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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784457/the-dynamic-role-of-dengue-cross-reactive-immunity-changing-the-approach-to-defining-vaccine-safety-and-efficacy
#1
REVIEW
Kathryn B Anderson, Timothy P Endy, Stephen J Thomas
Dengue virus infections cause a substantial public health burden in tropical and subtropical regions. A single dengue vaccine has been approved by regulatory authorities in 19 countries, but concerns regarding vaccine safety in people who are dengue naive at the time of immunisation has introduced uncertainty into the vaccine's future. As other dengue vaccines complete or enter large-scale efficacy trials, we argue that foundational work by Sabin, historic epidemiological observations of dengue outbreaks, and prospective cohort studies in Asia and the Americas indicate that modifications must be made to the methods of assessing dengue vaccines...
May 18, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773774/us-and-cuban-scientists-forge-collaboration-on-arbovirus-research
#2
Jorge Pérez-Ávila, Maria G Guzmán-Tirado, Jorge Fraga-Nodarse, Gray Handley, James Meegan, Jose L Pelegrino-Martínez de la Cotera, Anthony S Fauci
After December 17, 2014, when the US and Cuban governments announced their intent to restore relations, the two countries participated in various exchange activities in an effort to encourage cooperation in public health, health research and biomedical sciences. The conference entitled Exploring Opportunities for Arbovirus Research Collaboration, hosted at Havana's Hotel Nacional, was part of these efforts and was the first major US-Cuban scientific conference in over 50 years. Its purpose was to share information about current arbovirus research and recent findings, and to explore opportunities for future joint research...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772561/thyroid-cancer-phenotypes-in-relation-to-inflammation-and-autoimmunity
#3
Loredana Pagano, Chiara Mele, Maria Teresa Sama, Marco Zavattaro, Marina Caputo, Lucrezia De Marchi, Samuele Paggi, Flavia Prodam, Gianluca Aimaretti, Paolo Marzullo
Thyroid cancer represents the most frequent endocrine neoplasm and is epidemiologically linked to a growing incidence worldwide, which is only in part explained by the increased detection of small cancers in a preclinical stage. Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of well-differentiated thyroid cancers and poorly-differentiated thyroid cancers has prompted interest into the identification of crucial signaling pathways and molecular derangements related to genetic and epigenetic alterations. Increasing attention has been recently focused on inflammation and immunity as major culprit mechanisms involved in thyroid tumourigenesis, through the detection of activated immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as signal integrations between inflammatory and proliferative pathways within the thyroid tumour micro-environment...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760710/ionizing-radiation-induces-morphological-changes-and-immunological-modulation-of-jurkat-cells
#4
Patrick Voos, Sebastian Fuck, Fabian Weipert, Laura Babel, Dominique Tandl, Tobias Meckel, Stephanie Hehlgans, Claudia Fournier, Anna Moroni, Franz Rödel, Gerhard Thiel
Impairment or stimulation of the immune system by ionizing radiation (IR) impacts on immune surveillance of tumor cells and non-malignant cells and can either foster therapy response or side effects/toxicities of radiation therapy. For a better understanding of the mechanisms by which IR modulates T-cell activation and alters functional properties of these immune cells, we exposed human immortalized Jurkat cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to X-ray doses between 0.1 and 5 Gy. This resulted in cellular responses, which are typically observed also in naïve T-lymphocytes in response of T-cell receptor immune stimulation or mitogens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753416/acute-exposure-to-space-flight-results-in-evidence-of-reduced-lymph-transport-tissue-fluid-shifts-and-immune-alterations-in-the-rat-gastrointestinal-system
#5
W E Cromer, D C Zawieja
Space flight causes a number of alterations in physiological systems, changes in the immunological status of subjects, and altered interactions of the host to environmental stimuli. We studied the effect of space flight on the lymphatic system of the gastrointestinal tract which is responsible for lipid transport and immune surveillance which includes the host interaction with the gut microbiome. We found that there were signs of tissue damage present in the space flown animals that was lacking in ground controls (epithelial damage, crypt morphological changes, etc...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751789/mechanisms-of-immune-evasion-in-breast-cancer
#6
Joshua P Bates, Roshanak Derakhshandeh, Laundette Jones, Tonya J Webb
Tumors develop multiple mechanisms of immune evasion as they progress, with some cancer types being inherently better at 'hiding' than others. With an increased understanding of tumor immune surveillance, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment strategy for breast cancer, despite historically being thought of as an immunologically silent neoplasm. Some types of cancer, such as melanoma, bladder, and renal cell carcinoma, have demonstrated a durable response to immunotherapeutic intervention, however, breast neoplasms have not shown the same efficacy...
