keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

immunological surveillance

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331944/liver-sampling-a-vital-window-into-hbv-pathogenesis-on-the-path-to-functional-cure
#1
REVIEW
Upkar S Gill, Laura J Pallett, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
In order to optimally refine the multiple emerging drug targets for hepatitis B virus (HBV), it is vital to evaluate virological and immunological changes at the site of infection. Traditionally liver biopsy has been the mainstay of HBV disease assessment, but with the emergence of non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, there has been a move away from tissue sampling. Here we argue that liver biopsy remains an important tool, not only for the clinical assessment of HBV but also for research progress and evaluation of novel agents...
January 13, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312770/development-of-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-in-a-patient-with-established-adenocarcinoma-of-the-lung
#2
Or Kalchiem-Dekel, Adina Paulk, Seth J Kligerman, Allen P Burke, Nirav G Shah, Renee K Dixon
Newly-appearing lung nodules on surveillance imaging in patients with pre-existing lung cancer can present a diagnostic dilemma when attempting to differentiate between metastatic disease, infection, and other inflammatory conditions. Here we report a case of an EGFR-/ALK-/BRAF+ metastatic adenocarcinoma patient who underwent lung biopsy for evaluation of upper-lobe predominant lung nodules revealed to represent pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH). The patient was a heavy smoker and admitted to increase her smoking habit after initially learning about her diagnosis with lung cancer...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285252/immunological-landscape-of-consensus-clusters-in-colorectal-cancer
#3
Pawel Karpinski, Joanna Rossowska, Maria Malgorzata Sasiadek
Recent, large-scale expression-based subtyping has advanced our understanding of the genomic landscape of colorectal cancer (CRC) and resulted in a consensus molecular classification that enables the categorization of most CRC tumors into one of four consensus molecular subtypes (CMS). Currently, major progress in characterization of immune landscape of tumor-associated microenvironment has been made especially with respect to microsatellite status of CRCs. While these studies profoundly improved the understanding of molecular and immunological profile of CRCs heterogeneity less is known about repertoire of the tumor infiltrating immune cells of each CMS...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279613/the-dawn-of-vaccines-for-cancer-prevention
#4
REVIEW
Olivera J Finn
An important role of the immune system is in the surveillance for abnormal or transformed cells, which is known as cancer immunosurveillance. Through this process, the first changes to normal tissue homeostasis caused by infectious or other inflammatory insults can be detected by the immune system through the recognition of antigenic molecules (including tumour antigens) expressed by abnormal cells. However, as they develop, tumour cells can acquire antigenic and other changes that allow them to escape elimination by the immune system...
December 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258786/genetic-and-immune-determinants-of-immune-activation-in-hiv-exposed-seronegative-individuals-and-their-role-in-protection-against-hiv-infection
#5
Claudio Fenizia, Jean-François Rossignol, Mario Clerici, Mara Biasin
Soon thereafter infection is established, hosts strive for an efficient eradication of microorganisms, with as limited tissue damage as possible, and durable immunological protection against re-infection. On the other hand, pathogens have developed countermeasures to escape host surveillance and to warrant diffusion to other hosts. In this molecular arms race the final results relies on multiple variables, including the genetic and immunologic e correlates of protection available for the host. In the field of HIV-infection, natural protection has been repeatedly associated to the presence of an immune activation state, at least in some cohorts of HESN (HIV-exposed seronegative)...
December 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246197/a-higher-cd4-cd8-ratio-correlates-with-an-ultralow-cell-associated-hiv-1-dna-level-in-chronically-infected-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-case-control-study
#6
Yongsong Yue, Nidan Wang, Yang Han, Ting Zhu, Jing Xie, Zhifeng Qiu, Xiaojing Song, Yanling Li, Jean-Pierre Routy, Jianhua Wang, Taisheng Li
BACKGROUND: The HIV-1 DNA reservoir is an important marker that reflects viro-immunological status and can be affected by multiple viral or cellular factors. Determining the potential factors associated with the size of the HIV-1 DNA reservoir benefits the surveillance of disease progression and antiretroviral treatments. METHODS: We conducted a case control study to explore the factors that may affect the level of HIV-1 DNA. The level of HIV-1 total DNA in peripheral blood at 5 time points was quantified by quantitative PCR...
December 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231805/understanding-host-parasite-relationship-the-immune-central-nervous-system-microenvironment-and-its-effect-on-brain-infections
#7
Laura Adalid-Peralta, Brenda Sáenz, Gladis Fragoso, Graciela Cárdenas
The central nervous system (CNS) has been recognized as an immunologically specialized microenvironment, where immune surveillance takes a distinctive character, and where delicate neuronal networks are sustained by anti-inflammatory factors that maintain local homeostasis. However, when a foreign agent such as a parasite establishes in the CNS, a set of immune defences is mounted and several immune molecules are released to promote an array of responses, which ultimately would control the infection and associated damage...
