Vanessa Burrowes, Sharmin Majumder, Atia Sharmeen, Rifath Ara Alam Barsha, Shakir Hossen
BACKGROUND: Total fertility rate (TFR) is high and at a static level for the last two decades in Bangladesh. Reduction of fertility by increasing contraceptives use could reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. To achieve the targeted contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) of Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) Initiative, it is important to increase CPR in all regions of the country. However, it is lower in Sylhet Division compared to other divisions in Bangladesh. This study looked into the methods, source and determinants of contraceptives use in this division...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574464/interventions-aimed-at-the-prevention-of-childhood-injuries-in-the-indigenous-populations-in-canada-australia-and-new-zealand-in-the-last-20-years-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Alyssa Margeson, Selena Gray
Globally, Indigenous children are found to be at a significantly higher risk of injury compared to non-Indigenous children. It has been suggested that mainstream injury prevention strategies are ineffective within Indigenous communities. The aim of this review is to identify existing interventions aimed at preventing injury in Indigenous children in the hope that it guides future strategies. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no prior systematic reviews exist looking at interventions specifically aimed at preventing injury in Indigenous child populations in the three chosen countries...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567593/the-social-aptitudes-scale-looking-at-both-ends-of-the-social-functioning-dimension
#6
Luiza Kvitko Axelrud, Diogo Araújo DeSousa, Gisele Gus Manfro, Pedro Mario Pan, Ana Cláudia Knackfuss, Jair de Jesus Mari, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Luis Augusto Rohde, Giovanni Abrahão Salum
PURPOSE: Dimensional approaches are likely to advance understanding of human behaviors and emotions. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether instruments in psychiatry capture variability at the full spectrum of these dimensions. We aimed to investigate this issue for two scales assessing distinct aspects of social functioning: the Social Aptitudes Scale (SAS), a "bidirectional" scale constructed to investigate both "ends" of social functioning; and the social Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-social), a "unidirectional" scale constructed to assess social problems...
May 31, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567232/using-virtual-social-networks-for-case-finding-in-clinical-studies-an-experiment-from-adolescence-brain-cognition-and-diabetes-study
#7
Ata Pourabbasi, Jalal Farzami, Mahbubeh-Sadat Ebrahimnegad Shirvani, Amir Hossein Shams, Bagher Larijani
BACKGROUND: One of the main usages of social networks in clinical studies is facilitating the process of sampling and case finding for scientists. The main focus of this study is on comparing two different methods of sampling through phone calls and using social network, for study purposes. METHODS: One of the researchers started calling 214 families of children with diabetes during 90 days. After this period, phone calls stopped, and the team started communicating with families through telegram, a virtual social network for 30 days...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539007/videolaryngoscopy-versus-direct-laryngoscopy-for-tracheal-intubation-in-children-excluding-neonates
#8
REVIEW
Ibtihal S Abdelgadir, Robert S Phillips, Davinder Singh, Michael P Moncreiff, Joanne L Lumsden
BACKGROUND: Direct laryngoscopy is the method currently used for tracheal intubation in children. It occasionally offers unexpectedly poor laryngeal views. Indirect laryngoscopy involves visualizing the vocal cords by means other than obtaining a direct sight, with the potential to improve outcomes. We reviewed the current available literature and performed a meta-analysis to compare direct versus indirect laryngoscopy, or videolaryngoscopy, with regards to efficacy and adverse effects...
May 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536655/supporting-looked-after-children-and-care-leavers-in-decreasing-drugs-and-alcohol-solid-protocol-for-a-pilot-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial-of-interventions-to-decrease-risky-substance-use-drugs-and-alcohol-and-improve-mental-health-of-looked-after
#9
Hayley Alderson, Ruth McGovern, Rebecca Brown, Denise Howel, Frauke Becker, Louise Carr, Alex Copello, Tony Fouweather, Eileen Kaner, Paul McArdle, Elaine McColl, Janet Shucksmith, Alison Steele, Luke Vale, Raghu Lingam
BACKGROUND: Looked after children (LAC) and care leavers are young people who have been placed under the legal care of local authorities, in many instances due to a history of abuse and/or neglect. These young people have a significantly increased risk of substance use and mental disorder compared to their peers. The aim of the SOLID study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a definitive three-arm multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) that compares the effectiveness of two interventions that aim to reduce risky drug and alcohol use and improve mental health among LAC aged 12 to 20 years with usual care...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508011/mandated-health-insurance-and-provider-reimbursement-via-private-insurance-evidence-from-the-massachusetts-health-reform
#10
Andrew Friedson, Allison Marier
In 2006, Massachusetts passed a reform that required individuals to purchase health insurance and provided subsidized health insurance to low-income individuals. The US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was modeled after this reform, making Massachusetts an ideal place to look at potential outcomes from the ACA. Postreform, the proportion of the health-insured population in Massachusetts greatly increased, which potentially changed physician reimbursement for procedures as usage of care, particularly preventative care for children increased...
