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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795509/discontools-identifying-gaps-in-controlling-bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy
#1
M Simmons, G Ru, C Casalone, B Iulini, C Cassar, T Seuberlich
This article summarizes the 2016 update of the DISCONTOOLS project gap analysis on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which was based on a combination of literature review and expert knowledge. Uncertainty still exists in relation to the pathogenesis, immunology and epidemiology of BSE, but provided that infected material is prohibited from entering the animal feed chain, cases should continue to decline. BSE does not appear to spread between cattle, but if new strains with this ability appear then control would be considerably more difficult...
August 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767704/b-abortus-rna-is-the-component-involved-in-the-down-modulation-of-mhc-i-expression-on-human-monocytes-via-tlr8-and-the-egfr-pathway
#2
M Ayelén Milillo, Lis N Velásquez, Aldana Trotta, M Victoria Delpino, Fábio V Marinho, Luciana Balboa, Mónica Vermeulen, Sonia L Espindola, Nahuel Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Gabriela C Fernández, Sergio Costa Oliveira, Guillermo H Giambartolomei, Paula Barrionuevo
Despite eliciting a potent CD8+ T cell response, Brucella abortus is able to persist and establish a chronic infection inside its host. We have previously reported that the infection of human monocytes/macrophages with B. abortus inhibits the IFN-γ-induced MHC-I cell surface expression down-modulating cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. MHC-I down-modulation depends on bacterial viability and results from the capacity of B. abortus to retain the MHC-I molecules within the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, we recently demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is involved in this phenomenon and that this is an early event during infection...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759104/the-interplay-between-hla-b27-and-erap1-erap2-aminopeptidases-from-antiviral-protection-to-spondyloarthritis
#3
REVIEW
Carolina Vitulano, Valentina Tedeschi, Fabiana Paladini, Rosa Sorrentino, Maria Teresa Fiorillo
The human leukocyte antigen class I gene HLA-B27 is the strongest risk factor for Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), a chronic inflammatory arthritic disorder. More recently, the Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidases (ERAP) 1 and 2 genes have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as additional susceptibility factors. In the ER, these aminopeptidases trim the peptides to a length suitable to fit into the groove of the MHC class I molecules. Noteworthy, an epistatic interaction between HLA-B27 and ERAP1, but not between HLA-B27 and ERAP2, has been highlighted...
July 31, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751932/does-regular-exercise-counter-t-cell-immunosenescence-reducing-the-risk-of-developing-cancer-and-promoting-successful-treatment-of-malignancies
#4
REVIEW
James E Turner, Patricia C Brum
Moderate intensity aerobic exercise training or regular physical activity is beneficial for immune function. For example, some evidence shows that individuals with an active lifestyle exhibit stronger immune responses to vaccination compared to those who are inactive. Encouragingly, poor vaccine responses, which are characteristic of an ageing immune system, can be improved by single or repeated bouts of exercise. In addition, exercise-induced lymphocytosis, and the subsequent lymphocytopenia, is thought to facilitate immune surveillance, whereby lymphocytes search tissues for antigens derived from viruses, bacteria, or malignant transformation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743248/immunological-recovery-in-tuberculosis-hiv-co-infected-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-implication-for-tuberculosis-preventive-therapy
#5
Basel Karo, Gérard Krause, Stefanie Castell, Christian Kollan, Osamah Hamouda, Walter Haas
BACKGROUND: Understanding the immune response to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is essential for a clear approach to tuberculosis (TB) preventive therapy. We investigated the immunological recovery in cART-treated HIV-infected patients developing TB compared to those who remained free of TB. METHODS: We extracted data of HIV-infected patients from a multicenter cohort for the HIV clinical surveillance in Germany. No patients included in our study had TB at the beginning of the observation...
