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immunological surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628614/lamphimerus-a-novel-lamp-assay-for-detecting-amphimerus-sp-dna-in-human-stool-samples
#1
William Cevallos, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Manuel Calvopiña, Cristina Fontecha-Cuenca, Hiromu Sugiyama, Megumi Sato, Julio López Abán, Belén Vicente, Antonio Muro
BACKGROUND: Amphimeriasis is a fish-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Amphimerus spp. that has recently been reported as endemic in the tropical Pacific side of Ecuador with a high prevalence in humans and domestic animals. The diagnosis is based on the stool examination to identify parasite eggs, but it lacks sensitivity. Additionally, the morphology of the eggs may be confounded with other liver and intestinal flukes. No immunological or molecular methods have been developed to date...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617830/on-treatment-decrease-of-nkg2d-correlates-to-early-emergence-of-clinically-evident-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-interferon-free-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#2
Po-Sung Chu, Nobuhiro Nakamoto, Nobuhito Taniki, Keisuke Ojiro, Takeru Amiya, Yuko Makita, Hiroko Murata, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Shiba, Rei Miyake, Tadashi Katayama, Aya Ugamura, Akihiko Ikura, Karin Takeda, Hirotoshi Ebinuma, Hidetsugu Saito, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Interferon (IFN)- free direct antiviral agents (DAAs) with rapid HCV eradication might evoke immunological reconstitutions, and some early recurrences of HCC after IFN-free DAAs have been reported. This study aimed to investigate whether natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) predicts early emergence of HCC after IFN-free DAAs. METHODS: We conducted a clinical practice-based observational study of 101 patients infected with genotype 1 HCV who received IFN-free (DAAs), and stratified them into those who did or did not develop early (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606591/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-rvsv%C3%A2-g-zebov-gp-ebola-virus-vaccine-candidate-in-healthy-adults-a-phase-1b-randomised-multicentre-double-blind-placebo-controlled-dose-response-study
#3
D Gray Heppner, Tracy L Kemp, Brian K Martin, William J Ramsey, Richard Nichols, Emily J Dasen, Charles J Link, Rituparna Das, Zhi Jin Xu, Eric A Sheldon, Teresa A Nowak, Thomas P Monath
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Zaire Ebola virus outbreak highlighted the need for a safe, effective vaccine with a rapid onset of protection. We report the safety and immunogenicity of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein vaccine (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP) across a 6 log10 dose range in two sequential cohorts. METHODS: In this phase 1b double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study we enrolled and randomly assigned healthy adults (aged 18-61 years) at eight study sites in the USA to receive a single injection of vaccine or placebo, administered by intramuscular injection...
June 9, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592764/multiple-myeloma-pathophysiology-and-progress-in-management
#4
Junya Kuroda, Yoshiaki Chinen
There have been dramatic recent advances in understanding the basic pathophysiology and treatment strategies for multiple myeloma (MM). Research has shown both a high inter-patient diversity and intra-clonal heterogeneity even in a single patient in terms of cytogenetic/molecular abnormalities, and has also identified marked diversity in the immunological factors involved in tumor surveillance among MM patients. In the presence of a variety of novel agents, including molecular-targeted agents, immunomodulatory agents, and monoclonal antibodies, the optimal translation of current knowledge on both molecular and immunologic findings into clinical use is crucial for managing MM...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588354/pax6-binds-to-promoter-sequence-elements-associated-with-immunological-surveillance-and-energy-homeostasis-in-brain-of-aging-mice
#5
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
BACKGROUND: Patients having mutations of Pax6 bear phenotypes that match age-associated neurological disorders. Mutations affect most cellular functions such as cell division, growth, differentiation, and cell death in brain, eyes, pituitary, pineal, and pancreas. The progressive reduction in the level of Pax6 during aging has also been observed. However, information about downstream targets of Pax6 in brain is unclear. Therefore, it is presumed that age-dependent alterations of Pax6 may also affect cascades of promoter sequence recognition in brain during aging...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567279/evolving-treatment-implementation-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-and-their-partners-results-from-a-national-surveillance-study-in-italy-2001-2015
#6
Marco Floridia, Valentina Frisina, Marina Ravizza, Anna Maria Marconi, Carmela Pinnetti, Irene Cetin, Matilde Sansone, Atim Molinari, Francesca Cervi, Alessandra Meloni, Kety Luzi, Giulia Masuelli, Enrica Tamburrini
BACKGROUND: The current global and national indications for antiretroviral treatment (ART, usually triple combination therapy) in adolescent and adults, including pregnant women, recommend early ART before immunologic decline, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP), and treatment of HIV-negative partners in serodiscordant couples. There is limited information on the implementation of these recommendations among pregnant women with HIV and their partners. METHODS: The present analysis was performed in 2016, using data from clinical records of pregnant women with HIV, followed between 2001 and 2015 at hospital or university clinics within a large, nationally representative Italian cohort study...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552891/collaborative-research-with-chinese-indian-filipino-and-north-european-research-organizations-on-infectious-disease-epidemics
#7
Ayako Sumi, Nobumichi Kobayashi
In this report, we present a short review of applications of time series analysis, which consists of spectral analysis based on the maximum entropy method in the frequency domain and the least squares method in the time domain, to the incidence data of infectious diseases. This report consists of three parts. First, we present our results obtained by collaborative research on infectious disease epidemics with Chinese, Indian, Filipino and North European research organizations. Second, we present the results obtained with the Japanese infectious disease surveillance data and the time series numerically generated from a mathematical model, called the susceptible/exposed/infectious/recovered (SEIR) model...
