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Ashley Page, David Perry, Philip Young, Daniel A Mitchell, Bruno G Frenguelli, Patrick R Unwin
A vast range of interfacial systems exhibit charge heterogeneities on the nanoscale. These differences in local surface charge density are challenging to visualize, but recent work has shown the scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) to be a very promising tool to spatially resolve and map surface charge and topography via a hopping potential sweep technique with a single nanopipette probe, with harmonic modulation of a bias applied between quasi-reference counter electrodes in the nanopipette and bulk solution, coupled with lock-in detection...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Qiangbing Guo, Meixi Ji, Yunhua Yao, Meng Liu, Zhi-Chao Luo, Shian Zhang, Xiaofeng Liu, Jianrong Qiu
Here, we show that solution-processed Cu-Sn-S semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) demonstrate a tunable localized surface plasmon resonance band in the near infrared region, where strong saturable absorption occurs. A saturable absorber based on these plasmonic NCs enables the construction of a stable mode-locked femtosecond fiber laser operating at the telecommunication band.
October 20, 2016: Nanoscale
Casey O Diekman, Amitabha Bose
Circadian oscillators found across a variety of species are subject to periodic external light-dark forcing. Entrainment to light-dark cycles enables the circadian system to align biological functions with appropriate times of day or night. Phase response curves (PRCs) have been used for decades to gain valuable insights into entrainment; however, PRCs may not accurately describe entrainment to photoperiods with substantial amounts of both light and dark due to their reliance on a single limit cycle attractor...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Heber Silva-Díaz, Lorena Flores-Esqueche, Dunalia Llatas-Cancino, Génesis Guevara Vásquez, Teresa Silva-García
OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and antiparasitic in vitro susceptibility of Blastocystis hominis in patients admitted to theHospital Regional Lambayeque, Peru. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to August 2015 at 313 patients of all ages. B. hominis detection was performed on serial fecal samples by direct microscopic examination and microculture in modified Locke solution. The in vitro susceptibility testing against the drug metronidazole, nitazoxanide, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin was performed in 24 strains of B...
July 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
Guang Ouyang, Werner Sommer, Changsong Zhou
Stimulus-locked averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) are among the most frequently used signals in Cognitive Neuroscience. However, the late, cognitive or endogenous ERP components are often variable in latency from trial to trial in a component-specific way, compromising the stability assumption underlying the averaging scheme. Here we show that trial-to-trial latency variability of ERP components not only blurs the average ERP waveforms, but may also attenuate existing or artificially induce condition effects in amplitude...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Benjamin W Starnes, Rachel E Heneghan, Billi Tatum
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to report midterm results of an ongoing physician-sponsored investigational device exemption pivotal clinical trial using physician-modified endovascular grafts (PMEGs) for treatment of patients with juxtarenal aortic aneurysms who are deemed unfit for open repair. METHODS: Data from a nonrandomized, prospective, consecutively enrolling investigational device exemption clinical trial were used. Data collection began on April 1, 2011, and data lock occurred on May 31, 2015, with outcomes analysis through December 31, 2015...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Hajime Miyaguchi
An improved version of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for genotyping toxic pufferfish species by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) is described. DNA extraction is carried out using a silica membrane-based DNA extraction kit. After the PCR amplification using a detergent-free PCR buffer, restriction enzymes are added to the solution without purifying the reaction solution. A reverse-phase silica monolith column and a Fourier transform high resolution mass spectrometer having a modified Kingdon trap analyzer are employed for separation and detection, respectively...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mariano J Tilve, Carmen R Cori, Carola Gallo-Rodriguez
The use of thiogalactofuranoside as donors for the construction of internal Galf containing oligosaccharide is limited, probably due to the difficulty to functionalize thiogalactofuranoside derivatives showing O-2, O-3, and O-5 with similar reactivity. An efficient method for complete regioselective 5-O-opening of conformationally restricted 3,5-O-di-tert-butylsilylene-d-galactofuranoside derivatives was developed. The use of a solution nBu4NF (1.1 equiv) in CH2Cl2 on 6 gave the 5-OH free derivative 10 as the only product (90%)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Aswathy N Muttathukattil, Govardhan Reddy
Understanding the role of naturally occurring protective osmolytes, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), in the growth of amyloid fibrils implicated in neurodegenerative diseases is important to prevent fibril growth. The effect of TMAO on the growth of amyloid fibrils formed by the Sup35 prion peptide NNQQNY is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The free-energy surface for the growth of the protofibril shows three major basins, corresponding to the free state where the peptide is in solution, the docked state where the peptide in solution interacts with the surface of the protofibril, and the locked state where the peptide is tightly bound to the protofibril, becoming a part of the fibril...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Marcus V S João Luiz, Cristoforo Scavone, Carmen Tzanno
Introduction Poor blood flow rate (PF) is highly prevalent among CKD 5D patients with long-term central venous catheters. Heparin catheter lock solutions are commonly used to maintain catheter patency, however the incidence of PF remains high. The purpose of the CLOCK Trial was to evaluate two catheter lock solutions on reduction of PF incidence. Methods Seventy-five CKD 5D patients on high-efficiency hemodialysis at the Integrated Centre of Nephrology (Guarulhos, Brazil) were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a lock solution combining minocycline 3 mg/mL with the anticoagulant/chelation agent EDTA 30 mg/mL (M-EDTA) or heparin 1000 IU/mL (H) or trisodium citrate 30% (TSC) vs...