May 11, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713319/debunking-the-myth-of-exercise-induced-immune-suppression-redefining-the-impact-of-exercise-on-immunological-health-across-the-lifespan
#7
REVIEW
John P Campbell, James E Turner
Epidemiological evidence indicates that regular physical activity and/or frequent structured exercise reduces the incidence of many chronic diseases in older age, including communicable diseases such as viral and bacterial infections, as well as non-communicable diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammatory disorders. Despite the apparent health benefits achieved by leading an active lifestyle, which imply that regular physical activity and frequent exercise enhance immune competency and regulation, the effect of a single bout of exercise on immune function remains a controversial topic...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710479/antigen-adjuvant-effects-of-icariin-in-enhancing-tumor-specific-immunity-in-mastocytoma-bearing-dba-2j-mice
#8
Xiaodi Zhang, Zhichen Kang, Qingjie Li, Jin Zhang, Sha Cheng, Hao Chang, Shanshan Wang, Shufang Cao, Tie Li, Jiawei Li, Yishan Wang, Yu Song, Hao Yu
Cancer immunotherapy has attracted much attention in recent years because of the ability of immune system to identify tumor cells and limit their growth. Icariin (ICA) is a natural flavonoid glucoside isolated from Epimedium plants and has shown a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory effects, immunological regulation and anticancer potency. Furthermore, it has immunoadjuvant effects on enhancing Th1-immune response, suggesting that ICA may serve as an adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682375/myeloid-sarcoma-after-allogenic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia-successful-consolidation-treatment-approaches-in-two-patients
#9
Silje Johansen, Hilde Kollsete Gjelberg, Aymen Bushra Ahmed, Øystein Bruserud, Håkon Reikvam
Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary (EM) manifestation (i.e., manifestation outside the bone marrow) of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); it is assumed to be relatively uncommon and can be the only manifestation of leukemia relapse after allogenic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). An EM sarcoma can manifest in any part of the body, although preferentially manifesting in immunological sanctuary sites as a single or multiple tumors. The development of myeloid sarcoma after allo-SCT is associated with certain cytogenetic abnormalities, developing of graft versus host disease (GVHD), and treatment with donor lymphocytes infusion (DLI)...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675689/natural-killer-cells-in-liver-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Meijuan Zheng, Haoyu Sun, Zhigang Tian
The liver has been characterized as a frontline lymphoid organ with complex immunological features such as liver immunity and liver tolerance. Liver tolerance plays an important role in liver diseases including acute inflammation, chronic infection, autoimmune disease, and tumors. The liver contains a large proportion of natural killer (NK) cells, which exhibit heterogeneity in phenotypic and functional characteristics. NK cell activation, well known for its role in the immune surveillance against tumor and pathogen-infected cells, depends on the balance between numerous activating and inhibitory signals...
