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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078825/ethanol-combined-with-heparin-as-a-locking-solution-for-the-prevention-of-catheter-related-blood-stream-infections-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-prospective-randomized-study
#1
Sofia Sofroniadou, Ioanna Revela, Alexandros Kouloubinis, Ioanna Makriniotou, Sinodi Zerbala, Despina Smirloglou, Petros Kalocheretis, Apostolos Drouzas, George Samonis, Christos Iatrou
Introduction Ethanol lock solution has been mainly administered in paediatric and home parenteral nutrition patients in order to prevent catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI). Its utility in hemodialysis (HD) patients with non-tunneled-uncuffed catheter (NTC) has been poorly explored. Methods We conducted a prospective randomized study in chronic HD patients requiring a newly inserted NTC-while awaiting for the maturation of an already established arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG) or tunneled-cuffed catheter insertion...
January 11, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074948/hot-electron-driven-photocatalytic-water-splitting
#2
Bingya Hou, Lang Shen, Haotian Shi, Rehan Kapadia, Stephen B Cronin
We report measurements of photocatalytic water splitting using Au films with and without TiO2 coatings. In these structures, a thin (3-10 nm) film of TiO2 is deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on top of a 100 nm thick Au film. We utilize an AC lock-in technique, which enables us to detect the relatively small photocurrents (∼μA) produced by the short-lived hot electrons that are photoexcited in the metal. Under illumination, the bare Au film produces a small AC photocurrent (<1 μA) for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) due to hot electrons and hot holes, respectively, that are photoexcited in the Au film...
January 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035620/does-antimicrobial-lock-solution-reduce-catheter-related-infections-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-central-venous-catheters-a-bayesian-network-meta-analysis
#3
Jun Zhang, Bo Wang, Rongke Li, Long Ge, Kee-Hsin Chen, Jinhui Tian
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study is to carry out a Bayesian network meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of different antimicrobial lock solutions (ALS) for prevention of catheter-related infections (CRI) in patients with hemodialysis (HD) and ranking these ALS for practical consideration. METHODS: We searched six electronic databases, earlier relevant meta-analysis and reference lists of included studies for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared ALS for preventing episodes of CRI in patients with HD either head-to-head or against control interventions using non-ALS...
December 29, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032021/detection-of-ligand-induced-conformational-changes-in-the-activation-loop-of-aurora-a-kinase-by-peldor-spectroscopy
#4
Selena G Burgess, Maria Grazia Concilio, Richard Bayliss, Alistair J Fielding
The structure of protein kinases has been extensively studied by protein crystallography. Conformational movement of the kinase activation loop is thought to be crucial for regulation of activity; however, in many cases the position of the activation loop in solution is unknown. Protein kinases are an important class of therapeutic target and kinase inhibitors are classified by their effect on the activation loop. Here, we report the use of pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) and site-directed spin labeling to monitor conformational changes through the insertion of MTSL [S-(1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydro-1 H-pyrrol-3-yl)methyl methanesulfonothioate] on the dynamic activation loop and a stable site on the outer surface of the enzyme...
December 2016: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024627/fretting-corrosion-behavior-of-nitinol-spinal-rods-in-conjunction-with-titanium-pedicle-screws
#5
Elena Lukina, Mikhail Kollerov, Jay Meswania, Alla Khon, Pavel Panin, Gordon W Blunn
Untypical corrosion damage including erosions combined with the build-up of titanium oxide as a corrosion product on the surface of explanted Nitinol spinal rods in the areas where it was in contact with titanium pedicle screw head is reported. It was suggested that Nitinol rods might have inferior fretting corrosion resistance compared with that made of titanium or CoCr. Fretting corrosion of Nitinol spinal rods with titanium (Ti6Al4V) pedicle screws were tested in-vitro by conducting a series of potentiostatic measurements of the peak-to-peak values of fretting corrosion current under bending in a 10% solution of calf serum in PBS...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999062/5-hydroxyethyl-3-tetradecanoyltetramic-acid-represents-a-novel-treatment-for-intravascular-catheter-infections-due-to-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Marta Zapotoczna, Ewan J Murray, Siobhan Hogan, James P O'Gara, Siri R Chhabra, Weng C Chan, Eoghan O'Neill, Paul Williams
OBJECTIVES: Biofilm infections of intravascular catheters caused by Staphylococcus aureus may be treated with catheter lock solutions (CLSs). Here we investigated the antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and CLS potential of 5-hydroxyethyl-3-tetradecanoyltetramic acid (5HE-C14-TMA) compared with the related compounds 3-tetradecanoyltetronic (C14-TOA) and 3-tetradecanoylthiotetronic (C14-TTA), which are variants of quorum sensing signalling molecules produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa METHODS: Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of 5HE-C14-TMA, C14-TOA and C14-TTA were determined via MIC, bacterial killing, membrane potential and permeability assays...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993011/tale-of-twisted-molecules-atropselective-photoreactions-taming-light-induced-asymmetric-transformations-through-non-biaryl-atropisomers
#7
Elango Kumarasamy, Anoklase Jean-Luc Ayitou, Nandini Vallavoju, Ramya Raghunathan, Akila Iyer, Anthony Clay, Sunil Kumar Kandappa, Jayaraman Sivaguru
Photochemical transformations are a powerful tool in organic synthesis to access structurally complex and diverse synthetic building blocks. However, this great potential remains untapped in the mainstream synthetic community due to the challenges associated with stereocontrol originating from excited state(s). The finite lifetime of an excited state and nearly barrierless subsequent processes present significant challenges in manipulating the stereochemical outcome of a photochemical reaction. Several methodologies were developed to address this bottleneck including photoreactions in confined media and preorganization through noncovalent interactions resulting in stereoenhancement...