2017: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552391/where-are-we-the-anatomy-of-the-murine-cortical-meninges-revisited-for-intravital-imaging-immunology-and-clearance-of-waste-from-the-brain
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan A Coles, Elmarie Myburgh, James M Brewer, Paul G McMenamin
Rapid progress is being made in understanding the roles of the cerebral meninges in the maintenance of normal brain function, in immune surveillance, and as a site of disease. Most basic research on the meninges and the neural brain is now done on mice, major attractions being the availability of reporter mice with fluorescent cells, and of a huge range of antibodies useful for immunocytochemistry and the characterization of isolated cells. In addition, two-photon microscopy through the unperforated calvaria allows intravital imaging of the undisturbed meninges with sub-micron resolution...
May 25, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522975/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-constipation-inflammation-are-not-reflected-at-the-level-of-gut-metabolites-and-butyrate-producing-microbial-community-the-planhab-study
#9
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavic, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515351/local-immune-response-depends-on-p16ink4a-status-of-primary-tumor-in-vulvar-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
Jacek J Sznurkowski, Anton Żawrocki, Wojciech Biernat
BACKGROUND: The p16Ink4a is not a surrogate marker for high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes but indicates better prognosis in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma patients. Our recent study confirmed substantial mismatch between p16Ink4a and high-risk HPV-status as well as revealed that p16Ink4a-overexpression itself is an independent prognostic factor for vulvar cancer. AIM: To determine significance of the tumor infiltrating immune cells and p16Ink4a-status for better outcome of patients with vulvar cancer...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514990/prevalence-of-pora-pseudogene-deletion-among-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-referred-to-the-uk
#11
Martina Toby, Pamela Saunders, Michelle Cole, Vlad Grigorjev, Sarah Alexander, Catherine Ison
porA pseudogene-negative Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates produce false-negative results when examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with porA pseudogene targets. In the present study, 533 representative gonococcal isolates received in 2011 via the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Program were examined to determine the prevalence of porA-negative isolates. Less than 0.4% (2/533) of isolates were found to be reproducibly negative with the porA real-time PCR but were confirmed as N. gonorrhoeae with molecular, biochemical and immunological confirmatory tests...
May 18, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494747/new-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-aspects-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#12
Harald Mangge, Tobias Niedrist, Wilfried Renner, Stefan Lyer, Christoph Alexiou, Johannes Haybaeck
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is devastating. Because of its silent nature, the disease is often only diagnosed once it has reached an advanced, frequently inoperable stage. To date, we have no biomarkers that facilitate earlier diagnosis, leaving sufficient time for curative therapy that effectively lowers the very high mortality rate of this cancer entity. Because of this, the life expectancy of patients with PDAC is low (i.e. < 6% five-year survival rates). New data, including particular genetic signatures and features of the stromal architecture of PDAC tumors, may better explain their aggressiveness, their relatively long-lasting painless expansion, and why chemotherapy so frequently fails...
May 10, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494555/-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cells-regulate-adaptive-immune-tolerance-in-the-liver
#13
Y Q Du, C Sun, S M Huang, D L Yang, J Wu
Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are a major group of nonparenchymal cells in the liver and are involved in immunological surveillance of the liver through the expression of various scavenger receptors and pattern recognition receptors. However, in case of several physiological states, viral infections, and tumor environment, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells maintain immune tolerance in the liver through various mechanisms and cause persistent viral infection and tumor metastasis. This article reviews the mechanisms of immune tolerance of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in the liver induced by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492051/prognosis-for-women-diagnosed-with-melanoma-during-before-or-after-pregnancy-weighing-the-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Sarah P Todd, Marcia S Driscoll
Approximately one third of women who are diagnosed with malignant melanoma are of childbearing age. Therefore, it is not surprising that some studies have found malignant melanoma to be one of the most common malignancies diagnosed in pregnant women. The impact of pregnancy-related hormonal changes on melanoma development and progression remains controversial. Women undergo immunologic changes during pregnancy that may decrease tumor surveillance. Additionally, hormone receptors are found on some melanomas...
