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immunological surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199317/colorimetric-tests-for-diagnosis-of-filarial-infection-and-vector-surveillance-using-non-instrumented-nucleic-acid-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-nina-lamp
#1
Catherine B Poole, Zhiru Li, Andy Alhassan, Dylan Guelig, Steven Diesburg, Nathan A Tanner, Yinhua Zhang, Thomas C Evans, Paul LaBarre, Samuel Wanji, Robert A Burton, Clotilde K S Carlow
Accurate detection of filarial parasites in humans is essential for the implementation and evaluation of mass drug administration programs to control onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Determining the infection levels in vector populations is also important for assessing transmission, deciding when drug treatments may be terminated and for monitoring recrudescence. Immunological methods to detect infection in humans are available, however, cross-reactivity issues have been reported. Nucleic acid-based molecular assays offer high levels of specificity and sensitivity, and can be used to detect infection in both humans and vectors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185868/dengue-knowledge-gaps-unmet-needs-and-research-priorities
#2
REVIEW
Leah C Katzelnick, Josefina Coloma, Eva Harris
Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen that causes up to about 100 million cases of disease each year, placing a major public health, social, and economic burden on numerous low-income and middle-income countries. Major advances by investigators, vaccine developers, and affected communities are revealing new insights and enabling novel interventions and approaches to dengue prevention and control. Such research has highlighted further questions about both the basic understanding of dengue and efforts to develop new tools...
February 6, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176650/is-there-a-role-for-epigenetic-enhancement-of-immunomodulatory-approaches-to-cancer-treatment
#3
Kirsty J Flower, Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami, Robert Brown
The efficacy of cancer immunotherapy relies on the ability of the host immune system to recognise the cancer as non-self and eliminate it from the body. Whilst this is an extremely fertile area of medical research, with positive clinical trials showing durable responses, attention must be paid to the subset of patients that do not respond to these treatments. Immune surveillance and immunoediting by the host could itself select for immune-evasive tumour cells during tumour development leading to immunotherapy resistance...
February 5, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166767/microparticles-shed-from-multidrug-resistant-breast-cancer-cells-provide-a-parallel-survival-pathway-through-immune-evasion
#4
Ritu Jaiswal, Michael S Johnson, Deep Pokharel, S Rajeev Krishnan, Mary Bebawy
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Resident macrophages at distant sites provide a highly responsive and immunologically dynamic innate immune response against foreign infiltrates. Despite extensive characterization of the role of macrophages and other immune cells in malignant tissues, there is very little known about the mechanisms which facilitate metastatic breast cancer spread to distant sites of immunological integrity. The mechanisms by which a key healthy defense mechanism fails to protect distant sites from infiltration by metastatic cells in cancer patients remain undefined...
February 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120841/intestinal-helminth-infection-impacts-the-systemic-distribution-and-function-of-the-naive-lymphocyte-pool
#5
I L King, K Mohrs, A P Meli, J Downey, P Lanthier, F Tzelepis, J H Fritz, A V Tumanov, M Divangahi, E A Leadbetter, M Mohrs
Homeostasis is a fundamental principle of biological systems. A paradigm of immune homeostasis is the remarkably constant number of naive T and B lymphocytes in the body that continuously circulate through the secondary lymphoid organs to maximize immune surveillance. Whether the dynamics and distribution of the systemic naive lymphocyte pool is affected following organ-specific infection is not known. Here we show that, following infection of mice with an enteric helminth, naive T and B lymphocytes accumulate in the T helper type 2-reactive mesenteric lymph node while they are concurrently depleted from non-draining peripheral lymph nodes...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107858/serodiagnosis-of-asymptomatic-dengue-infection
#6
REVIEW
Supawat Chatchen, Arunee Sabchareon, Chukiat Sirivichayakul
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that is expanding across the world. The incidence of dengue infection, especially severe disease, has been increasing. DENV consist of 4 serotypes of single stranded RNA viruses (D1-D4) in the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. Majority of dengue infections are asymptomatic cases, which cause difficulty in disease control and are important in dengue surveillance. There is still no gold standard to diagnose asymptomatic dengue infection. Plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) has been developed for many purposes such as immunological study, clinical study, vaccine trial and is currently the most sensitive and specific method for serological surveillance...
January 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105368/clinical-and-immunologic-correlates-of-response-to-pd-1-blockade-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-renal-medullary-carcinoma
#7
Kathryn E Beckermann, Pradeep C Jolly, Ju Y Kim, Jennifer Bordeaux, Igor Puzanov, W Kimryn Rathmell, Douglas B Johnson
BACKGROUND: Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare kidney tumor that occurs in adolescent and young adults, typically in association with sickle cell trait. RMC exhibits rapid disease progression, frequent metastases at diagnosis, and dismal clinical outcomes. Currently available therapies, including cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy, multi-tyrosine kinase, and mTOR inhibitor strategies demonstrate either transient responses or minimal activity. Therefore, further molecular characterization and additional treatment strategies are urgently needed in this aggressive disease...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101800/is-the-genetic-background-of-co-stimulatory-cd28-ctla-4-pathway-the-risk-factor-for-prostate-cancer
#8
Lidia Karabon, K Tupikowski, A Tomkiewicz, A Partyka, E Pawlak-Adamska, A Wojciechowski, A Kolodziej, J Dembowski, R Zdrojowy, I Frydecka
The impairment of immunological surveillance caused by aberrant T cell activation can lead to an inadequate anti-tumor response. Therefore, deregulation in co-stimulatory pathway might be associated with cancer susceptibility. Here we undertook a prospective study to investigate whether genetic variations in gene encoding molecule CD28 and CTLA-4 playing pivotal role in regulating adoptive immune response can influence susceptibility to prostate cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CTLA-4 and CD28 genes were genotyped in 301 prostate cancer (PCa) patients and 301 controls...
