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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667048/ethanol-lock-is-effective-on-reducing-the-incidence-of-tunneled-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Tingting Zhao, Hong Liu, Jibin Han
PURPOSE: The purpose of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the effect of ethanol lock on the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in patients with central venous catheters. METHODS: RCTs comparing ethanol lock with another solution lock for prevention of CRBSI were obtained by searching databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of clinical trials for eligible randomized controlled trials (inception to December 2017)...
April 17, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653134/the-optimal-ethanol-lock-therapy-regimen-for-treatment-of-biofilm-associated-catheter-infections-results-from-an-in-vitro-study
#2
Beatriz Alonso, María Jesús Pérez-Granda, Ana Rodríguez-Huerta, Carmen Rodríguez, Emilio Bouza, María Guembe
Ethanol-based lock therapy (LT) solutions are used as an alternative to antibiotics for the conservative management of catheter-related bloodstream infection. However, no clear consensus on regimen or dose has been reached. Our objective was to find the ethanol-based lock solution containing a sufficiently low concentration of ethanol for reduction of the metabolic activity of bacterial and fungal biofilms. Using an in vitro model, we tested 3 concentrations of ethanol (25%-40%-70%), with and without 60 IU of heparin, at 6 different time points and against 24-hour preformed biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Staphylococcus epidermidis (clinical isolate), Enterococcus faecalis ATCC33186, Candida albicans ATCC14058, and Escherichia coli ATCC25922...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611180/antimicrobial-lock-solutions-for-preventing-catheter-related-infections-in-haemodialysis
#3
REVIEW
Maria C Arechabala, Maria I Catoni, Juan Carlos Claro, Noelia P Rojas, Miriam E Rubio, Mario A Calvo, Luz M Letelier
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) through a central venous catheter (CVC) are exposed to several risks, being a catheter-related infection (CRI) and a CVC lumen thrombosis among the most serious. Standard of care regarding CVCs includes their sealing with heparin lock solutions to prevent catheter lumen thrombosis. Other lock solutions to prevent CRI, such as antimicrobial lock solutions, have proven useful with antibiotics solutions, but not as yet for non-antibiotic antimicrobial solutions...
April 3, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604725/simple-and-portable-low-frequency-lock-in-amplifier-designed-for-photoacoustic-measurements-and-its-application-to-thermal-effusivity-determination-in-liquids
#4
Emmanuel Ortega-Robles, Alfredo Cruz-Orea, David Elías-Viñas
The lock-in amplifier is a very useful instrument for observing very small signals under adverse signal-to-noise conditions. In this work, we describe a simple and portable lock-in amplifier designed to be used in photoacoustic measurements. The device was used to measure the thermal effusivity of eight different liquid samples (distilled water, glycerol, acetone, ethanol, 2-propanol, chloroform, hexane, and methanol), as well as the effusivity of acetone in aqueous solution at distinct concentrations, giving good results...
March 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589950/dual-frequency-comb-transient-absorption-broad-dynamic-range-measurement-of-femtosecond-to-nanosecond-relaxation-processes
#5
JunWoo Kim, Byungmoon Cho, Tai Hyun Yoon, Minhaeng Cho
We experimentally demonstrate a dual frequency comb based transient absorption (DFC-TA) technique, which has a 12 fs time resolution and an ultrafast scan rate. Here, the fast scan rate is achieved by employing the asynchronous optical sampling (ASOPS), which utilizes two independent mode-locked lasers with slightly detuned repetition rates. The ASOPS approach is advantageous because photo-degradation damage of optical sample during TA measurements can be minimized by a gated sampling. We show that the vibrational and electronic population relaxations of near-IR dye molecules in solution that occur in the time range from femtoseconds to nanoseconds can be resolved even with a single time-scan measurement...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561271/convectively-dominated-heparin-leakage-from-multiple-catheter-designs-an-in-vitro-experimental-study
#6
Michael Coleman Barbour, Kenneth W Gow, Alberto Aliseda
Central venous catheters (CVCs) are routinely filled with a heparin lock while not in use to avoid thrombus formation near the tip. However, heparin leakage is known to occur, and the lock effectiveness remains in question. It was recently shown that convective fluxes from the blood flow in the host vein transport the majority of locking solution away from the tip of hemodialysis catheters immediately after instillation. Combined with the low diffusivity of heparin, this results in concentrations of heparin at the catheter tip that are orders of magnitude lower than at instillation for the majority of the interdialytic phase, diminishing the antithrombotic effectiveness of the lock...
March 16, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533994/design-and-implementation-of-an-rtk-based-vector-phase-locked-loop
#7
Ahmad Shafaati, Tao Lin, Ali Broumandan, Gérard Lachapelle
This paper introduces a novel double-differential vector phase-locked loop (DD-VPLL) for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) that leverages carrier phase position solutions as well as base station measurements in the estimation of rover tracking loop parameters. The use of double differencing alleviates the need for estimating receiver clock dynamics and atmospheric delays; therefore, the navigation filter consists of the baseline dynamic states only. It is shown that using vector processing for carrier phase tracking leads to a significant enhancement in the receiver sensitivity compared to using the conventional scalar-based tracking loop (STL) and vector frequency locked loop (VFLL)...
