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Tracy N Zembles, Linda S Flannery, Anna R Huppler
PURPOSE: The development and implementation of an antimicrobial lock therapy guideline at a large pediatric hospital are described. SUMMARY: Central venous access devices (CVADs) are essential in the medical management of patients requiring long-term total parenteral nutrition, chemotherapy, or hemodialysis. However, the use of a CVAD carries a significant risk of the development of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). Antimicrobial lock therapy is indicated for patients with CLABSIs who have no signs of exit site or tunnel infection and for whom catheter salvage is a goal...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Shaoxiu Song, Gang Li, Xingwei Hou, Shengzhao Zhang, Yue Yu, Ling Lin
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is significantly affected from the interference of the ambient light and dark current of the instrument. Optical choppers, together with lock-in/synchronous amplification, can overcome these interferences. However, in spectral measurement, the sampling rate of the spectrometer is different from the Δ-pulse sampling, which is not high enough because of the integration time. In addition, the energy distribution is not perfectly concentrated as expected in modulate chopper technology...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
M Szlis, J Polkowska, E Skrzeczyńska, B J Przybył, A Wójcik-Gładysz
The participation of peripheral peptides in the processes regulating the food intake (energy homeostasis) at the central nervous system level remains unclear. This study focuses on the role of obestatin in neuronal activity within the hypothalamic appetite-regulating network in ruminants. The animals (n = 28) were randomly divided into two groups. The sheep in the control group received intracerebroventricular infusions of the Ringer-Locke solution, and the sheep in obestatin group were infused with obestatin (diluted in the Ringer-Locke solution) at 25 μg per 120 μl/hr...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Wang Xiu-Zhen, Ye-Ying Ge, Guang-Yao Ye, Jing-Wei Zhang, Wei-Hu Ma
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of ultrasound guided inter-scalene brachial plexus block and patient-controlled infraclavicular brachial plexus block for postoperative pain and surgical efficacy in patients with terrible tyriad of the elbow. METHODS: From March 2015 to August 2016, 60 patients with terrible tyriad of the elbows were treated in Ningbo No.6 Hospital with ASA I to II internal fixation. There were 32 males and 28 females, ranging in age from 16 to 70 years old, with a mean age of (55...
November 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Na Feng, Chao Qi, Yan-Jie Hou, Ying Zhang, Da-Cheng Wang, De-Feng Li
The equilibrium between C2'- and C3'-endo conformations of nucleotides in solution, as well as their polymers DNA and RNA, has been well studied in previous work. However, this equilibrium of nucleotides in their binding state remains unclear. We observed two AMP molecules, in C3'- and C2'-endo conformations respectively, simultaneously bound to a cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) domain dimer of the magnesium and cobalt efflux protein CorC in the crystallographic study. The C2'-endo AMP molecule assumes the higher sugar pucker energy and one more hydrogen bond with the protein than the C3'-endo molecule does...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mathivanan Chinnaraj, Zhiwei Chen, Leslie A Pelc, Zachary Grese, Dominika Bystranowska, Enrico Di Cera, Nicola Pozzi
The clotting factor prothrombin exists in equilibrium between closed and open conformations, but the physiological role of these forms remains unclear. As for other allosteric proteins, elucidation of the linkage between molecular transitions and function is facilitated by reagents stabilized in each of the alternative conformations. The open form of prothrombin has been characterized structurally, but little is known about the architecture of the closed form that predominates in solution under physiological conditions...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
S NaddafDezfuli, J C Brouwer, J M C Mol, F C T van der Helm, J Zhou
Recent studies have shown great potential of Mg matrix composites for biodegradable orthopedic devices. However, the poor structural integrity of these composites, which results in excessive localized corrosion and premature mechanical failure, has hindered their widespread applications. In this research, an in-situ Powder Metallurgy (PM) method was used to fabricate a novel biodegradable Mg-bredigite composite and to achieve enhanced chemical interfacial locking between the constituents by triggering a solid-state thermochemical reaction between Mg and bredigite particles...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Jiao Zheng, Ningxing Li, Chunrong Li, Xinxin Wang, Yucheng Liu, Guobin Mao, Xinghu Ji, Zhike He
Synthetic enzyme-free DNA nanomachine performs quasi-mechanical movements in response to external intervention, suggesting the promise of constructing sensitive and specific biosensors. Herein, a smart DNA nanomachine biosensor for biomolecule (such as nucleic acid, thrombin and adenosine) detection is developed by target-assisted enzyme-free hairpin DNA cascade amplifier. The whole DNA nanomachine system is constructed on gold nanoparticle which decorated with hundreds of locked hairpin substrate strands serving as DNA tracks, and the DNA nanomachine could be activated by target molecule toehold-mediated exchange on gold nanoparticle surface, resulted in the fluorescence recovery of fluorophore...
