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Qi Yao, Zijiang Yang, Hong Li, Michael D Buser, John D Wanjura, Peter M Downey, Chen Zhang, Collin Craige, Alba Torrents, Laura L McConnell, Gregory A Holt, Cathleen J Hapeman
Poultry-emitted air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) and ammonia, have raised concerns due to potential negative effects on human health and the environment. However, developing and optimizing remediation technologies requires a better understanding of air pollutant concentrations, the emission plumes, and the relationships between the pollutants. Therefore, we conducted ten field experiments to characterize PM (total suspended particulate [TSP], particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter [PM10 ], and particulate matter less than 2...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Elliott J Kim, Joseph B Wick, David P Stonko, Silky Chotai, Thomas H Freeman, Diana G Douleh, Akshitkumar M Mistry, Scott L Parker, Clinton J Devin
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of early decompression and stabilization in unstable spine injuries with incomplete neurological deficits. However, a clear consensus on timing to operative intervention still does not exist in those with a normal neurological exam and unstable spine. OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal timing of operative intervention in traumatic spine injuries without neurological deficit. METHODS: Retrospective chart review at a single institution was performed including patients with traumatic spine injuries without neurological deficit admitted from December 2001 to August 2012...
February 24, 2018: Neurosurgery
Kevin H Dunn, Adrienne C Eastlake, Michael Story, Eileen D Kuempel
Control banding (CB) has been widely recommended for the selection of exposure controls for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the absence of ENM-specific occupational exposure limits (OELs). Several ENM-specific CB strategies have been developed but have not been systematically evaluated. In this article, we identify the data inputs and compare the guidance provided by eight CB tools, evaluated on six ENMs, and assuming a constant handling/use scenario. The ENMs evaluated include nanoscale silica, titanium dioxide, silver, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and cellulose...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Jaime Retamal, Daniel Hurtado, Nicolás Villarroel, Alejandro Bruhn, Guillermo Bugedo, Marcelo Britto Passos Amato, Eduardo Leite Vieira Costa, Göran Hedenstierna, Anders Larsson, João Batista Borges
OBJECTIVE: It is known that ventilator-induced lung injury causes increased pulmonary inflammation. It has been suggested that one of the underlying mechanisms may be strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lung regional strain correlates with regional inflammation in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of CT images and positron emission tomography images using [F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. SETTING: University animal research laboratory...
March 9, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Neha N Passi, Jim Buckley
Patients with tuberculosis admitted to the intensive care unit represent a small (1-3%) yet significant subset of the global tuberculosis burden. This article reviews current evidence supporting the diagnosis and management of patients with tuberculosis admitted to an intensive care unit from a combination of cohort studies and national and international tuberculosis guidelines. This review considers admission, diagnosis, mechanical ventilation, infection control, treatment and prognosis of patients with tuberculosis admitted to an intensive care unit...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Talita M Silva, Laiali J Chaar, Reinaldo C Silva, Ana C Takakura, Niels O Câmara, Vagner R Antunes, Thiago S Moreira
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Microglia are presumably the source of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to hypoxia-induced neuroinflammation. However, the relationship between microglia activity during hypoxia and inflammatory responses in specific autonomic brain regions is not well understood. Therefore, we hypothesize that acute hypoxia (AH) initiates an immune response in the central nervous system elicited by an increased expression of inflammatory mediators in specific brain areas related to autonomic control...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Christie L Glau, Thomas W Conlon, Adam S Himebauch, Donald L Boyer, Samuel A Rosenblatt, Akira Nishisaki
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is a mode of mechanical ventilation used in severe pediatric respiratory failure. Thoracic ultrasound (US) is a powerful tool for diagnosing acute pathophysiologic conditions during spontaneous respiration and conventional noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation differs from conventional modes of ventilation in that it does not primarily use bulk flow delivery for gas exchange but, rather, a number of alternative mechanisms as the result of pressure variations oscillating around a constant distending pressure...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Sibel Kara, Nazan Sen, Ebru Kursun, Hakan Yabanoğlu, Sedat Yıldırım, Şule Akçay, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in solid-organ transplant recipients despite enhanced facilities for perioperative care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes of renal transplant recipients with pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of all renal transplant recipients from January 2010 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed, and patients diagnosed with pneumonia according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were evaluated...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