April 19, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652923/limited-immune-surveillance-in-lymphoid-tissue-by-cytolytic-cd4-t-cells-during-health-and-hiv-disease
#11
Marcus Buggert, Son Nguyen, Laura M McLane, Maria Steblyanko, Nadia Anikeeva, Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Perla M Del Rio Estrada, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Kajsa Noyan, Morgan A Reuter, Korey Demers, Johan Sandberg, Michael A Eller, Hendrik Streeck, Marianne Jansson, Piotr Nowak, Anders Sönnerborg, David H Canaday, Ali Naji, E John Wherry, Merlin Robb, Steven G Deeks, Gustavo Reyes-Teran, Yuri Sykulev, Annika C Karlsson, Michael R Betts
CD4+ T cells subsets have a wide range of important helper and regulatory functions in the immune system. Several studies have specifically suggested that circulating effector CD4+ T cells may play a direct role in control of HIV replication through cytolytic activity or autocrine β-chemokine production. However, it remains unclear whether effector CD4+ T cell populations expressing cytolytic molecules and β-chemokines are present within lymph nodes (LNs), a major site of HIV replication. Here, we report that expression of β-chemokines and cytolytic molecules are enriched within a CD4+ T cell population with high levels of the T-box transcription factors T-bet and eomesodermin (Eomes)...
April 13, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626519/polycomb-complex-protein-bmi1-confers-resistance-to-tamoxifen-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#12
Diane Ojo, Xiaozeng Lin, Ying Wu, Jessica Cockburn, Anita Bane, Damu Tang
We report that BMI1 promotes tamoxifen resistance in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (BC). BMI1 overexpression conferred MCF7 and TD47 cells resistance to tamoxifen; BMI1 knockdown sensitized the process. In MCF7-derived tamoxifen resistant cells, BMI1 expression was upregulated and BMI1 knockdown reduced the resistance. BMI1 is an oncogene; its oncogenic activity is attributed to BMI1-stimulated E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, a process that requires BMI1's ring finger (RF) domain. However, a BMI1 mutant without RF conferred tamoxifen resistance...
April 4, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621966/the-epidemiology-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-hiv-positive-patients-at-a-tertiary-care-university-hospital-in-central-europe-2011-2016
#13
Romana Klasinc, Armin Rieger, Elisabeth Presterl, Thomas Wrba, Magda Diab-Elschahawi
OBJECTIVES: There is limited published data concerning recent epidemiology of urinary tract infections (UTI) in HIV-patients, thus we analysed independent risk factors for UTI in HIV positive individuals and antimicrobial resistance rates of E. coli to antimicrobial agents commonly used in UTI. To determine the prevalence of symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) in HIV-patients we performed a retrospective case-control study. METHODS: We included 313 HIV-patients, 101 with UTI and 212 age and gender matched controls, attending the HIV outpatient clinic at the Vienna University hospital (VUH) over a period from January 2011 to September 2016...
April 5, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616012/establishment-of-a-molecular-serotyping-scheme-and-a-multiplexed-luminex-based-array-for-enterobacter-aerogenes
#14
Xi Guo, Min Wang, Lu Wang, Yao Wang, Tingting Chen, Pan Wu, Min Chen, Bin Liu, Lu Feng
Serotyping based on surface polysaccharide antigens is important for the clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of pathogens. Polysaccharide gene clusters (PSgcs) are typically responsible for the diversity of bacterial surface polysaccharides. Through whole-genome sequencing and analysis, eight putative PSgc types were identified in 23 Enterobacter aerogenes strains from several geographic areas, allowing us to present the first molecular serotyping system for E. aerogenes . A conventional antigenic scheme was also established and correlated well with the molecular serotyping system that was based on PSgc genetic variation, indicating that PSgc-based molecular typing and immunological serology provide equally valid results...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593027/t-cell-dysfunction-in-glioblastoma-applying-a-new-framework
#15
Karolina I Woroniecka, Kristen E Rhodin, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Kristin A Keith, Peter E Fecci
A functional, replete T cell repertoire is an integral component to adequate immune surveillance and to the initiation and maintenance of productive anti-tumor immune responses. Glioblastoma (GBM), however, is particularly adept at sabotaging anti-tumor immunity, eliciting severe T cell dysfunction that is both qualitative and quantitative. Understanding and countering such dysfunction are among the keys to harnessing the otherwise stark potential of anti-cancer immune-based therapies. While T cell dysfunction in GBM is long described, newer immunologic frameworks now exist for re-classifying T cell deficits in a manner that better permits their study and reversal...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566612/defeating-cancers-adaptive-defensive-strategies-using-thermal-therapies-examining-cancer-s-therapeutic-resistance-ablative-and-computational-modeling-strategies-as-a-means-for-improving-therapeutic-outcome
