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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431005/occupational-asthma-caused-by-acrylic-compounds-from-shield-surveillance-1989-2014
#1
G I Walters, A S Robertson, V C Moore, P S Burge
Background: Acrylic monomers (acrylates), methacrylates and cyanoacrylates all cause asthma by respiratory sensitization. Occupational inhalation exposures occur across a variety of industries including health care and dental work, beauty, laboratory science, assembly and plastic moulding. Aims: To examine notifications of occupational asthma caused by acrylic compounds from a UK-based regional surveillance scheme, in order to highlight prevalent exposures and trends in presentation...
April 20, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407381/arrival-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus-2-to-northern-europe-emergence-and-outbreaks-in-wild-and-domestic-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-in-sweden
#2
A S Neimanis, H Ahola, S Zohari, U Larsson Pettersson, C Bröjer, L Capucci, D Gavier-Widén
Incursion of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Sweden was documented in 1990 and it is now considered endemic in wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), a new, related lagovirus was first detected in France in 2010, and has spread rapidly throughout Europe and beyond. However, knowledge of RHDV2 in northern Europe is sporadic and incomplete, and in Sweden, routinely available diagnostic methods to detect rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) do not distinguish between types of virus causing disease...
April 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401935/unique-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-promote-intestinal-polyps-by-suppressing-th1-immunity-and-promoting-regulatory-t-cells
#3
Y Wang, S Sedimbi, L Löfbom, A K Singh, S A Porcelli, S L Cardell
CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are known as potent early regulatory cells of immune responses. Besides the established roles in the regulation of inflammation and autoimmune disease, studies have shown that iNKT cells have important roles in tumor surveillance and the control of tumor metastasis. Here we found that the absence of iNKT cells markedly decreased the total number of intestinal polyps in APC(Min/+) mice, a model for colorectal cancer. Polyp iNKT cells were enriched for interleukin-10 (IL-10)- and IL-17-producing cells, showed a distinct phenotype being CD4(+), NK1...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368375/multiple-myeloma-patients-in-long-term-complete-response-after-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-express-a-particular-immune-signature-with-potential-prognostic-implication
#4
A Arteche-López, A Kreutzman, A Alegre, P Sanz Martín, B Aguado, M González-Pardo, M Espiño, L M Villar, D García Belmonte, R de la Cámara, C Muñoz-Calleja
The proportion of multiple myeloma patients in long-term complete response (LTCR-MM) for more than 6 years after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is small. To evaluate whether this LTCR is associated with a particular immune signature, peripheral blood samples from 13 LTCR-MM after ASCT and healthy blood donors (HBD) were analysed. Subpopulations of T-cells (naïve, effector, central memory and regulatory), B-cells (naïve, marginal zone-like, class-switched memory, transitional and plasmablasts) and NK-cells expressing inhibitory and activating receptors were quantified by multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC)...
April 3, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360184/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-and-t-regulatory-cells-in-tumors-unraveling-the-dark-side-of-the-force
#5
REVIEW
Aikaterini Hatziioannou, Themis Alissafi, Panayotis Verginis
Important conceptual advances in tumor immunology over the last years have shifted the paradigm from focusing on the malignant cell to the importance of host immune components in the design of successful immunotherapies. The immune system, through sophisticated innate and adaptive immune surveillance mechanisms, inhibits the growth and establishment of tumors. However, despite immune surveillance, tumors still escape and grow, mainly as a result of endowed tumor-induced immunosuppressive circuits. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are the major components of these regulatory networks that facilitate tumor immune escape and significantly compromise the efficacy of current immunotherapies...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357111/typing-of-killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptors-and-their-cognate-human-leukocyte-antigen-class-i-ligands-predicts-survival-of-chinese-han-patients-with-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Hui Yu, Fang Liu, Benoit Sansas, Bin Kang, Xavier Preville, Xianghua Wu, Jianhua Chang, Romain Micol, Jialei Wang, Xia Meng
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may establish an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that is conducive to tumor growth. Natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in immunological surveillance. Activation of NK cells partially depends on the interactions between killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands. We herein investigated the association of KIRs and HLA ligands with survival in metastatic NSCLC (mNSCLC) patients treated with chemotherapy in a Chinese Han population...