I Cundrle, P Suk, V Sramek, Z Lacinova, M Haluzik
Physiologically, leptin concentration is controlled by circadian rhythm. However, in critically ill patients, circadian rhythm is disrupted. Thus we hypothesized that circadian leptin concentration changes are not preserved in critically ill patients. Ten consecutive critically ill heart failure patients with the clinical indication for mechanical ventilation and sedation were included into our study. Plasma leptin concentration was measured every 4 h during the first day (0-24 h) and during the third day (48-72 h) after admission...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
James R Sackett, Zachary J Schlader, Morgan C O'Leary, Christopher L Chapman, Blair D Johnson
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of the study? Is central chemosensitivity blunted during thermoneutral head out water immersion in healthy humans? What is the main finding and its importance? Central chemosensitivity is augmented during thermoneutral head out water immersion in healthy men and women. Thus, we suggest that the central chemoreceptors do not contribute CO2 retention during head out water immersion. ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) retention occurs during water immersion...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Hironosuke Watanabe, Hisashi Sahara, Shunichiro Nomura, Tatsu Tanabe, Dilrukshi K Ekanayake-Alper, Lennan K Boyd, Nathan J Louras, Arsenoi Asfour, Makenzie A Danton, Siu-Hong Ho, Scott J Arn, Robert J Hawley, Akira Shimizu, Takeshi Nagayasu, David Ayares, Marc I Lorber, Megan Sykes, David H Sachs, Kazuhiko Yamada
BACKGROUND: Despite recent progress in survival times of xenografts in non-human primates, there are no reports of survival beyond 5 days of histologically well-aerated porcine lung grafts in baboons. Here, we report our initial results of pig-to-baboon xeno-lung transplantation (XLTx). METHODS: Eleven baboons received genetically modified porcine left lungs from either GalT-KO alone (n = 3), GalT-KO/humanCD47(hCD47)/hCD55 (n = 3), GalT-KO/hD47/hCD46 (n = 4), or GalT-KO/hCD39/hCD46/hCD55/TBM/EPCR (n = 1) swine...
March 12, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Pierpaolo Baiamonte, Emilia Mazzuca, Claudia I Gruttad'Auria, Alessandra Castrogiovanni, Claudia Marino, Davide Lo Nardo, Marco Basile, Margherita Algeri, Salvatore Battaglia, Oreste Marrone, Andrea Gagliardo, Maria R Bonsignore
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-choice treatment for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. Automatic bilevel ventilation can be used to treat obstructive sleep-disordered breathing when CPAP is ineffective, but clinical experience is still limited. To assess the outcome of titration with CPAP and automatic bilevel ventilation, the charts of 356 outpatients (obstructive sleep apnea, n = 242; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease + obstructive sleep apnea overlap, n = 80; obesity hypoventilation syndrome [OHS], n = 34; 103 females) treated for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing from January 2014 to April 2017 were reviewed...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Ajith Ananthakrishna Pillai, Chandramohan Ramasamy, Saranya Gousy V, Harichandrakumar Kottyath
BACKGROUND: Mitral stenosis may present with decompensated heart failure during pregnancy. Many patients do have advanced sub valve disease and present late with decompensated state. The outcomes of balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV) in such advanced sub valve disease with severe heart failure in pregnancy has not been specifically studied till now. METHODS: A descriptive study looking at the immediate and long-term outcomes of pregnant patients with MS who presented with severe heart failure and sub valve disease who had undergone BMV...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
Qing Zhang, Xiaoting Wang, Longxiang Su, Hongmin Zhang, Wenzhao Chai, Yangong Chao, Wei He, Dawei Liu
PURPOSE: To explore the relationship between the shape of the inferior vena cava (IVC) lumen and central venous pressure (CVP). METHODS: In 60 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation and CVP monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from July to October 2016, we measured with B-mode ultrasonography the transverse maximum (MXD) and minimum diameter (MID) of the IVC at end expiration, and calculated the diameter ratio (DR) as MXD/MID...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Kazuchika Suzuki, Hiroaki Sakai, Kenji Takahashi
We herein report anesthetic management during aortic valve replacement for aortic valve regurgitation in a patient with adult mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS type 2) (Hunter syndrome). This disorder is rare and related to the accumulation of a mucopolysaccharide in lysosomes. It affects various organs, including the airways, heart, and central nerves. In children with MPS type 2, the risk of airway obstruction during anesthesia/sedation is high, and the degree of difficulty increases with aging. The patient described herein was a 33-year-old male without mental retardation...