December 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221731/white-adipose-tissue-is-a-reservoir-for-memory-t-cells-and-promotes-protective-memory-responses-to-infection
#8
Seong-Ji Han, Arielle Glatman Zaretsky, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, Nicholas Collins, Amiran Dzutsev, Jahangheer Shaik, Denise Morais da Fonseca, Oliver J Harrison, Samira Tamoutounour, Allyson L Byrd, Margery Smelkinson, Nicolas Bouladoux, James B Bliska, Jason M Brenchley, Igor E Brodsky, Yasmine Belkaid
White adipose tissue bridges body organs and plays a fundamental role in host metabolism. To what extent adipose tissue also contributes to immune surveillance and long-term protective defense remains largely unknown. Here, we have shown that at steady state, white adipose tissue contained abundant memory lymphocyte populations. After infection, white adipose tissue accumulated large numbers of pathogen-specific memory T cells, including tissue-resident cells. Memory T cells in white adipose tissue expressed a distinct metabolic profile, and white adipose tissue from previously infected mice was sufficient to protect uninfected mice from lethal pathogen challenge...
November 30, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211243/evidence-of-hidden-leprosy-in-a-supposedly-low-endemic-area-of-brazil
#9
Fred Bernardes, Natália Aparecida de Paula, Marcel Nani Leite, Thania Loyola Cordeiro Abi-Rached, Sebastian Vernal, Moises Batista da Silva, Josafá Gonçalves Barreto, John Stewart Spencer, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade
OBJECTIVES: Show that hidden endemic leprosy exists in a municipality of inner São Paulo state (Brazil) with active surveillance actions based on clinical and immunological evaluations. METHODS: The study sample was composed by people randomly selected by a dermatologist during medical care in the public emergency department and by active surveillance carried out during two days at a mobile clinic. All subjects received a dermato-neurological examination and blood sampling to determine anti-PGL-I antibody titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202594/diagnosing-and-managing-patients-with-drug-hypersensitivity
#10
Javier Fernandez, Inmaculada Doña
Diagnosing and managing drug hypersensitivity is challenging because there are no clear limits between different types of drug reactions. Distinguishing between type A (predictable) and type B (hypersensitivity) reactions when a drug is introduced on the market is not easy. When many people use a drug, adverse reactions can occur, conditioned by diverse genetic profiles, viral infections or concomitant therapy. Occasionally the only tool clinicians have on which to base the diagnosis is the clinical history...
January 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190137/high-risk-gastric-pathology-and-prevalent-autoimmune-diseases-in-patients-with-pernicious-anemia
#11
Jing W Hughes, Brian D Muegge, Garry S Tobin, Marina Litvin, Lulu Sun, Jose B Saenz, C Prakash Gyawali, Janet B McGill
OBJECTIVE: Pernicious anemia (PA) develops from atrophic gastritis due to autoimmune destruction of parietal cells and results in achlorhydria, vitamin B12 and iron deficiencies, anemia, neurologic deficits, and premalignant and malignant stomach lesions. We report the presentation, diagnosis and gastric complications of PA in patients from an endocrinology practice. METHODS: Thirty-four patients (31 female, 3 male) with PA who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or gastrectomy were identified...
November 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162969/clinical-immunology-of-cholera-current-trends-and-directions-for-future-advancement
#12
Francesco Chiappelli, Allen Khakshooy, Nicole Balenton
Cholera remains a feared, aggressive, infectious and lethal disease today, despite several decades of intense research, concerted public health modalities designed to prevent, and to control outbreaks, availability of efficacious vaccines aimed at containing its contagious spread, and effective patient-centered medical interventions for reducing morbidity and mortality. Despite these advances, cholera still strikes communities around the world, especially in countries and regions of the globe where medical and nursing care cannot be as effectively proffered to the population at risk as in First World economies...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149940/immune-activation-in-sepsis
#13
REVIEW
Andrew Conway-Morris, Julie Wilson, Manu Shankar-Hari
Sepsis is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Immune responses determine the characteristics of sepsis. The body's protection against infection involves danger signal surveillance and recognition from nonself, effector functions in response to sensing danger signals, homeostatic regulation, and generation of immunologic memory. During sepsis, the immune system is activated by pathogen-associated and host-derived molecular patterns. Detecting these molecular patterns generates multisystem responses...