December 20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958492/two-dimensional-electronic-spectroscopy-in-the-ultraviolet-by-a-birefringent-delay-line
#8
Rocio Borrego-Varillas, Aurelio Oriana, Lucia Ganzer, Anton Trifonov, Ivan Buchvarov, Cristian Manzoni, Giulio Cerullo
We introduce a 2D electronic spectroscopy setup in the UV spectral range in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The required interferometrically phase-locked few-optical-cycle UV pulse pair is generated by combining a passive birefringent interferometer in the visible and nonlinear phase transfer. This is achieved by sum-frequency generation between the phase-locked visible pulse pair and narrowband infrared pulses. We demonstrate a pair of 16-fs, 330-nm pulses whose delay is interferometrically stable with an accuracy better than λ/450...
December 12, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918415/on-the-use-of-a-feedback-tracking-architecture-for-satellite-navigation-spoofing-detection
#9
Esteban Garbin Manfredini, Fabio Dovis
In this paper, the Extended Coupled Amplitude Delay Lock Loop (ECADLL) architecture, previously introduced as a solution able to deal with a multipath environment, is revisited and improved to tailor it to spoofing detection purposes. Exploiting a properly-defined decision algorithm, the architecture is able to effectively detect a spoofer attack, as well as distinguish it from other kinds of interference events. The new algorithm is used to classify them according to their characteristics. We also introduce the use of a ratio metric detector in order to reduce the detection latency and the computational load of the architecture...
December 2, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916036/-effect-of-ultrasound-guided-patient-controlled-paravertebral-block-on-pulmonary-function-in-patients-with-multiple-fractured-ribs
#10
Y Y Ge, X Z Wang, N Yuan, L Y Yuan, W H Ma, Y Hu
Objective: To investigated the effects of patient controlled intravenous analgesia and ultrasound guided patient-controlled paravertebral block on pulmonary function in patients with multiple fractured ribs. Methods: From May 2015 to March 2016, 60 patients with multiple rib fractures in Ningbo NO.6 Hospital with American Society of Anesthesiologists Ⅱ-Ⅲ underwent internal fixation, including 30 males and 30 females aged from 16 to 70 years(mean age (54.6±15.2) years). All patients were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=30 each): patient controlled intravenous analgesia(PCIA) group and patient controlled thoracic paravertebral block(PCPB) group...
December 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906292/ultrafast-pulse-generation-in-a-mode-locked-erbium-chip-waveguide-laser
#11
Champak Khurmi, Nicolas Bourbeau Hébert, Wen Qi Zhang, Shahraam Afshar V, George Chen, Jérôme Genest, Tanya M Monro, David G Lancaster
We report mode-locked ~1550 nm output of transform-limited ~180 fs pulses from a large mode-area (diameter ~50 μm) guided-wave erbium fluorozirconate glass laser. The passively mode-locked oscillator generates pulses with 25 nm bandwidth at 156 MHz repetition rate and peak-power of 260 W. Scalability to higher repetition rate is demonstrated by transform-limited 410 fs pulse output at 1.3 GHz. To understand the origins of the broad spectral output, the laser cavity is simulated by using a numerical solution to the Ginzburg-Landau equation...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901539/colloidal-molecules-assembled-from-binary-spheres-under-an-ac-electric-field
#12
Kelley Lynch Heatley, Fuduo Ma, Ning Wu
Colloidal particles are envisioned as analogues of atoms and molecules, however they often lack the complexities present in their counterparts. In this work, we report the assembly of colloidal molecules from a binary mixture of polystyrene spheres (1, 1.6, 2, and 4 μm) under an alternating current electric field. The rich family of assembled oligomers typically consists of a large sphere that is closely surrounded by a number of smaller petal particles, driven by the dipolar attraction between large and small particles...