2018: JA Clin Rep
Shota Hodono, Akihiro Shimokawa, Neil J Stewart, Yukiko Yamauchi, Renya Nishimori, Mami Yamane, Hirohiko Imai, Hideaki Fujiwara, Atsuomi Kimura
PURPOSE: High Mobility Group Box1 (HMGB1), which is one of the damage-associated molecular pattern molecules relating to various inflammatory diseases, has gained interest as a therapeutic target because of its involvement in wound healing processes. In the present study, we investigated HMGB1 as a potential therapeutic target in a model of lung fibrosis using a preclinical hyperpolarized129 Xe (HPXe) MRI system. METHODS: Lung injury was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of bleomycin (BLM) in 19 mice...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Tanmay Pal, Pranab Kumar Dutta, Srinivasu Maka
Periodic Breathing (PB) is a diseased condition of the cardiorespiratory system, and mathematically it is modelled as an oscillation. Modeling approaches replicate periodic oscillation in the minute ventilation due to a higher than normal gain of the feedback signals from the chemoreceptors coupled with a longer than normal latency in feedback, and do not consider the waxing-waning pattern of the oronasal airflow. In this work, a noted regulation model is extended by integrating respiratory mechanics and respiratory Central Pattern Generator (rCPG) model, using modulation-demodulation1 hypothesis...
March 8, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Mary M Mitchell, Eric D Hansen, Tuo-Yen Tseng, Meng Shen, Cynda Rushton, Tom Smith, Nancy Hutton, Jennifer Wolfe, Lee Bone, Jeanne Keruly, Lawrence Wissow, Amy R Knowlton
CONTEXT & OBJECTIVE: Advance care planning (ACP) rates remain low, especially among people who are HIV positive, disadvantaged, and African American. While ACP can be a sensitive topic for clinicians and patients to discuss, health values clarification can be an important initial step. METHODS: Data were from the first 325 participants in the AFFIRM Care study, which enrolled adults living with HIV/AIDS in Baltimore, MD, who had histories of illicit drug use...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Yuko Nakamura, Yoshiaki Saito, Norika Kubota, Wataru Matsumura, Chika Hosoda, Akiko Tamasaki-Kondo, Yoko Nishimura, Yoshihide Sunada, Masuyuki Fukada, Takako Ohno, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Masafumi Matsuo, Yasuko Tokita
AIM: To report on sleep hypercapnia in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) at earlier stages than ever recognized. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study examined nocturnal hypercapnia in six young Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients with deletions of one or more exons of DMD gene. Clinical information, consecutive data on forced vital capacity (FVC%), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%), peak expiratory flow (PEF%), peak cough flow (PCF), average PCO2 in all-night monitoring, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were reviewed...
March 8, 2018: Brain & Development
Sasan Sadrizadeh, Jovan Pantelic, Max Sherman, Jordan Clark, Omid Abouali
BACKGROUND: Operating rooms (ORs) are usually over-pressurized in order to prevent the penetration of contaminated air and the consequent risk of surgical site infection. However, a door-opening can result in the rapid disappearance of pressure and contaminants can then easily penetrate into the surgical zone. Therefore, a broad knowledge and understanding of OR ventilation systems and their protective potential is essential for optimizing the surgical environment. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the air quality and level of airborne particles during a single and multiple door-opening cycles in an operating room supplied by a turbulent-mixing ventilation system...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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