January 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147621/in-depth-immunophenotyping-of-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme-impact-of-steroid-treatment
#14
Guranda Chitadze, Charlotte Flüh, Elgar Susanne Quabius, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Christian Peters, Marcus Lettau, Jaydeep Bhat, Daniela Wesch, Hans-Heinrich Oberg, Stefanie Luecke, Ottmar Janssen, Michael Synowitz, Janka Held-Feindt, Dieter Kabelitz
Despite aggressive treatment regimens based on surgery and radiochemotherapy, the prognosis of patients with grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains extremely poor, calling for alternative options such as immunotherapy. Immunological mechanisms including the Natural Killer Group 2 member D (NKG2D) receptor-ligand system play an important role in tumor immune surveillance and targeting the NKG2D system might be beneficial. However, before considering any kind of immunotherapy, a precise characterization of the immune system is important, particularly in GBM patients where conventional therapies with impact on the immune system are frequently co-administered...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140108/cytomegalovirus-and-hiv-persistence-pouring-gas-on-the-fire
#15
Aaron Christensen-Quick, Christophe Vanpouille, Andrea Lisco, Sara Gianella
The inherent stability of a small population of T cells that are latently infected with HIV despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a stubborn obstacle to an HIV cure. By exploiting the memory compartment of our immune system, HIV maintains persistence in a small subset of quiescent cells with varying phenotypes, thus evading immune surveillance and clinical detection. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms that maintain the latent reservoir will be critical to the success of HIV eradication strategies...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131037/paradoxical-reactions-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-agents-ustekinumab-secukinumab-ixekizumab-and-others
#16
Lluís Puig
Paradoxical reactions during treatment with a biologic agent can be defined as the appearance or exacerbation of a pathological condition that usually responds to this class of drug while treating a patient for another condition, which usually remains under control (even though there may be a change in morphology or phenotype). Paradoxical reactions were initially described as isolated case reports or case series in patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α agents, first in inflammatory rheumatic diseases, later in psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease...
2018: Current Problems in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120025/prevention-and-therapy-of-jc-polyomavirus-mediated-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-a-realistic-possibility
#17
Ivan Jelcic, Benoit Combaluzier, Ilijas Jelcic, Mireia Sospedra, Jan Grimm, Roland Martin
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a serious opportunistic infection of the brain caused by the JC polyomavirus (JCPyV). PML occurs when immune control of persistent infection with JCPyV fails, the virus mutates and changes its cellular tropism, enters the brain and infects astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and, in particular cases, also neurones. Currently, there is no therapy for this often fatal disease. A number of approaches have failed, and only the restoration of protective immunity, if possible, can lead to clearance of the virus once PML has occurred...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113292/nod-mice-susceptible-to-pancreatic-autoimmunity-demonstrate-delayed-growth-of-pancreatic-cancer
#18
James Dooley, Emanuela Pasciuto, Vasiliki Lagou, Yulia Lampi, Tom Dresselaers, Uwe Himmelreich, Adrian Liston
Pancreatic cancer is a high mortality form of cancer, with a median survival only six months. There are multiple associated risk factors associated, most importantly type 2 diabetes, obesity, pancreatitis and smoking. The relative rarity of the disease, however, has made it difficult to dissect causative risk factors, especially with related risk factors. A major unanswered question with important therapeutic implications is the effect of immunological responses on pancreatic cancer formation, with data from other cancers suggesting the potential for local immunological responses to either increase cancer development or increase cancer elimination...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075263/intestinal-barrier-interactions-with-specialized-cd8-t-cells
#19
REVIEW
Špela Konjar, Cristina Ferreira, Birte Blankenhaus, Marc Veldhoen
The trillions of microorganisms that reside in the gastrointestinal tract, essential for nutrient absorption, are kept under control by a single cell barrier and large amounts of immune cells. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are critical in establishing an environment supporting microbial colonization and immunological tolerance. A large population of CD8(+) T cells is in direct and constant contact with the IECs and the intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). Due to their location, at the interphase of the intestinal lumen and external environment and the host tissues, they seem ideally positioned to balance immune tolerance and protection to preserve the fragile intestinal barrier from invasion as well as immunopathology...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046675/interpreting-t-cell-cross-reactivity-through-structure-implications-for-tcr-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
Dinler A Antunes, Maurício M Rigo, Martiela V Freitas, Marcus F A Mendes, Marialva Sinigaglia, Gregory Lizée, Lydia E Kavraki, Liisa K Selin, Markus Cornberg, Gustavo F Vieira
Immunotherapy has become one of the most promising avenues for cancer treatment, making use of the patient's own immune system to eliminate cancer cells. Clinical trials with T-cell-based immunotherapies have shown dramatic tumor regressions, being effective in multiple cancer types and for many different patients. Unfortunately, this progress was tempered by reports of serious (even fatal) side effects. Such therapies rely on the use of cytotoxic T-cell lymphocytes, an essential part of the adaptive immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
keyword
keyword
78347
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"