February 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321810/overview-of-basic-immunology-for-clinical-investigators
#7
Bettzy Stephen, Joud Hajjar
Tumor exists as a complex network of structures with an ability to evolve and evade the host immune surveillance mechanism. The immune milieu which includes macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, mast cells, B cells, and T cells are found in the core, the invasive margin, or the adjacent stromal or lymphoid component of the tumor. The immune infiltrate is heterogeneous and varies within a patient and between patients of the same tumor histology. The location, density, functionality, and the cross talk between the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment influence the nature of immune response, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in cancer patients...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289064/what-is-wrong-with-pertussis-vaccine-immunity-the-problem-of-waning-effectiveness-of-pertussis-vaccines
#8
Nicolas Burdin, L K Handy, S A Plotkin
Pertussis is resurgent in some countries, particularly those in which children receive acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines in early infancy and boosters later in life. Immunologic studies show that, whereas whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines orient the immune system toward Th1/Th17 responses, acellular pertussis vaccines orient toward Th1/Th2 responses. Although aP vaccines do provide protection during the first years of life, the change in T-cell priming results in waning effectiveness of aP as early as 2-3 years post-boosters...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282440/h1n1-influenza-viruses-varying-widely-in-hemagglutinin-stability-transmit-efficiently-from-swine-to-swine-and-to-ferrets
#9
Marion Russier, Guohua Yang, Atanaska Marinova-Petkova, Peter Vogel, Bryan S Kaplan, Richard J Webby, Charles J Russell
A pandemic-capable influenza virus requires a hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein that is immunologically unseen by most people and is capable of supporting replication and transmission in humans. HA stabilization has been linked to 2009 pH1N1 pandemic potential in humans and H5N1 airborne transmissibility in the ferret model. Swine have served as an intermediate host for zoonotic influenza viruses, yet the evolutionary pressure exerted by this host on HA stability was unknown. For over 70 contemporary swine H1 and H3 isolates, we measured HA activation pH to range from pH 5...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270152/a-systematic-review-on-malaria-sero-epidemiology-studies-in-the-brazilian-amazon-insights-into-immunological-markers-for-exposure-and-protection
#10
Pedro M Folegatti, André M Siqueira, Wuelton M Monteiro, Marcus Vinícius G Lacerda, Chris J Drakeley, Érika M Braga
BACKGROUND: Considerable success in reducing malaria incidence and mortality has been achieved in Brazil, leading to discussions over the possibility of moving towards elimination. However, more than reporting and counting clinical cases, elimination will require the use of efficient tools and strategies for measuring transmission dynamics and detecting the infectious reservoir as the primary indicators of interest for surveillance and evaluation. Because acquisition and maintenance of anti-malarial antibodies depend on parasite exposure, seroprevalence rates could be used as a reliable tool for assessing malaria endemicity and an adjunct measure for monitoring transmission in a rapid and cost-effective manner...
March 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261016/the-specific-roles-of-vitamins-in-the-regulation-of-immunosurveillance-and-maintenance-of-immunologic-homeostasis-in-the-gut
#11
REVIEW
Koji Hosomi, Jun Kunisawa
Vitamins are micronutrients which are essential for the maintenance of biological responses including immune system. Hence, vitamin deficiency increases a risk of infectious, allergic, and inflammatory diseases. Accumulating evidence has recently revealed the molecular and cellular mechanisms of vitamin-mediated regulation in the active and quiescent immune responses. In this review, we focus on the immunologic roles of vitamins in the regulation of homeostasis and surveillance in the gut.
February 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259390/evaluation-of-the-risk-of-infection-associated-with-subcutaneous-allergen-immunotherapy-american-academy-of-allergy-asthma-and-immunology-and-american-college-of-allergy-asthma-and-immunology-national-surveillance-study-on-allergen-immunotherapy-2014-2015
#12
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253937/therapeutic-indications-and-other-use-case-driven-updates-in-the-drug-ontology-anti-malarials-anti-hypertensives-opioid-analgesics-and-a-large-term-request
#13
William R Hogan, Josh Hanna, Amanda Hicks, Samira Amirova, Baxter Bramblett, Matthew Diller, Rodel Enderez, Timothy Modzelewski, Mirela Vasconcelos, Chris Delcher
BACKGROUND: The Drug Ontology (DrOn) is an OWL2-based representation of drug products and their ingredients, mechanisms of action, strengths, and dose forms. We originally created DrOn for use cases in comparative effectiveness research, primarily to identify historically complete sets of United States National Drug Codes (NDCs) that represent packaged drug products, by the ingredient(s), mechanism(s) of action, and so on contained in those products. Although we had designed DrOn from the outset to carefully distinguish those entities that have a therapeutic indication from those entities that have a molecular mechanism of action, we had not previously represented in DrOn any particular therapeutic indication...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245084/donor-specificity-but-not-broadness-of-sensitization-is-associated-with-antibody-mediated-rejection-and-graft-loss-in-renal-allograft-recipients
#14
C Wehmeier, G Hönger, H Cun, P Amico, P Hirt-Minkowski, A Georgalis, H Hopfer, M Dickenmann, J Steiger, S Schaub
Panel-reactive antibodies are widely regarded as an important immunological risk factor for rejection and graft loss. The broadness of sensitization against HLA is most appropriately measured by the "calculated population-reactive antibodies" (cPRA) value. In this study, we investigated whether cPRA represent an immunological risk in times of sensitive and accurate determination of pretransplantation donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA). Five hundred twenty-seven consecutive transplantations were divided into four groups: cPRA 0% (n = 250), cPRA 1-50% (n = 129), cPRA 51-100% (n = 43), and DSA (n = 105)...