January 18, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100240/reactivation-of-dormant-anti-tumor-immunity-a-clinical-perspective-of-therapeutic-immune-checkpoint-modulation
#9
REVIEW
Richard Greil, Evelyn Hutterer, Tanja Nicole Hartmann, Lisa Pleyer
In favor of their outgrowth, cancer cells must resist immune surveillance and edit the immune response. Cancer immunoediting is characterized by fundamental changes in the cellular composition and the inflammatory cytokine profiles in the microenvironment of the primary tumor and metastatic niches, with an ever increasing complexity of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system. Recent data suggest that genetic instability and immunoediting are not necessarily disparate processes. Increasing mutational load may be associated with multiple neoepitopes expressed by the tumor cells and thus increased chances for the immune system to recognize and combat these cells...
January 19, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091339/association-of-cigarette-smoking-with-a-past-history-and-incidence-of-herpes-zoster-in-the-general-japanese-population-the-shez-study
#10
J Ban, Y Takao, Y Okuno, Y Mori, H Asada, K Yamanishi, H Iso
Few studies have examined the impact of cigarette smoking on the risk for herpes zoster. The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study is a community-based prospective cohort study over 3 years in Japan aiming to clarify the incidence and predictive and immunological factors for herpes zoster. We investigated the associations of smoking status with past history and incidence of herpes zoster. A total of 12 351 participants provided valid information on smoking status and past history of herpes zoster at baseline survey...
January 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090647/the-multifaceted-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-metastasis-priming-the-soil-for-seeding
#11
REVIEW
Brunna Dos Anjos Pultz, Felipe Andrés Cordero da Luz, Sara Socorro Faria, Leandro Peixoto Ferreira de Souza, Paula Cristina Brígido Tavares, Vivian Alonso Goulart, Wagner Fontes, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Marcelo José Barbosa Silva
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, play a key role in inter and intracellular communication, promoting the proliferation and invasion of recipient cells to support tumor growth and metastasis. Metastasis comprises multiple steps that first include the detachment of tumor cells through epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), allowing the physical dissemination to distant organs. Thereafter, cancer-derived exosomes are still critical components for preparing the tumor microenvironment by (i) enabling tumor cells to escape from the immunological surveillance and (ii) arranging the pre-metastatic site for the engraftment of detached cancer cells...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090466/microbiome-linked-crosstalk-in-the-gastrointestinal-exposome-towards-host-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Yuseok Moon
The gastrointestinal exposome represents the integration of all xenobiotic components and host-derived endogenous components affecting the host health, disease progression and ultimately clinical outcomes during the lifespan. The human gut microbiome as a dynamic exposome of commensalism continuously interacts with other exogenous exposome as well as host sentineling components including the immune and neuroendocrine circuit. The composition and diversity of the microbiome are established on the basis of the luminal environment (physical, chemical and biological exposome) and host surveillance at each part of the gastrointestinal lining...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064023/identification-and-characterization-of-a-gamma-interferon-inducible-lysosomal-thiol-reductase-homolog-from-guinea-pig-cavia-porcellus-that-exhibits-thiol-reductase-activity-in-vitro
#13
Lei Ma, Fang Cao, Runze Tang, Jiaxin Zhang, Shuangquan Zhang
Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is a key enzyme in the antigen processing and presentation pathway whereby it reduces disulfide bonds at an acidic pH. In this study, a homolog of GILT from guinea pigs (designated gpGILT) was identified and characterized using bioinformatic methods and bioactivity assays. The open reading frame of gpGILT is 705bp in length and encodes 234 amino acids, with a putative molecular weight of about 25.85kDa. The structure of gpGILT is similar to those of humans and zebrafish, containing six introns and seven exons...