January 31, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
B L Cox, K D Ludwig, E B Adamson, K W Eliceiri, S B Fain
In medical imaging, clinicians, researchers and technicians have begun to use 3D printing to create specialized phantoms to replace commercial ones due to their customizable and iterative nature. Presented here is the design of a 3D printed open source, reusable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom, capable of flood-filling, with removable samples for measurements of contrast agent solutions and reference standards, and for use in evaluating acquisition techniques and image reconstruction performance. The phantom was designed using SolidWorks, a computer-aided design software package...
March 2018: Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express
Ryan D Brown, Steven A Corcelli, S Alex Kandel
Traditionally, the goal of self-assembly and supramolecular chemistry is to engineer an equilibrium structure with a desired geometry and functionality; this is achieved through careful choice of molecular monomers, growth conditions, and substrate. Supramolecular assemblies produced under nonequilibrium conditions, in contrast, can form metastable structures with conformations quite different from those accessible in equilibrium self-assembly. The study of nonequilibrium growth of clusters potentially impacts the study of nucleation in atmospheric aerosols, nucleation in organic crystallization, and mesoscale organization for systems ranging from biological molecules to molecular electronics...
January 30, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ada Onwubiko, Wan Yue, Cameron Jellett, Mingfei Xiao, Hung-Yang Chen, Mahesh Kumar Ravva, David A Hanifi, Astrid-Caroline Knall, Balaji Purushothaman, Mark Nikolka, Jean-Charles Flores, Alberto Salleo, Jean-Luc Bredas, Henning Sirringhaus, Pascal Hayoz, Iain McCulloch
Conventional semiconducting polymer synthesis typically involves transition metal-mediated coupling reactions that link aromatic units with single bonds along the backbone. Rotation around these bonds contributes to conformational and energetic disorder and therefore potentially limits charge delocalisation, whereas the use of transition metals presents difficulties for sustainability and application in biological environments. Here we show that a simple aldol condensation reaction can prepare polymers where double bonds lock-in a rigid backbone conformation, thus eliminating free rotation along the conjugated backbone...
January 29, 2018: Nature Communications
Joel Rosenblatt, Ruth A Reitzel, Nylev Vargas-Cruz, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Issam I Raad
Fungal catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs)-primarily due to Candida species-account for over 12% of all CRBSIs, and have been progressively increasing in prevalence. They present significant health and economic burdens, and high mortality rates. Antimicrobial catheter lock solutions are an important prophylactic option for preventing fungal CRBSIs. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of two FDA-approved catheter lock solutions (heparin and saline) and three experimental antimicrobial catheter lock solutions-30% citrate, taurolidine-citrate-heparin (TCH), and nitroglycerin-citrate-ethanol (NiCE)-in an in vitro model of catheters colonized by fungi...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Mustafa Mert Torunbalci, Tanay Arun Gosavi, Kerem Yunus Camsari, Sunil Ashok Bhave
This paper introduces a novel oscillator that combines the tunability of spin Hall-driven nano oscillators with the high quality factor (Q) of high overtone bulk acoustic wave resonators (HBAR), integrating both reference and tunable oscillators on the same chip with CMOS. In such magneto acoustic spin Hall (MASH) oscillators, voltage oscillations across the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) that arise from a spin-orbit torque (SOT) are shaped by the transmission response of the HBAR that acts as a multiple peak-bandpass filter and a delay element due to its large time constant, providing delayed feedback...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sebastian Eydam, Matthias Wolfrum
We investigate the dynamics of a Kuramoto-type system of globally coupled phase oscillators with equidistant natural frequencies and a coupling strength below the synchronization threshold. It turns out that in such cases one can observe a stable regime of sharp pulses in the mean field amplitude with a pulsation frequency given by spacing of the natural frequencies. This resembles a process known as mode locking in lasers and relies on the emergence of a phase relation induced by the nonlinear coupling. We discuss the role of the first and second harmonics in the phase-interaction function for the stability of the pulsations and present various bifurcating dynamical regimes such as periodically and chaotically modulated mode locking, transitions to phase turbulence, and intermittency...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Wenjun Liu, Chunyu Yang, Mengli Liu, Weitian Yu, Yujia Zhang, Ming Lei