July 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713331/thyroid-stimulating-hormone-receptor-antibodies-in-pregnancy-clinical-relevance
#6
REVIEW
Ines Bucci, Cesidio Giuliani, Giorgio Napolitano
Graves' disease is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in women of childbearing age. Approximately 1% of pregnant women been treated before, or are being treated during pregnancy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. In pregnancy, as in not pregnant state, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) antibodies (TRAbs) are the pathogenetic hallmark of Graves' disease. TRAbs are heterogeneous for molecular and functional properties and are subdivided into activating (TSAbs), blocking (TBAbs), or neutral (N-TRAbs) depending on their effect on TSHR...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710896/renal-allograft-histology-at-10-years-after-transplantation-in-the-tacrolimus-era-evidence-of-pervasive-chronic-injury
#7
Mark D Stegall, Lynn D Cornell, Walter D Park, Byron H Smith, Fernando G Cosio
Improving long-term renal allograft survival remains an important unmet need. To assess the extent of histologic injury at 10 years after transplantation in functioning grafts, we studied 575 consecutive adult solitary renal transplants performed between 2002 and 2005-77% from living donors and 92% maintained on tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Ten-year graft survival was 59% and death-censored graft survival was 74%. Surveillance allograft biopsies were assessed at implantation, 5 years and 10 years from 145 patients that reached 10 years...
July 15, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699227/implication-of-chemo-resistant-memory-t-cells-for-immune-surveillance-in-patients-with-sarcoma-receiving-chemotherapy
#8
Yuji Shibayama, Tomohide Tsukahara, Makoto Emori, Kenji Murata, Emi Mizushima, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Takayuki Kanaseki, Munehide Nakatsugawa, Terufumi Kubo, Toshihiko Yamashita, Noriyuki Sato, Toshihiko Torigoe
Chemotherapy has improved the prognosis of patients with sarcomas. However, it may suppress anti-tumor immunity. Recently, we reported a novel CD8(+) memory T cell population with a chemo-resistance property, "young memory" T (TYM ) cells. In this study, we investigated the proportion and function of TYM cells in peripheral blood of healthy donors and sarcoma patients who received chemotherapy and those who did not. The proportion of TYM cells was significantly decreased in patients compared with that in healthy donors...
July 12, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694811/latent-cytomegalovirus-cmv-infection-does-not-detrimentally-alter-t-cell-responses-in-the-healthy-old-but-increased-latent-cmv-carriage-is-related-to-expanded-cmv-specific-t-cells
#9
Sarah E Jackson, George X Sedikides, Georgina Okecha, Emma L Poole, John H Sinclair, Mark R Wills
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) primary infection and periodic reactivation of latent virus is generally well controlled by T-cell responses in healthy people. In older donors, overt HCMV disease is not generally seen despite the association of HCMV infection with increased risk of mortality. However, increases in HCMV DNA in urine of older people suggest that, although the immune response retains functionality, immunomodulation of the immune response due to lifelong viral carriage may alter its efficacy. Viral transcription is limited during latency to a handful of viral genes and there is both an IFNγ and cellular IL-10 CD4(+) T-cell response to HCMV latency-associated proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667664/tacrolimus-and-mycophenolate-regimen-and-subclinical-tubulo-interstitial-inflammation-in-low-immunological-risk-renal-transplants
#10
Irina B Torres, Anna V Reisaeter, Francesc Moreso, Anders Âsberg, Marta Vidal, Clara Garcia-Carro, Karsten Midtvedt, Finn P Reinholt, Helge Scott, Eva Castellà, Maite Salcedo, Christina Dörje, Joana Sellarés, Maria A Azancot, Manel Perello, Hallvard Holdaas, Daniel Serón
The aim was to evaluate the relationship between maintenance immunosuppression, subclinical tubulo-interstitial inflammation and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA) in surveillance biopsies performed in low immunological risk renal transplants at two transplant centers. The Barcelona cohort consisted of 109 early and 66 late biopsies in patients receiving high tacrolimus (TAC-C0 target at 1-year 6-10 ng/ml) and reduced MMF dose (500 mg bid at 1-year). The Oslo cohort consisted of 262 early and 237 late biopsies performed in patients treated with low TAC-C0 (target 3-7 ng/ml) and standard MMF dose (750 mg bid)...
