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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710972/epidemiology-diagnosis-prevention-and-treatment-of-catheter-related-thrombosis-in-children-and-adults
#1
REVIEW
Lisa Baumann Kreuziger, Julie Jaffray, Marc Carrier
In this narrative review, the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention strategies, and management of catheter-related thrombosis are outlined. Central venous catheters have significantly improved the quality of life of patients requiring chemotherapy, parenteral nutrition, and chronic transfusions. Catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) complicates between 1-5% of inserted catheters, with incidence varying between patient population, catheter type, and vein cannulated. Strategies to prevent CRT, including anticoagulation and locking solutions, have largely been ineffective...
July 4, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707877/free-energy-driven-lock-open-assembly-based-optical-dna-sensor-for-cancer-related-microrna-detection-with-a-shortened-time-to-result
#2
Xiyu Zhu, Ruoyu Wang, Xiaohong Zhou, Hanchang Shi
Quantification of cancer biomarker microRNAs (miRs) by exquisitely designed biosensors with a short time-to-result is of great clinical significance. With immobilized capture probes (CPs) and fluorescent labeled signal probes (SPs), surface involved sandwich-type (SST) biosensors serve as powerful tools for rapid, highly sensitive and selective detection of miR in complex matrices as opposed to the conventional techniques. One key challenge for such SST biosensors is the existence of false negative signals when the amount of miRs exceeds SPs in solution phase for a surface with limited number of CP...
July 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707742/intramolecular-locked-dithioalkylbithiophene-based-semiconductors-for-high-performance-organic-field-effect-transistors
#3
Sureshraju Vegiraju, Bo-Chin Chang, Pragya Priyanka, Deng-Yi Huang, Kuan-Yi Wu, Long-Huan Li, Wei-Chieh Chang, Yi-Yo Lai, Shao-Huan Hong, Bo-Chun Yu, Chien-Lung Wang, Wen-Jung Chang, Cheng-Liang Liu, Ming-Chou Chen, Antonio Facchetti
New 3,3'-dithioalkyl-2,2'-bithiophene (SBT)-based small molecular and polymeric semiconductors are synthesized by end-capping or copolymerization with dithienothiophen-2-yl units. Single-crystal, molecular orbital computations, and optical/electrochemical data indicate that the SBT core is completely planar, likely via S(alkyl)⋯S(thiophene) intramolecular locks. Therefore, compared to semiconductors based on the conventional 3,3'-dialkyl-2,2'-bithiophene, the resulting SBT systems are planar (torsional angle <1°) and highly π-conjugated...
July 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700211/polyphenolic-polymersomes-of-temperature-sensitive-poly-n-vinylcaprolactam-block-poly-n-vinylpyrrolidone-for-anticancer-therapy
#4
Veronika Kozlovskaya, Fei Liu, Bing Xue, Fahim Ahmad, Aaron Alford, Mohammad Saeed, Eugenia Kharlampieva
We report a versatile synthesis for polyphenolic polymersomes of controlled submicron (< 500 nm) size for intracellular delivery of high and low molecular weight compounds. The nanoparticles are synthesized by stabilizing the vesicular morphology of thermally responsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam)n-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)m (PVCLn-PVPONm) diblock copolymers with tannic acid (TA), a hydrolyzable polyphenol, via hydrogen bonding at the temperature above the copolymer's LCST. The PVCL179-PVPONm diblock copolymers are produced by controlled RAFT polymerization of PVPON using PVCL as a macro-chain transfer agent...
July 12, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692746/noncovalent-se%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-o-conformational-locks-for-constructing-high-performing-optoelectronic-conjugated-polymers
#5
Tao Dong, Lei Lv, Linlin Feng, Yu Xia, Wei Deng, Pan Ye, Bei Yang, Shang Ding, Antonio Facchetti, Huanli Dong, Hui Huang
Noncovalent conformational locks are broadly employed to construct highly planar π-conjugated semiconductors exhibiting substantial charge transport characteristics. However, current chalcogen-based conformational lock strategies for organic semiconductors are limited to S···X (X = O, N, halide) weak interactions. An easily accessible (minimal synthetic steps) and structurally planar selenophene-based building block, 1,2-diethoxy-1,2-bisselenylvinylene (DESVS), with novel Se···O noncovalent conformational locks is designed and synthesized...
July 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689878/systematic-review-of-antimicrobial-lock-therapy-for-prevention-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-adult-and-pediatric-cancer-patients
#6
REVIEW
LeAnn B Norris, Farah Kablaoui, Maggie K Brilhart, P Brandon Bookstaver
BACKGROUND: Central venous catheter (CVC) use is commonplace in cancer patients. Antimicrobial lock therapy (ALT), the instillation of a concentrated antimicrobial solution into the catheter lumen, is one method for preventing infection among CVCs. This systematic review discusses the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic ALT in cancer patients with CVCs. METHODS: A literature search was performed using the Medline database and Google Scholar from inception until April 2016...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677081/the-role-of-impairment-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-function-in-osteoporotic-bone-fracture-healing
#7
Lihai Zhang, Saeed Miramini, Martin Richardson, Priyan Mendis, Peter Ebeling
With demographic change and increasing life expectancy, osteoporotic fractures have become one of the most prevalent trauma conditions seen in daily clinical practice. A variety of factors are known to affect the rate of healing in osteoporotic conditions (e.g. both biochemical and biomechanical environment of callus cells). However, the influence of impairment of mesenchymal stem cell function in the osteoporotic condition on bone fracture healing has not been fully understood. In the present study, we develop a mathematical model that quantifies the change in biological processes within the fracture callus as a result of osteoporosis...