February 28, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199317/colorimetric-tests-for-diagnosis-of-filarial-infection-and-vector-surveillance-using-non-instrumented-nucleic-acid-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-nina-lamp
#15
Catherine B Poole, Zhiru Li, Andy Alhassan, Dylan Guelig, Steven Diesburg, Nathan A Tanner, Yinhua Zhang, Thomas C Evans, Paul LaBarre, Samuel Wanji, Robert A Burton, Clotilde K S Carlow
Accurate detection of filarial parasites in humans is essential for the implementation and evaluation of mass drug administration programs to control onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Determining the infection levels in vector populations is also important for assessing transmission, deciding when drug treatments may be terminated and for monitoring recrudescence. Immunological methods to detect infection in humans are available, however, cross-reactivity issues have been reported. Nucleic acid-based molecular assays offer high levels of specificity and sensitivity, and can be used to detect infection in both humans and vectors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185868/dengue-knowledge-gaps-unmet-needs-and-research-priorities
#16
REVIEW
Leah C Katzelnick, Josefina Coloma, Eva Harris
Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen that causes up to about 100 million cases of disease each year, placing a major public health, social, and economic burden on numerous low-income and middle-income countries. Major advances by investigators, vaccine developers, and affected communities are revealing new insights and enabling novel interventions and approaches to dengue prevention and control. Such research has highlighted further questions about both the basic understanding of dengue and efforts to develop new tools...
March 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176650/is-there-a-role-for-epigenetic-enhancement-of-immunomodulatory-approaches-to-cancer-treatment
#17
Kirsty J Flower, Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami, Robert Brown
The efficacy of cancer immunotherapy relies on the ability of the host immune system to recognise the cancer as non-self and eliminate it from the body. Whilst this is an extremely fertile area of medical research, with positive clinical trials showing durable responses, attention must be paid to the subset of patients that do not respond to these treatments. Immune surveillance and immunoediting by the host could itself select for immune-evasive tumour cells during tumour development leading to immunotherapy resistance...
February 5, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166767/microparticles-shed-from-multidrug-resistant-breast-cancer-cells-provide-a-parallel-survival-pathway-through-immune-evasion
#18
Ritu Jaiswal, Michael S Johnson, Deep Pokharel, S Rajeev Krishnan, Mary Bebawy
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Resident macrophages at distant sites provide a highly responsive and immunologically dynamic innate immune response against foreign infiltrates. Despite extensive characterization of the role of macrophages and other immune cells in malignant tissues, there is very little known about the mechanisms which facilitate metastatic breast cancer spread to distant sites of immunological integrity. The mechanisms by which a key healthy defense mechanism fails to protect distant sites from infiltration by metastatic cells in cancer patients remain undefined...
February 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120841/intestinal-helminth-infection-impacts-the-systemic-distribution-and-function-of-the-naive-lymphocyte-pool
#19
I L King, K Mohrs, A P Meli, J Downey, P Lanthier, F Tzelepis, J H Fritz, A V Tumanov, M Divangahi, E A Leadbetter, M Mohrs
Homeostasis is a fundamental principle of biological systems. A paradigm of immune homeostasis is the remarkably constant number of naive T and B lymphocytes in the body that continuously circulate through the secondary lymphoid organs to maximize immune surveillance. Whether the dynamics and distribution of the systemic naive lymphocyte pool is affected following organ-specific infection is not known. Here we show that, following infection of mice with an enteric helminth, naive T and B lymphocytes accumulate in the T helper type 2-reactive mesenteric lymph node while they are concurrently depleted from non-draining peripheral lymph nodes...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107858/serodiagnosis-of-asymptomatic-dengue-infection
#20
REVIEW
Supawat Chatchen, Arunee Sabchareon, Chukiat Sirivichayakul
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that is expanding across the world. The incidence of dengue infection, especially severe disease, has been increasing. DENV consist of 4 serotypes of single stranded RNA viruses (D1-D4) in the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. Majority of dengue infections are asymptomatic cases, which cause difficulty in disease control and are important in dengue surveillance. There is still no gold standard to diagnose asymptomatic dengue infection. Plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) has been developed for many purposes such as immunological study, clinical study, vaccine trial and is currently the most sensitive and specific method for serological surveillance...
January 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
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