September 26, 2016: Hemodialysis International
Shin-Chan Han, Jeanne Sauber, Fred Pollitz
Large earthquakes often trigger viscoelastic adjustment for years to decades depending on the rheological properties and the nature and spatial extent of coseismic stress. The 2006 Mw8.3 thrust and 2007 Mw8.1 normal fault earthquakes of the central Kuril Islands resulted in significant postseismic gravity change in GRACE but without a discernible coseismic gravity change. The gravity increase of ~4 µGal, observed consistently from various GRACE solutions around the epicentral area during 2007-2015, is interpreted as resulting from gradual seafloor uplift by ~6 cm produced by postseismic relaxation...
April 16, 2016: Geophysical Research Letters
Alan Lock, Dirk Wallschläger, Colin McMurdo, Laura Tyler, Nelson Belzile, Graeme Spiers
A sequential extraction procedure (SEP) for the speciation analysis of As(III) and As(V) in oxic and suboxic soils and sediments was validated using a natural lake sediment and three certified reference materials, as well as spike recoveries of As(III) and As(V). Many of the extraction steps have been previously validated making the procedure useful for comparisons to similar previous SEP studies. The novel aspect of this research is the validation for the SEP to maintain As(III) and As(V) species. The proposed five step extraction procedure includes the extraction agents (NH4)2SO4, NH4H2PO4, H3PO4 + NH2OH·HCl, oxalate + ascorbic acid (heated), and HNO3 + HCl + HF, targeting operationally defined easily exchangeable, strongly sorbed, amorphous Fe oxide bound, crystalline Fe oxide bound, and residual As fractions, respectively...
September 15, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Qiangbing Guo, Yunhua Yao, Zhi-Chao Luo, Zhipeng Qin, Guoqiang Xie, Meng Liu, Jia Kang, Shian Zhang, Gang Bi, Xiaofeng Liu, Jianrong Qiu
Field effect relies on the nonlinear current-voltage relation in semiconductors; analogously, materials that respond nonlinearly to optical field can be utilized for optical modulation. For instance, nonlinear optical materials bearing saturable absorption (SA) features an on-off switching behavior at the critical pumping power, thus enabling ultrafast laser pulse generation with high peak power. SA have been observed in diverse materials preferably in their nanoscale form, including both gaped semiconductor nanostructures and gapless materials like graphene; while the presence of optical bandgap and small carrier density have limited the active spectral range and intensity...
September 13, 2016: ACS Nano
A D Shaw, A R Champneys, M I Friswell
Sudden onset of violent chattering or whirling rotor-stator contact motion in rotational machines can cause significant damage in many industrial applications. It is shown that internal resonance can lead to the onset of bouncing-type partial contact motion away from primary resonances. These partial contact limit cycles can involve any two modes of an arbitrarily high degree-of-freedom system, and can be seen as an extension of a synchronization condition previously reported for a single disc system. The synchronization formula predicts multiple drivespeeds, corresponding to different forms of mode-locked bouncing orbits...
August 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Nozomi Kawarazuka, Catherine Locke, Cynthia McDougall, Paula Kantor, Miranda Morgan
The demand for gender analysis is now increasingly orthodox in natural resource programming, including that for small-scale fisheries. Whilst the analysis of social-ecological resilience has made valuable contributions to integrating social dimensions into research and policy-making on natural resource management, it has so far demonstrated limited success in effectively integrating considerations of gender equity. This paper reviews the challenges in, and opportunities for, bringing a gender analysis together with social-ecological resilience analysis in the context of small-scale fisheries research in developing countries...
September 10, 2016: Ambio
José L Merino, Hanane Bouarich, M José Pita, Patricia Martínez, Blanca Bueno, Silvia Caldés, Elena Corchete, M Teresa Jaldo, Beatriz Espejo, Vicente Paraíso
INTRODUCTION: The application of antiseptic solution for handling tunnelled catheters is recommended in patients undergoing haemodialysis. These routine antiseptic procedures in handling catheters are crucial to avoid complications. We report an outbreak of Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) bacteraemia in numerous haemodialysis units of the Community of Madrid. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The first cases of bacteraemia due to S. marcescens were isolated in December 2014...
August 29, 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Chih-Yuan Huang, Cheng-Hung Wu
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an infrastructure that interconnects uniquely-identifiable devices using the Internet. By interconnecting everyday appliances, various monitoring, and physical mashup applications can be constructed to improve human's daily life. In general, IoT devices provide two main capabilities: sensing and tasking capabilities. While the sensing capability is similar to the World-Wide Sensor Web, this research focuses on the tasking capability. However, currently, IoT devices created by different manufacturers follow different proprietary protocols and are locked in many closed ecosystems...
2016: Sensors
Clement Law, Douglas J Ashton, Nigel B Wilding, Robert L Jack
When colloids are mixed with a depletant such as a non-adsorbing polymer, one observes attractive effective interactions between the colloidal particles. If these particles are anisotropic, analysis of these effective interactions is challenging in general. We present a method for inference of approximate (coarse-grained) effective interaction potentials between such anisotropic particles. Using the example of indented (lock-and-key) colloids, we show how numerical solutions can be used to integrate out the (hard sphere) depletant, leading to a depletion potential that accurately characterises the effective interactions...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Zhiguang Jia, Susan K Whitaker, John M Tomich, Jianhan Chen
A class of self-assembling branched amphiphilic peptide capsules (BAPCs) was recently developed that could serve as a new drug delivery vehicle. BAPCs can encapsulate solutes up to ∼12 kDa during assembly, are unusually stable, and are readily taken up by cells with low cytotoxicity. Coarse-grained simulations have supported that BAPCs are defined by bilayers that resemble those formed by diacyl phospholipids. Here, atomistic simulations were performed to characterize the structure and organization of bilayers formed by three branched amphiphilic peptides (BAPs): bis(Ac-FLIVIGSII)-K-K4-CO-NH2, bis(Ac-CHA-LIVIGSII)-K-K4-CO-NH2, and bis(Ac-FLIVI)-K-K4-CO-NH2...
September 27, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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