November 30, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883152/a-resettable-and-reprogrammable-biomolecular-keypad-lock-with-dual-outputs-based-on-glucose-oxidase-au-nanoclusters-prussian-blue-nanocomposite-films-on-an-electrode-surface
#13
Xue Yu, Menglu Li, Tianrui Li, Shuo Zhou, Hongyun Liu
In this work, electrochromic Prussian blue (PB) films were electrodeposited on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, and a dispersion mixture of glucose oxidase (GOD), chitosan (CS) and gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) was then cast on the PB surface to form CS-AuNC-GOD/PB nanocomposite film electrodes. The blue PB component in the films could be changed into its colourless reduced form of Prussian white (PW) upon application of -0.2 V. The addition of glucose to the solution would produce H2O2 with the help of GOD in the films and oxygen in the solution, which could oxidize PW back to PB...
December 8, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869838/analytical-comparison-of-pulses-generated-by-locking-three-and-five-longitudinal-modes-in-free-running-class-b-lasers
#14
Farzane Sharafi, Jafar Jahanpanah
We consider the coherent oscillation of five longitudinal modes, which leads to the coupling of modes in the frequency domain and generation of short pulses in the time domain. The aim is to audit the mechanism of mode locking in more detail by extending the analytical solution of the Maxwell-Bloch equations of motion from three to five mode states. The characteristics of pulses including height, repetition, and duration have been calculated for a five-mode class B laser, and the changes are compared with respect to the three-mode state...
November 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869672/analysis-of-multi-antenna-gnss-receiver-performance-under-jamming-attacks
#15
Niranjana Vagle, Ali Broumandan, Gérard Lachapelle
Although antenna array-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers can be used to mitigate both narrowband and wideband electronic interference sources, measurement distortions induced by array processing methods are not suitable for high precision applications. The measurement distortions have an adverse effect on the carrier phase ambiguity resolution, affecting the navigation solution. Depending on the array attitude information availability and calibration parameters, different spatial processing methods can be implemented although they distort carrier phase measurements in some cases...
November 17, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848194/intramedullary-lengthening-nails-can-we-also-correct-deformities
#16
REVIEW
U Lenze, A H Krieg
Unlike external fixators, the use of solid intramedullary lengthening nails is restricted to defined anatomical preconditions, such as an adequate bone length. Furthermore, all deformity corrections except the lengthening procedure have to be implemented intraoperatively and cannot be adjusted postoperatively. Conversely, even complex deformity corrections can be performed using intramedullary devices after a thorough preoperative planning. For preparation of the intramedullary cavity as well as positioning of the lengthening nail according to the preoperative planning, reaming the medullary canal with rigid reamers which don't follow the line of least resistance is inevitable...
December 2016: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788992/catheter-related-infections-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-novel-preventive-and-therapeutic-strategies
#17
REVIEW
Ramia Zakhour, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Issam I Raad
Central venous catheters are essential for the treatment of patients with haematological malignancies and the recipients of stem-cell transplant. This patient population is, however, at high risk for catheter-related bloodstream infections that can result in substantial morbidity, mortality, and health-care-associated costs. Efficient prevention, early diagnosis, and effective treatment are essential to providing the best care to these patients. Although confirming the catheter as a source of infection remains challenging, the Infectious Diseases Society of America definition of catheter-related bloodstream infection remains the most precise definition to use in these patients...
November 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781479/phase-locked-patterns-of-the-kuramoto-model-on-3-regular-graphs
#18
Lee DeVille, Bard Ermentrout
We consider the existence of non-synchronized fixed points to the Kuramoto model defined on sparse networks: specifically, networks where each vertex has degree exactly three. We show that "most" such networks support multiple attracting phase-locked solutions that are not synchronized and study the depth and width of the basins of attraction of these phase-locked solutions. We also show that it is common in "large enough" graphs to find phase-locked solutions where one or more of the links have angle difference greater than π/2...
September 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774792/fast-nanoscale-surface-charge-mapping-with-pulsed-potential-scanning-ion-conductance-microscopy
#19
Ashley Page, David Perry, Philip Young, Daniel Mitchell, Bruno G Frenguelli, Patrick R Unwin
A vast range of interfacial systems exhibit charge heterogeneities on the nanoscale. These differences in local surface charge density are challenging to visualize, but recent work has shown the scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) to be a very promising tool to spatially resolve and map surface charge and topography via a hopping potential sweep technique with a single nanopipette probe, with harmonic modulation of a bias applied between quasi-reference counter electrodes in the nanopipette and bulk solution, coupled with lock-in detection...
November 15, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763650/cu-sn-s-plasmonic-semiconductor-nanocrystals-for-ultrafast-photonics
#20
Qiangbing Guo, Meixi Ji, Yunhua Yao, Meng Liu, Zhi-Chao Luo, Shian Zhang, Xiaofeng Liu, Jianrong Qiu
Here, we show that solution-processed Cu-Sn-S semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) demonstrate a tunable localized surface plasmon resonance band in the near infrared region, where strong saturable absorption occurs. A saturable absorber based on these plasmonic NCs enables the construction of a stable mode-locked femtosecond fiber laser operating at the telecommunication band.
October 20, 2016: Nanoscale
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