The interactions of multiple solitons show different properties with two-soliton interactions. For the difficulty of deriving multiple soliton solutions, it is rare to study multiple soliton interactions analytically. In this paper, three-soliton interactions in inhomogeneous optical fibers, which are described by the variable coefficient Hirota equation, are investigated. Via the Hirota bilinear method and symbolic computation, analytic three-soliton solutions are obtained. According to the obtained solutions, properties and features of three-soliton interactions are discussed by changing the third-order dispersion (TOD) and other relevant coefficients, and some plentiful structure of three-soliton interactions are presented for the first time...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Yen-Fu Chen, Hsuan-Yi Chen, Yu-Jane Sheng, Heng-Kwong Tsao
The unbinding dynamics of a nanosized sphere-and-cavity assembly under the pulling of constant force and constant loading rate is explored by dissipative particle dynamics simulations. The formation of this matched lock-and-key pair in a polymer solution is driven by the depletion attraction. The two-dimensional free energy landscape U(x,z) associated with this assembly is constructed. Our results indicate that the unbinding pathway along the orientation of the assembly is unfavorable due to the relatively high energy barrier compared to that along the tortuous minimum path whose energy barrier is not high...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Braden J Manns, Steven D Soroka, Adeera Levin, Jennifer MacRae, Karthik Tennankore, Jo-Anne S Wilson, Robert G Weaver, Pietro Ravani, Robert R Quinn, Marcello Tonelli, Mercedeh Kiaii, Paula Mossop, Nairne Scott-Douglas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence to guide hemodialysis catheter locking solutions is limited. We aimed to assess effectiveness and cost of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) once per week as a locking solution, compared with thrice weekly citrate or heparin, in patients at high risk of complications. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We used a prospective design and pre-post comparison in three sites across Canada. Pre-post comparisons were conducted using multilevel mixed effects regression models accounting for cluster with site and potential enrollment of patients more than once...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Christine Imbert, Blandine Rammaert
Candidemia related to the presence of a biofilm are often reported in patients with vascular catheters. Once they are mature, biofilms are persistent infectious reservoirs, and the yeasts dispersed from biofilms can cause infections. Sessile yeasts typically display increased levels of resistance to most antimicrobial agents and systemic treatments usually fail to eradicate previously formed fungal biofilms. In a curative strategy, antifungal lock therapy may help to sterilize catheters, with very high concentrations of antifungal agents, which are not compatible with systemic use...
January 6, 2018: Pathogens
Tairan Yuwen, Jacob P Brady, Lewis E Kay
R1ρ relaxation dispersion experiments are increasingly used in studies of protein dynamics on the micro- to millisecond time scale. Traditional R1ρ relaxation dispersion approaches are typically predicated on changes in chemical shifts between corresponding probe spins, ΔωGE, in the interconverting states. Here we present a new application of off-resonance 15N R1ρ relaxation dispersion that enables the quantification of slow exchange processes even in the limit where ΔωGE = 0 so long as the spins in the exchanging states have different intrinsic transverse relaxation rates (ΔR2 = R2,E - R2,G ≠ 0)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
D Grötzsch, C Streeck, C Nietzold, W Malzer, I Mantouvalou, A Nutsch, P Dietrich, W Unger, B Beckhoff, B Kanngießer
A new sample cell concept for the analysis of liquids or solid-liquid interfaces using soft X-ray spectroscopy is presented, which enables the complete sealing of the cell as well as the transport into vacuum via, for example, a load-lock system. The cell uses pressure monitoring and active as well as passive pressure regulation systems, thereby facilitating the full control over the pressure during filling, sealing, evacuation, and measurement. The cell design and sample preparation as well as the crucial sealing procedure are explained in detail...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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