July 1, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661031/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-important-contributors-to-tumor-progression-and-metastasis
#11
Elham Safarzadeh, Mona Orangi, Hamed Mohammadi, Farhad Babaie, Behzad Baradaran
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are traditionally considered among the major components of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). However, there is currently increasing evidence indicating that MDSCs in addition to suppression of immune surveillance is also involved in an array of non-immunological functions like augmenting metastatic potential of tumor cells. Indeed, MDSCs can promote metastasis in animal models and cancer patients through promoting premetastatic niche formation, tumor angiogenesis and invasion...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656487/chimeric-antigen-receptor-therapy-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-clinical-practice
#12
REVIEW
Marlise R Luskin, Daniel J DeAngelo
Over half of patients diagnosed with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) develop relapsed or refractory disease. Traditional chemotherapy salvage is inadequate, and new therapies are needed. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a novel, immunologic approach where T cells are genetically engineered to express a CAR conferring specificity against a target cell surface antigen, most commonly the pan-B-cell marker CD19. After infusion, CAR T cells expand and persist, allowing ongoing tumor surveillance...
June 27, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655789/acquired-immune-resistance-follows-complete-tumor-regression-without-loss-of-target-antigens-or-ifn%C3%AE-signaling
#13
Marco Donia, Katja Harbst, Marit van Buuren, Pia Kvistborg, Mattias F Lindberg, Rikke Andersen, Manja Idorn, Shamaila Munir Ahmad, Eva Ellebæk, Anja Mueller, Paolo Fagone, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Massimo Libra, Martin Lauss, Sine Reker Hadrup, Henrik Schmidt, Mads Hald Andersen, Per Thor Straten, Jonas A Nilsson, Ton N Schumacher, Barbara Seliger, Göran Jönsson, Inge Marie Svane
Cancer immunotherapy can result in durable tumor regressions in some patients. However, patients who initially respond often experience tumor progression. Here, we report mechanistic evidence of tumoral immune escape in an exemplary clinical case: a patient with metastatic melanoma who developed disease recurrence following an initial, unequivocal radiologic complete regression after T-cell-based immunotherapy. Functional cytotoxic T-cell responses, including responses to one mutant neoantigen, were amplified effectively with therapy and generated durable immunologic memory...
June 27, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642882/tumor-related-exosomes-contribute-to-tumor-promoting-microenvironment-an-immunological-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Wuzhen Chen, Jingxin Jiang, Wenjie Xia, Jian Huang
Exosomes are a kind of cell-released membrane-form structures which contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. These vesicular organelles play a key role in intercellular communication. Numerous experiments demonstrated that tumor-related exosomes (TEXs) can induce immune surveillance in the microenvironment in vivo and in vitro. They can interfere with the maturation of DC cells, impair NK cell activation, induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and educate macrophages into protumor phenotype. They can also selectively induce effector T cell apoptosis via Fas/FasL interaction and enhance regulatory T cell proliferation and function by releasing TGF-β...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635055/melanoma-complicating-treatment-with-natalizumab-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-report-from-the-southern-network-on-adverse-reactions-sonar
#15
Rachel A Sabol, Virginia Noxon, Oliver Sartor, Joseph R Berger, Zaina Qureshi, Dennis W Raisch, LeAnn B Norris, Paul R Yarnold, Peter Georgantopoulos, William J Hrushesky, Laura Bobolts, Paul Ray, Akida Lebby, Robert C Kane, Charles L Bennett
A 43-year-old female with multiple sclerosis developed urethral melanoma. The only potential risk factor was treatment with natalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against α4 integrins. To investigate the risk-exposure relationship, we reviewed this case, all other published cases, and cases of natalizumab-associated melanoma reported to regulatory agencies. Data sources included the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) (2004-2014), a FDA Advisory Committee Meeting Report, and peer-reviewed publications...