March 2017: International Journal of Women's Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484722/bacteriophages-and-their-immunological-applications-against-infectious-threats
#15
REVIEW
Elena Criscuolo, Sara Spadini, Jacopo Lamanna, Mattia Ferro, Roberto Burioni
Bacteriophage therapy dates back almost a century, but the discovery of antibiotics led to a rapid decline in the interests and investments within this field of research. Recently, the novel threat of multidrug-resistant bacteria highlighted the alarming drop in research and development of new antibiotics: 16 molecules were discovered during 1983-87, 10 new therapeutics during the nineties, and only 5 between 2003 and 2007. Phages are therefore being reconsidered as alternative therapeutics. Phage display technique has proved to be extremely promising for the identification of effective antibodies directed against pathogens, as well as for vaccine development...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484463/immune-effector-recovery-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-and-treatment-free-remission
#16
REVIEW
Amy Hughes, Agnes S M Yong
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematological cancer, characterized by a reciprocal chromosomal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 [t(9;22)], producing the Bcr-Abl oncogene. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent the standard of care for CML patients and exert a dual mode of action: direct oncokinase inhibition and restoration of effector-mediated immune surveillance, which is rendered dysfunctional in CML patients at diagnosis, prior to TKI therapy. TKIs such as imatinib, and more potent second-generation nilotinib and dasatinib induce a high rate of deep molecular response (DMR, BCR-ABL1 ≤ 0...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476689/pax6-interacts-with-iba1-and-shows-age-associated-alterations-in-brain-of-aging-mice
#17
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
The Pax6, a transcriptional regulator and multifunctional protein, has been found critical for neurogenesis, neuro-degeneration, mental retardation, neuroendocrine tumors, glioblastoma and astrocytomas. The age-associated alteration in the expression of Pax6 in neuron and glia has also been observed in the immunologically privileged brain. Therefore, it is presumed that Pax6 may modulate brain immunity by activation of microglia either directly interacting with genes or proteins of microglia or indirectly though inflammation associated with neurodegeneration...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476234/clinical-implications-for-germline-pten-spectrum-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Joanne Ngeow, Kaitlin Sesock, Charis Eng
Patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) may present to a variety of different subspecialties with benign and malignant clinical features. They have increased lifetime risks of breast, endometrial, thyroid, renal, and colon cancers, as well as neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder. Patients and affected family members can be offered gene-directed surveillance and management. Patients who are unaffected can be spared unnecessary investigations. With longitudinal follow-up, we are likely to identify other non-cancer manifestations associated with PHTS such as metabolic, immunologic, and neurologic features...
June 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474781/the-hemochromatosis-protein-hfe-20-years-later-an-emerging-role-in-antigen-presentation-and-in-the-immune-system
#19
REVIEW
Alexandre Reuben, Jacqueline W Chung, Réjean Lapointe, Manuela M Santos
INTRODUCTION: Since its discovery, the hemochromatosis protein HFE has been primarily defined by its role in iron metabolism and homeostasis, and its involvement in the genetic disease termed hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). While HH patients are typically afflicted by dysregulated iron levels, many are also affected by several immune defects and increased incidence of autoimmune diseases that have thereby implicated HFE in the immune response. Growing evidence has supported an immunological role for HFE with recent studies describing HFE specifically as it relates to MHC I antigen presentation...
April 19, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471197/-circulating-myeloid-suppressor-cells-and-their-role-in-tumour-immunology
#20
K Pilatova, E Budinská, B Bensciková, R Nenutil, R Šefr, L Fedorová, B Hanáková, V Brychtová, L Zdražilová Dubská
BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are heterogenic population of multipotent progenitors of myeloid lineage. For their immunosuppressive effect, MDSC are responsible for tumour escape from the host immune surveillance. Furthermore, MDSCs support tumour by promotion of angiogenesis and metastasis. Membrane markers of human MDSCs are myeloid markers CD11b and CD13, these cells are HLA-Drlow/- and expression of CD15 or CD14 differentiate them into granulocytic (Gr-MDSCs) and monocytic (Mo-MDSCs), resp...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
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