January 2017: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504866/a-short-report-on-current-fertility-preservation-strategies-for-boys
#11
Wei Li Cindy Ho, Harold Bourne, Debra Gook, Gary Clarke, Matthew Kemertzis, Kate Stern, Franca Agresta, Yves Heloury, Hannah Clarke, Lisa Orme, Michael Sullivan, Yasmin Jayasinghe, Margaret R Zacharin
BACKGROUND: Advances in cancer treatment have led to improved long term survival after childhood cancer, but often at a price of impaired future fertility. Fertility Preservation (FP) in male children and early adolescents poses unique challenges as efficacy is unproven. OBJECTIVES: To describe characteristics of testicular tissue cryopreservation (TTCP) specimens taken from paediatric and adolescent patients, stratified by age, and prior chemotherapy, if any, and to demonstrate evidence for germ cells MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of gonadal biopsies and clinical records of patients consented into the Royal Children's Hospital FP program between 1987-2015...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492405/a-case-control-analysis-of-postoperative-fluid-balance-and-mortality-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#12
Meth R Delpachitra, Siva P Namachivayam, Johnny Millar, Carmel Delzoppo, Warwick W Butt
OBJECTIVES: A positive fluid balance after cardiac surgery may be associated with poor outcomes; however, previous studies looking at this association have been limited by the number of deaths in the study population. Our primary aim was to determine the relationship between postoperative cumulative fluid balance and mortality in cardiac surgical patients. Secondary aims were to study the association between fluid balance and duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care and hospital length of stay...
May 10, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474389/developmental-functioning-and-medical-co-morbidity-profile-of-children-with-complex-and-essential-autism
#13
Jaimie Flor, Jayne Bellando, Maya Lopez, Amy Shui
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may be characterized as "complex" (those with microcephaly and/or dysmorphology) or "essential" (those with neither of these two). Previous studies found subjects in the complex group exhibited lower IQ scores, poorer response to behavioral intervention, more seizures and more abnormal EEGs and brain MRIs compared to the essential group. The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in complex versus essential subjects based on several developmental/psychological measures as well as certain medical comorbidities...
May 5, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470384/first-60-fetal-in-utero-myelomeningocele-repairs-at-saint-louis-fetal-care-institute-in-the-post-moms-trial-era-hydrocephalus-treatment-outcomes-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-versus-ventriculo-peritoneal-shunt
#14
Samer K Elbabaa, Anne M Gildehaus, Matthew J Pierson, J Andrew Albers, Emanuel J Vlastos
INTRODUCTION: The published results of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) trial in 2011 showed improved outcomes (reduced need for shunting, decreased incidence of Chiari II malformation, and improved scores of mental development and motor function) in the fetal prenatal repair group compared to the postnatal group. Historically, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) remains as a controversial hydrocephalus treatment option with high failure rates in pediatric patients with a history of myelomeningocele (MMC)...
May 3, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469589/experiences-of-loneliness-associated-with-being-an-informal-caregiver-a-qualitative-investigation
#15
Konstantina Vasileiou, Julie Barnett, Manuela Barreto, John Vines, Mark Atkinson, Shaun Lawson, Michael Wilson
Although providing care to a family member or friend may provide psychological benefits, informal (i.e., unpaid) caregivers also encounter difficulties which may negatively affect their quality of life as well as their mental and physical health. Loneliness is one important challenge that caregivers face, with this psychological state being associated with morbidity and premature mortality. Although previous research has identified loneliness as an issue associated with being an informal caregiver, there is a paucity of evidence that attempts to understand this phenomenon in depth...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466615/angiographic-embolization-in-pediatric-abdominal-trauma
#16
Yechiel Sweed, Jonathan Singer-Jordan, Sorin Papura, Norman Loberant, Alon Yulevich
BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Abdominal bleeding is one of the common causes of mortality due to trauma. Angiography and embolization are well recognized as the primary treatments in certain cases of acute traumatic hemorrhage in adults; however, evidence is lacking in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for blunt and penetrating abdominal and pelvic trauma in the pediatric age group...
November 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461021/pediatric-fontan-patients-are-at-risk-for-myocardial-fibrotic-remodeling-and-dysfunction
#17
Atsuko Kato, Eugénie Riesenkampff, Deane Yim, Shi-Joon Yoo, Mike Seed, Lars Grosse-Wortmann
BACKGROUND: Patients with single ventricle (SV) circulations are at risk for ventricular dysfunction. This study investigates whether there is evidence of increased myocardial fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction in children after the Fontan operation. METHODS: Consecutive children after the Fontan operation who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 relaxometry with a modified look-locker inversion recovery approach were included in this retrospective study...
April 22, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457940/road-to-the-future-priorities-for-child-health-services-research
#18
REVIEW
Gerry Fairbrother, Denise Dougherty, Rosina Pradhananga, Lisa A Simpson
BACKGROUND: Prior health services research (HSR) agendas for children have been published, but major ones are now over 15 years old and do not reflect augmented understanding of the drivers and determinants of children's health; recent changes in the organization, financing, and delivery of health care; a growing emphasis on population health; and major demographic shifts in the population. A policy-relevant research agenda that integrates knowledge gained over the past two decades is essential to guide future child HSR (CHSR)...
April 27, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444059/-anthropometric-profile-of-children-in-accordance-with-the-structure-of-daycare-centers
#19
Dixis Figueroa Pedraza
The scope of this article is to evaluate the structure of public daycare centers and the anthropometric profile of children in the city of Campina Grande in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. It is a cross-sectional study that involved 793 children attended in daycare centers. Information to describe the daycare centers were included (structure related to the capacity of demand and the processing power of school meals, reception system of children, location area) and the anthropometric status of the children (Height/Age, Weight/Height)...
April 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441935/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-influenza-vaccination
#20
Martin Eichner, Markus Schwehm, Linda Eichner, Laetitia Gerlier
BACKGROUND: After vaccination, vaccinees acquire some protection against infection and/or disease. Vaccination, therefore, reduces the number of infections in the population. Due to this herd protection, not everybody needs to be vaccinated to prevent infections from spreading. METHODS: We quantify direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccination examining the standard Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model as well as simulation results of a sophisticated simulation tool which allows for seasonal transmission of four influenza strains in a population with realistic demography and age-dependent contact patterns...
April 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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