#16
John M Baust, Yoed Rabin, Thomas J Polascik, Kimberly L Santucci, Kristi K Snyder, Robert G Van Buskirk, John G Baust
BACKGROUND: Diverse thermal ablative therapies are currently in use for the treatment of cancer. Commonly applied with the intent to cure, these ablative therapies are providing promising success rates similar to and often exceeding "gold standard" approaches. Cancer-curing prospects may be enhanced by deeper understanding of thermal effects on cancer cells and the hosting tissue, including the molecular mechanisms of cancer cell mutations, which enable resistance to therapy...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542865/n-glycan-structures-of-human-alveoli-provide-insight-into-influenza-a-virus-infection-and-pathogenesis
#17
Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen, Shin-Ichi Nakakita, Sachiko Kondo, Hirokazu Yagi, Koichi Kato, Takeomi Murata, Hiroaki Hiramatsu, Toshio Kawahara, Yohei Watanabe, Yasushi Kanai, Takao Ono, Jun Hirabayashi, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Yasuo Suzuki
The rapidly evolvable influenza A virus has caused pandemics linked to millions of deaths in the past century. Influenza A viruses are categorized by H (hemagglutinin; HA) and N (neuraminidase; NA) proteins expressed on the viral envelope surface. Analyses of past pandemics suggest that the HA gene segment comes from a nonhuman virus, which is then introduced into an immunologically naïve human population with potentially devastating consequences. As a prerequisite for infection, the nonhuman HA molecules of H1-H16 viruses must be able to bind to specific sialyl receptors on the host cell surface along the human respiratory tract...
May 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528830/imaging-of-intestinal-and-multivisceral-transplantation
#18
Mitchell A Rees, Nikhil B Amesur, Ruy J Cruz, Amir A Borhani, Kareem M Abu-Elmagd, Guilherme Costa, Anil K Dasyam
Intestinal transplantation has evolved from its experimental origins in the mid-20th century to its status today as an established treatment option for patients with end-stage intestinal failure who cannot be sustained with total parenteral nutrition. The most common source of intestinal failure in both adults and children is short-bowel syndrome, but a host of other disease processes can lead to this common end-point. The development of intestinal transplantation has presented multiple hurdles for the transplant community, including technical challenges, immunologic pitfalls, and infectious complications...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499421/increased-risk-of-hematologic-malignancies-in-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders-opportunities-for-immunotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Dorit Verhoeven, Arie Jan Stoppelenburg, Friederike Meyer-Wentrup, Marianne Boes
Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) convey increased susceptibility to infections and sometimes to malignancies, particularly lymphomas. Such cancer development can be contributed by immune impairments resulting in weakened immunological surveillance against (pre)malignant cells and oncogenic viruses. Molecular defects in PID-patients are therefore being clarified, identifying new targets for innovative immunotherapy. Particularly pediatric cancers are being scrutinized, where over one-third of cancer-related deaths are accounted for by leukemia and lymphomas...
May 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496108/a-systematic-review-of-current-immunological-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-cattle-brucellosis
#20
REVIEW
Marie J Ducrotoy, Pilar M Muñoz, Raquel Conde-Álvarez, José M Blasco, Ignacio Moriyón
Brucellosis is a worldwide extended zoonosis with a heavy economic and public health impact. Cattle, sheep and goats are infected by smooth Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis, and represent a common source of the human disease. Brucellosis diagnosis in these animals is largely based on detection of a specific immunoresponse. We review here the immunological tests used for the diagnosis of cattle brucellosis. First, we discuss how the diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp), balance should be adjusted for brucellosis diagnosis, and the difficulties that brucellosis tests specifically present for the estimation of DSe/DSp in frequentistic (gold standard) and Bayesian analyses...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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