July 4, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665944/molecular-mechanics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-adhesin-cna-and-the-inhibition-of-bacterial-adhesion-by-stretching-collagen
#8
Ali Madani, Kiavash Garakani, Mohammad R K Mofrad
Bacterial adhesion to collagen, the most abundant protein in humans, is a critical step in the initiation and persistence of numerous bacterial infections. In this study, we explore the collagen binding mechanism of the multi-modular cell wall anchored collagen adhesin (CNA) in Staphylococcus aureus and examine how applied mechanical forces can modulate adhesion ability. The common structural-functional elements and domain organization of CNA are present across over 50 genera of bacteria. Through the use of molecular dynamics models and normal mode analysis, we shed light on the CNA's structural and conformational dynamics and its interactions with collagen that lead to collagen binding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656173/heparin-mimics-extracellular-dna-in-binding-to-cell-surface-localized-proteins-and-promoting-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation
#9
Surabhi Mishra, Alexander R Horswill
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Biofilms form on these implants and are held together by a matrix composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and extracellular DNA (eDNA). Heparin is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan that is routinely used in central venous catheters to prevent thrombosis, but it has been shown to stimulate S. aureus biofilm formation through an unknown mechanism. Data presented here reveal that heparin enhances biofilm capacity in many S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains, and it is incorporated into the USA300 methicillin-resistant S...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652024/the-lock-in-effect-and-the-greening-of-automotive-cooling-systems-in-the-european-union
#10
Amalie Bjørnåvold, Steven Van Passel
As of 2017, the sale and use of the refrigerants most commonly used in automotive cooling systems - hydrofluorocarbons - are entirely banned in all new vehicles placed on the market in the European Union. These refrigerants have been recognised as potent greenhouse gases and, therefore, direct contributors to climate change. It is within this regulation-driven market that the technologies for a sustainable solution have been developed. However, this paper argues that the market for automotive cooling systems has been 'locked-in', which means that competing technologies, operating under dynamic increasing returns, will allow for one - potentially inferior technology - to dominate the market...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633849/effects-of-bovine-serum-albumin-on-a-single-cavitation-bubble
#11
Shuibao Qi, Badreddine Assouar, Weizhong Chen
The dynamics and sonoluminescence (SL) of a single cavitation bubble in bovine serum albumin (BSA) aqueous solutions have been experimentally and theoretically investigated. A phase-locked integral imaging has been used to record the bubble pulsation evolutions. The results show that, under the optimum driving condition, the endurable driving pressure, maximum radius, radius compression ratio and SL intensity of the cavitation bubble increase correspondingly with the increase of BSA concentrations within the critical micelle concentration, which indicates that the addition of BSA increases the power capability of the cavitation bubble...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623638/urokinase-containing-locking-solution-in-the-prevention-of-dialysis-catheter-dysfunction-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Florence Bonkain, Freya Van Hulle, Peter Janssens, Concetta Catalano, Mandelina Allamani, Jean-Claude Stolear, Dominique Vandervelde, Mark Libertalis, Serge Treille, Marie M Couttenye, Annemie Dhondt, Wim Van Biesen, Jean François Fils, Christian Tielemans, Karl M Wissing
INTRODUCTION: The prophylactic use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator once weekly reduces the incidence rate of tunneled cuffed catheter (TCC) malfunction and bacteremia as compared to the exclusive use of heparin as locking solution. Restricting the use of prophylactic thrombolytic agents to patients with a history of thrombotic TCC malfunction could be more cost effective. We conduct a multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial and test the hypothesis that weekly use of urokinase lock will reduce the incidence of thrombotic malfunction by 50% in prevalent hemodialysis patients with a history of thrombotic malfunction...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618492/spontaneous-exchange-of-leader-laggard-relationship-in-mutually-coupled-synchronized-semiconductor-lasers
#13
Kazutaka Kanno, Takuya Hida, Atsushi Uchida, Masatoshi Bunsen
We investigate the instantaneous behavior of synchronized temporal wave forms in two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers numerically and experimentally. The temporal wave forms of two lasers are synchronized with a propagation delay time, with one laser oscillating in advance of the other, known as the leader-laggard relationship. The leader-laggard relationship can be determined by measuring the cross-correlation between the two temporal wave forms with the propagation delay time. The leader can be identified when the optical carrier frequency of the leader laser is higher than that of the other laser...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607194/solute-hydrogen-and-hydride-phase-implications-on-the-plasticity-of-zirconium-and-titanium-alloys-a-review-and-some-recent-advances
#14
REVIEW
E Conforto, I Guillot, X Feaugas
In this contribution, we propose a review of the possible implications of hydrogen on mechanical behaviour of Zr and Ti alloys with emphasis on the mechanisms of plasticity and strain hardening. Recent advances on the impact of oxygen and hydrogen on the activation volume show that oxygen content hinders creep but hydrogen partially screens this effect. Both aspects are discussed in terms of a locking-unlocking model of the screw dislocation mobility in prismatic slip. Additionally, possible extension of this behaviour is suggested for the [Formula: see text] pyramidal slip...