July 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628614/lamphimerus-a-novel-lamp-assay-for-detecting-amphimerus-sp-dna-in-human-stool-samples
#16
William Cevallos, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Manuel Calvopiña, Cristina Fontecha-Cuenca, Hiromu Sugiyama, Megumi Sato, Julio López Abán, Belén Vicente, Antonio Muro
BACKGROUND: Amphimeriasis is a fish-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Amphimerus spp. that has recently been reported as endemic in the tropical Pacific side of Ecuador with a high prevalence in humans and domestic animals. The diagnosis is based on the stool examination to identify parasite eggs, but it lacks sensitivity. Additionally, the morphology of the eggs may be confounded with other liver and intestinal flukes. No immunological or molecular methods have been developed to date...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617830/on-treatment-decrease-of-nkg2d-correlates-to-early-emergence-of-clinically-evident-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-interferon-free-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#17
Po-Sung Chu, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Nobuhito Taniki, Keisuke Ojiro, Takeru Amiya, Yuko Makita, Hiroko Murata, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Shiba, Rei Miyake, Tadashi Katayama, Aya Ugamura, Akihiko Ikura, Karin Takeda, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Hidetsugu Saito, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Interferon (IFN)- free direct antiviral agents (DAAs) with rapid HCV eradication might evoke immunological reconstitutions, and some early recurrences of HCC after IFN-free DAAs have been reported. This study aimed to investigate whether natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) predicts early emergence of HCC after IFN-free DAAs. METHODS: We conducted a clinical practice-based observational study of 101 patients infected with genotype 1 HCV who received IFN-free (DAAs), and stratified them into those who did or did not develop early (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606591/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-rvsv%C3%A2-g-zebov-gp-ebola-virus-vaccine-candidate-in-healthy-adults-a-phase-1b-randomised-multicentre-double-blind-placebo-controlled-dose-response-study
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
D Gray Heppner, Tracy L Kemp, Brian K Martin, William J Ramsey, Richard Nichols, Emily J Dasen, Charles J Link, Rituparna Das, Zhi Jin Xu, Eric A Sheldon, Teresa A Nowak, Thomas P Monath
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Zaire Ebola virus outbreak highlighted the need for a safe, effective vaccine with a rapid onset of protection. We report the safety and immunogenicity of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein vaccine (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP) across a 6 log10 dose range in two sequential cohorts. METHODS: In this phase 1b double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study we enrolled and randomly assigned healthy adults (aged 18-61 years) at eight study sites in the USA to receive a single injection of vaccine or placebo, administered by intramuscular injection...
August 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592764/multiple-myeloma-pathophysiology-and-progress-in-management
#19
Junya Kuroda, Yoshiaki Chinen
There have been dramatic recent advances in understanding the basic pathophysiology and treatment strategies for multiple myeloma (MM). Research has shown both a high inter-patient diversity and intra-clonal heterogeneity even in a single patient in terms of cytogenetic/molecular abnormalities, and has also identified marked diversity in the immunological factors involved in tumor surveillance among MM patients. In the presence of a variety of novel agents, including molecular-targeted agents, immunomodulatory agents, and monoclonal antibodies, the optimal translation of current knowledge on both molecular and immunologic findings into clinical use is crucial for managing MM...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588354/pax6-binds-to-promoter-sequence-elements-associated-with-immunological-surveillance-and-energy-homeostasis-in-brain-of-aging-mice
#20
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
BACKGROUND: Patients having mutations of Pax6 bear phenotypes that match age-associated neurological disorders. Mutations affect most cellular functions such as cell division, growth, differentiation, and cell death in brain, eyes, pituitary, pineal, and pancreas. The progressive reduction in the level of Pax6 during aging has also been observed. However, information about downstream targets of Pax6 in brain is unclear. Therefore, it is presumed that age-dependent alterations of Pax6 may also affect cascades of promoter sequence recognition in brain during aging...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
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