March 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489705/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-a-new-chlorhexidine-based-device-against-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-of-venous-catheters
#8
Paulina M Kowalewska, Shawn M Petrik, Attilio E Di Fiore, Alison E Fox-Robichaud
Vascular catheters are a major cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections. ChloraLock (ATTWILL Medical Solutions, Inc, West Jordan, UT, and ICU Medical, Inc, San Clemente, CA) is a novel antimicrobial device containing chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) that is fitted onto a syringe and infuses CHG into the catheter lumen during locking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of ChloraLock with in vitro tests and its ability to reduce Staphylococcus aureus contamination of catheters in the external jugular veins of Yorkshire swine...
March 2018: Journal of Infusion Nursing: the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488399/laboratory-and-benchtop-performance-of-a-mealtime-insulin-delivery-system
#9
Darlene M Dreon, Trevor M Hannon, Brett Cross, Brett J Carter, Nicholas S Mercer, Jason H Nguyen, Andy Tran, Peter A Melendez, Nancy Morales, Jonathan E Nelson, Meng H Tan
BACKGROUND: A basal bolus insulin regimen requires multiple daily insulin injections, which might discourage patient adherence. As a potential solution, a mealtime insulin-delivery system-a 3-day wearable bolus-only patch-was designed to manually administer mealtime insulin discreetly by actuating buttons through clothing, without the need for multiple needle sticks. METHOD: Extensive functional testing of the patch included dose accuracy (from initial fill of the device to empty), pressure-vacuum leak testing, last-dose lockout and occlusion detection (safety alert features that lock the dosing buttons when no insulin is delivered), assessments of insulin drug stability, toxicological risk (including chemical testing), and system biocompatibility...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485153/tuning-protein-assembly-pathways-through-superfast-amyloid-like-aggregation
#10
Chen Li, Lu Xu, Yi Y Zuo, Peng Yang
Amyloid formation of proteins is not only relevant for neurodegenerative diseases, but has recently emerged as a groundbreaking approach in materials science and biotechnology. However, amyloid aggregation of proteins in vitro generally requires a long incubation time under extremely harsh conditions, and the understanding of the structural motif to determine amyloid assembly is extremely limited. Herein we reveal that the integration of three important building blocks in typical globular proteins is crucial for superfast protein amyloid-like assembly including the segment required for high fibrillation propensity, abundant α-helix structures and intramolecular S-S bonds to lock the α-helix...
February 27, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475287/102-nm-44-5-mhz-inertial-free-swept-source-by-mode-locked-fiber-laser-and-time-stretch-technique-for-optical-coherence-tomography
#11
Jiqiang Kang, Pingping Feng, Xiaoming Wei, Edmund Y Lam, Kevin K Tsia, Kenneth K Y Wong
A swept source with both high repetition-rate and broad bandwidth is indispensable to enable optical coherence tomography (OCT) with high imaging rate and high axial resolution. However, available swept sources are commonly either limited in speed (sub-MHz) by inertial or kinetic component, or limited in bandwidth (<100 nm) by the gain medium. Here we report an ultrafast broadband (over 100 nm centered at 1.55-µm) all-fiber inertial-free swept source built upon a high-power dispersion-managed fiber laser in conjunction with an optical time-stretch module which bypasses complex optical amplification scheme, which result in a portable and compact implementation of time-stretch OCT (TS-OCT) at A-scan rate of 44...
February 19, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472511/development-and-implementation-of-an-antimicrobial-lock-therapy-guideline-in-a-pediatric-hospital
#12
Tracy N Zembles, Linda S Flannery, Anna R Huppler
PURPOSE: The development and implementation of an antimicrobial lock therapy guideline at a large pediatric hospital are described. SUMMARY: Central venous access devices (CVADs) are essential in the medical management of patients requiring long-term total parenteral nutrition, chemotherapy, or hemodialysis. However, the use of a CVAD carries a significant risk of the development of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). Antimicrobial lock therapy is indicated for patients with CLABSIs who have no signs of exit site or tunnel infection and for whom catheter salvage is a goal...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469884/principal-frequency-component-analysis-based-on-modulate-chopper-technique-used-in-diffuse-reflectance-spectroscopy-measurement
#13
Shaoxiu Song, Gang Li, Xingwei Hou, Shengzhao Zhang, Yue Yu, Ling Lin
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is significantly affected from the interference of the ambient light and dark current of the instrument. Optical choppers, together with lock-in/synchronous amplification, can overcome these interferences. However, in spectral measurement, the sampling rate of the spectrometer is different from the Δ-pulse sampling, which is not high enough because of the integration time. In addition, the energy distribution is not perfectly concentrated as expected in modulate chopper technology...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464782/does-obestatin-modulate-the-hypothalamic-appetite-regulating-network-in-peripubertal-sheep
#14
M Szlis, J Polkowska, E Skrzeczyńska, B J Przybył, A Wójcik-Gładysz
The participation of peripheral peptides in the processes regulating the food intake (energy homeostasis) at the central nervous system level remains unclear. This study focuses on the role of obestatin in neuronal activity within the hypothalamic appetite-regulating network in ruminants. The animals (n = 28) were randomly divided into two groups. The sheep in the control group received intracerebroventricular infusions of the Ringer-Locke solution, and the sheep in obestatin group were infused with obestatin (diluted in the Ringer-Locke solution) at 25 μg per 120 μl/hr...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457395/-effects-of-patient-controlled-infraclavicular-brachial-plexus-block-for-postoperative-pain-and-surgical-efficacy-in-patients-with-terrible-tyriad-of-the-elbow
#15
Wang Xiu-Zhen, Ye-Ying Ge, Guang-Yao Ye, Jing-Wei Zhang, Wei-Hu Ma
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of ultrasound guided inter-scalene brachial plexus block and patient-controlled infraclavicular brachial plexus block for postoperative pain and surgical efficacy in patients with terrible tyriad of the elbow. METHODS: From March 2015 to August 2016, 60 patients with terrible tyriad of the elbows were treated in Ningbo No.6 Hospital with ASA I to II internal fixation. There were 32 males and 28 females, ranging in age from 16 to 70 years old, with a mean age of (55...