December 28, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056193/reduced-cd62l-expression-on-t-cells-and-increased-soluble-cd62l-levels-predict-molecular-response-to-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-therapy-in-early-chronic-phase-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia
#14
Sieghart Sopper, Satu Mustjoki, Deborah White, Timothy Hughes, Peter Valent, Andreas Burchert, Bjørn T Gjertsen, Günther Gastl, Matthias Baldauf, Zlatko Trajanoski, Frank Giles, Andreas Hochhaus, Thomas Ernst, Thomas Schenk, Jeroen J W M Janssen, Gert J Ossenkoppele, Kimmo Porkka, Dominik Wolf
Purpose Immunologic surveillance of minimal residual disease in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) may be relevant for long-term control or cure of CML. Little is known about immune-modulatory effects of nilotinib in vivo, potentially predicting response to therapy. Patients and Methods A prospective and comprehensive flow cytometry-based immunomonitoring program paralleled the ENEST1st clinical study, investigating 52 nilotinib-naïve patients with chronic-phase CML. Data were verified in independent validation cohorts...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035113/serological-surveillance-of-vector-borne-and-zoonotic-diseases-among-hunters-in-eastern-poland
#15
Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak, Dorota Plewik, Aleksander J Michalski, Marcin Kołodziej, Alicja Mełgieś, Anna Pańczuk, Henryk Konon, Marcin Niemcewicz
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Many etiological agents of zoonoses are considered as significant biological hazard to people visiting forested areas frequently, for instance, hunters. They may be exposed to ticks, rodents, and birds as well as excreta/secretions of wild animals or contaminated water and soil. Hence, this population is at risk of contracting infection with pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus, Bartonella spp...
October 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034349/biological-agents-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-cross-link-between-immune-tolerance-and-immune-surveillance
#16
Rossella Talotta, Fabiola Atzeni, Alberto Batticciotto, Maurizio Benucci, Sara Bongiovanni, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
The biological drugs have all been successfully used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and have led to fair rates of clinical remission; however, the possible occurrence of adverse events such as infectious diseases or cancers means that the patients undergoing treatment need to be closely monitored. Anti-TNF agents, first appeared in the pharmacological algorithm of RA in the early 2000s, seem to lead to a higher risk of reactivated tubercular infection than the biological agents with different mechanism of action (abatacept or rituximab)...
December 30, 2016: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032353/allergooncology-the-impact-of-allergy-in-oncology-eaaci-position-paper
#17
E Jensen-Jarolim, H J Bax, R Bianchini, M Capron, C Corrigan, M Castells, D Dombrowicz, T R Daniels-Wells, J Fazekas, E Fiebiger, S Gatault, H J Gould, J Janda, D H Josephs, P Karagiannis, F Levi-Schaffer, A Meshcheryakova, D Mechtcheriakova, Y Mekori, F Mungenast, E A Nigro, M L Penichet, F Redegeld, L Saul, J Singer, J F Spicer, A G Siccardi, E Spillner, M C Turner, E Untersmayr, L Vangelista, S N Karagiannis
Th2 immunity and allergic immune surveillance play critical roles in host responses to pathogens, parasites and allergens. Numerous studies have reported significant links between Th2 responses and cancer, including insights into the functions of IgE antibodies and associated effector cells in both antitumour immune surveillance and therapy. The interdisciplinary field of AllergoOncology was given Task Force status by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in 2014. Affiliated expert groups focus on the interface between allergic responses and cancer, applied to immune surveillance, immunomodulation and the functions of IgE-mediated immune responses against cancer, to derive novel insights into more effective treatments...
December 29, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025034/ccl2-ccr2-signaling-pathway-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#18
REVIEW
Alireza Vakilian, Hossein Khorramdelazad, Parisa Heidari, Zahra Sheikh Rezaei, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi
Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is described as one of the most frequent primary brain tumors. These types of malignancies constitute only 15% of all primary brain tumors. Despite, extensive developments on effective therapeutic methods during the 20th century as well as the first decade of the present century (21st), the median survival rate for patients suffering from GBM is only approximately 15 months, even in response to multi-modal therapy. numerous types of reticuloendothelial system cells such as macrophages and microglial cells occupied within both GBM and also normal surrounding tissues...
February 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013100/the-impact-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-on-obstetric-conditions-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Hannah M Sebitloane, Dhayendre Moodley
HIV is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in resource constrained countries. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) initiated in pregnancy has now almost eliminated mother to child transmission of the virus, and is beginning to show the desired effect of reducing HIV related maternal mortality. By modulating host immunological responses HAART has the potential to alter infections during pregnancy, in addition to modifying clinical conditions such as preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence of the benefits of HAART given to pregnant women, however there is paucity of data that distinguishes HIV or HAART as the cause or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions or conditions specific to pregnancy...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008925/biallelic-jak1-mutations-in-immunodeficient-patient-with-mycobacterial-infection
#20
Davide Eletto, Siobhan O Burns, Ivan Angulo, Vincent Plagnol, Kimberly C Gilmour, Frances Henriquez, James Curtis, Miguel Gaspar, Karolin Nowak, Vanessa Daza-Cajigal, Dinakantha Kumararatne, Rainer Doffinger, Adrian J Thrasher, Sergey Nejentsev
Mutations in genes encoding components of the immune system cause primary immunodeficiencies. Here, we study a patient with recurrent atypical mycobacterial infection and early-onset metastatic bladder carcinoma. Exome sequencing identified two homozygous missense germline mutations, P733L and P832S, in the JAK1 protein that mediates signalling from multiple cytokine receptors. Cells from this patient exhibit reduced JAK1 and STAT phosphorylation following cytokine stimulations, reduced induction of expression of interferon-regulated genes and dysregulated cytokine production; which are indicative of signalling defects in multiple immune response pathways including Interferon-γ production...
December 23, 2016: Nature Communications
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