July 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581726/ultrahigh-resolution-nmr-spectroscopy-for-rapid-chemical-and-biological-applications-in-inhomogeneous-magnetic-fields
#15
Yuqing Huang, Shuohui Cao, Yu Yang, Shuhui Cai, Haolin Zhan, Chunhua Tan, Liangjie Lin, Zhiyong Zhang, Zhong Chen
NMR spectroscopy is a commonly used analytical technique in practical applications, and its applicability is further promoted by pure chemical shift techniques based on spectral simplification for analyses. Unfortunately, magnetic field inhomogeneity caused by adverse experimental conditions remains an obstacle restricting NMR applications. In this study, we introduce a new NMR method for high-resolution pure shift proton ((1)H) NMR measurements in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. We demonstrate that the method allows one to perform chemical analyses on complex solutions in deshimmed magnetic fields, to obtain metabolite information on intact biological tissues with intrinsic field inhomogeneities and to achieve in situ electrochemical detection under externally adverse field conditions...
June 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569374/quantitative-pulsed-cest-mri-at-a-clinical-3t-mri-system
#16
Julia Stabinska, Tom Cronenberg, Hans-Jörg Wittsack, Rotem Shlomo Lanzman, Anja Müller-Lutz
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to quantify CEST related parameters such as chemical exchange rate and fractional concentration of exchanging protons at a clinical 3T scanner. For this purpose, two CEST quantification approaches-the AREX metric (for 'apparent exchange dependent relaxation'), and the AREX-based Ω-plot method were used. In addition, two different pulsed RF irradiation schemes, using Gaussian-shaped and spin-lock pulses, were compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Numerical simulations as well as MRI measurements in phantoms were performed...
May 31, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552113/preliminary-study-on-investigation-of-zoonotic-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-endemic-foci-of-ethiopia-by-detecting-leishmania-infections-in-rodents
#17
Wossenseged Lemma, Asrat Bizuneh, Habte Tekie, Habtamu Belay, Hirut Wondimu, Aysheshm Kassahun, Welelta Shiferaw, Meshesha Balkew, Ibrahim Abassi, Gad Baneth, Asrat Hailu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) by identification of the most probable reservoir hosts using parasite isolation and analysis of a possible transmission dynamics of the disease in extra-domestic agricultural fields and rural villages. METHODS: Rodents were collected from selected study sites in kala-azar endemic areas based on information for localities of kala-azar cases for screening of Leishmania infections using parasitological, serological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from March, 2013 to January, 2014...
April 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532683/the-essential-oil-from-the-twigs-of-cinnamomum-cassia-presl-inhibits-oxytocin-induced-uterine-contraction-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Lan Sun, Li-Na Liu, Jia-Chun Li, Yao-Zhong Lv, Shao-Bo Zong, Jun Zhou, Zheng-Zhong Wang, Jun-Ping Kou, Wei Xiao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The twigs and bark of Cinnamomum cassia Presl (Lauraceae) are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of tumor, abdominal pain, dysmenorrhea, digestive system disease and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of the essential oil from the twigs of Cinnamomum cassia Presl (EOCC) on uterine contraction in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse uterine contraction was induced by oxytocin (OT) exposure following estradiol benzoate pretreatment...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522836/dynamics-of-oscillators-globally-coupled-via-two-mean-fields
#19
Xiyun Zhang, Arkady Pikovsky, Zonghua Liu
Many studies of synchronization properties of coupled oscillators, based on the classical Kuramoto approach, focus on ensembles coupled via a mean field. Here we introduce a setup of Kuramoto-type phase oscillators coupled via two mean fields. We derive stability properties of the incoherent state and find traveling wave solutions with different locking patterns; stability properties of these waves are found numerically. Mostly nontrivial states appear when the two fields compete, i.e. one tends to synchronize oscillators while the other one desynchronizes them...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494155/principles-for-tuning-hydrophobic-ligand-receptor-binding-kinetics
#20
R Gregor Weiß, Piotr Setny, Joachim Dzubiella
We investigate how to tune the rate of hydrophobic ligand-receptor association due to the role of solvent in adjustable receptor pockets by explicit-water molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our model considers the binding of a spherical ligand (key/guest) to a concave surface recess in a nonpolar wall as receptor (lock/host). We systematically modify the receptor's physicochemical properties in terms of geometry and dispersion attraction which, in turn, alter the water occupancy and fluctuations within the pocket...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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