November 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453981/the-c2-and-c3-endo-equilibrium-for-amp-molecules-bound-in-the-cystathionine-beta-synthase-domain
#16
Na Feng, Chao Qi, Yan-Jie Hou, Ying Zhang, Da-Cheng Wang, De-Feng Li
The equilibrium between C2'- and C3'-endo conformations of nucleotides in solution, as well as their polymers DNA and RNA, has been well studied in previous work. However, this equilibrium of nucleotides in their binding state remains unclear. We observed two AMP molecules, in C3'- and C2'-endo conformations respectively, simultaneously bound to a cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) domain dimer of the magnesium and cobalt efflux protein CorC in the crystallographic study. The C2'-endo AMP molecule assumes the higher sugar pucker energy and one more hydrogen bond with the protein than the C3'-endo molecule does...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440720/structure-of-prothrombin-in-the-closed-form-reveals-new-details-on-the-mechanism-of-activation
#17
Mathivanan Chinnaraj, Zhiwei Chen, Leslie A Pelc, Zachary Grese, Dominika Bystranowska, Enrico Di Cera, Nicola Pozzi
The clotting factor prothrombin exists in equilibrium between closed and open conformations, but the physiological role of these forms remains unclear. As for other allosteric proteins, elucidation of the linkage between molecular transitions and function is facilitated by reagents stabilized in each of the alternative conformations. The open form of prothrombin has been characterized structurally, but little is known about the architecture of the closed form that predominates in solution under physiological conditions...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433007/biodegradation-and-mechanical-behavior-of-an-advanced-bioceramic-containing-mg-matrix-composite-synthesized-through-in-situ-solid-state-oxidation
#18
S NaddafDezfuli, J C Brouwer, J M C Mol, F C T van der Helm, J Zhou
Recent studies have shown great potential of Mg matrix composites for biodegradable orthopedic devices. However, the poor structural integrity of these composites, which results in excessive localized corrosion and premature mechanical failure, has hindered their widespread applications. In this research, an in-situ Powder Metallurgy (PM) method was used to fabricate a novel biodegradable Mg-bredigite composite and to achieve enhanced chemical interfacial locking between the constituents by triggering a solid-state thermochemical reaction between Mg and bredigite particles...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427885/a-nonenzymatic-dna-nanomachine-for-biomolecular-detection-by-target-recycling-of-hairpin-dna-cascade-amplification
#19
Jiao Zheng, Ningxing Li, Chunrong Li, Xinxin Wang, Yucheng Liu, Guobin Mao, Xinghu Ji, Zhike He
Synthetic enzyme-free DNA nanomachine performs quasi-mechanical movements in response to external intervention, suggesting the promise of constructing sensitive and specific biosensors. Herein, a smart DNA nanomachine biosensor for biomolecule (such as nucleic acid, thrombin and adenosine) detection is developed by target-assisted enzyme-free hairpin DNA cascade amplifier. The whole DNA nanomachine system is constructed on gold nanoparticle which decorated with hundreds of locked hairpin substrate strands serving as DNA tracks, and the DNA nanomachine could be activated by target molecule toehold-mediated exchange on gold nanoparticle surface, resulted in the fluorescence recovery of fluorophore...
January 31, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399370/an-open-source-3d-printed-preclinical-mri-phantom-for-repeated-measures-of-contrast-agents-and-reference-standards
#20
B L Cox, K D Ludwig, E B Adamson, K W Eliceiri, S B Fain
In medical imaging, clinicians, researchers and technicians have begun to use 3D printing to create specialized phantoms to replace commercial ones due to their customizable and iterative nature. Presented here is the design of a 3D printed open source, reusable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom, capable of flood-filling, with removable samples for measurements of contrast agent solutions and reference standards, and for use in evaluating acquisition techniques and image reconstruction performance. The phantom was designed using SolidWorks, a computer-aided design software package...
March 2018: Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express
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