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Tear film

Roshni Patel, Meifang Zhu, Danielle M Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The human corneal epithelium expresses both the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the IGF-1R/insulin receptor (INSR) hybrid. Despite the previous identification of IGF-1 in human tear fluid, little is known regarding the regulation of IGF-1 in tear fluid and its role in corneal epithelial homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the impact of biological parameters on the concentration of human tear levels of IGF-1. DESIGN: Tear levels of IGF-1 were measured in 41 healthy, human volunteers without any reported symptoms of dry eye...
February 6, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
B Maciejewski, W Weitschies, F Schneider, M Sznitowska
Gastroresistant capsules are obtained mostly by using modified-release fill in hard capsules, or by coating the gelatin shell with acid-resistant polymers. Modification of the material used at the stage when the capsule shell is produced would reduce the complexity and cost of introducing new products to the market. Gastroresistant gelatin films were obtained by using commercial cellulose acetate phthalate (aqueous dispersion Aquacoat® CPD). Only films casted from non-alkalized mixtures showed no visible disintegration at pH from 1...
June 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Alicia Ruiz-Pomeda, Belén Pérez-Sánchez, Francisco L Prieto-Garrido, Ramón Gutiérrez-Ortega, César Villa-Collar
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relative clinical success of MiSight contact lenses (CLs) (study group) and distance single-vision (SV) spectacles (control group) in children in terms of adverse events (AEs), discontinuations, and tear film osmolarity over a 2-year period. METHODS: Seventy-four subjects aged 8 to 12 with myopia of -0.75 to -4.00 D and astigmatism less than 1.00 D were randomly assigned to MiSight CLs or SV groups. Subjects were monitored at 6-month intervals over the course of 24 months and advised to report to the clinic immediately should AEs occur...
February 12, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Anurag Jain, Deepak Aheer, Amit Arora, Arun Ravi John, K P Solanki, Braj Kishore, M G Vishnoi, Abhishek Mahto, Surya Prakash, A G Pandit
Context: Instillation or application of the radiotracer over the tear film is one of the important parts of dacroscintigraphy. Our study explains the value of an improvised dropper technique so that desired amount of radioactivity in desired volume can be instilled over the tear film. Aim: The aim of the study is to introduce a simple and convenient instillation method based on dropper technique for performing dacroscintigraphy. This improvised dropper technique can be used so that desired amount of radioactivity in desired volume can be instilled over the tear film...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
L Gong
Making oneself more beautiful has always been part of humans' civilized life. Accordingly, the side effects of various cosmetic product and cosmetic procedure long exist. The ocular-surface problems induced by cosmetology mainly include cornea and conjunctiva damages, and tear film damages. Specifically, cornea and conjunctiva damage included: (1) physical injury caused by nonstandard operational procedure, (2) toxic and side effect of cosmetic product, and (3) infection induced by using cosmetic contact lenses, while tear film damage included: (1) injury of normal eyelid structure, (2) decrease of tear production from lacrimal gland, and (3) function and morphology injury of meibomian gland...
February 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Daniel Vázquez-Vicente, Bárbara Fernández Del Bas, José García Villayzán, Javier Plaza Arranz, Luis Chiva
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objective was to review/learn a surgical technique not very well known by gynecologic oncologists. DESIGN: Level of evidence: III SETTING: Review of a surgical technique with emphasis on the paraaortic sentinel lymph nodes using indocyanine green. INTERVENTION: The film features the following steps to perform the procedure: 1. Creating a retroperitoneal window. 2. What to do if the peritoneum is torn. 3. Finding the psoas muscle, right ureter, and common iliac artery...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Jiheong Kang, Donghee Son, Ging-Ji Nathan Wang, Yuxin Liu, Jeffrey Lopez, Yeongin Kim, Jin Young Oh, Toru Katsumata, Jaewan Mun, Yeongjun Lee, Lihua Jin, Jeffrey B-H Tok, Zhenan Bao
An electronic (e-) skin is expected to experience significant wear and tear over time. Therefore, self-healing stretchable materials that are simultaneously soft and with high fracture energy, that is high tolerance of damage or small cracks without propagating, are essential requirements for the realization of robust e-skin. However, previously reported elastomers and especially self-healing polymers are mostly viscoelastic and lack high mechanical toughness. Here, a new class of polymeric material crosslinked through rationally designed multistrength hydrogen bonding interactions is reported...
February 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
Prafulla K Maharana, Sapna Raghuwanshi, Ashish K Chauhan, Vaishali G Rai, Rajesh Pattebahadur
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of carboxymethylcellulose 0.5% (CMC), hydroxypropyl-guar containing polyethylene glycol 400/propylene glycol (PEG/PG), and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 0.3% (HPMC) as tear substitutes in patients with dry eye. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of cases presenting with symptoms of dry eye from July 2014 to June 2015 was done. Patients with Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scoring >12 were included in the study. Parameters such as age, gender, Schirmer test (ST), and tear film breakup time (TBUT) were recorded on day 0, week 1, and week 4...
October 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
Wenwen Xue, Xian Xu, Haidong Zou
PURPOSE: To determine which utility value assessment method is more suitable to evaluate changes in the quality of life due to dry eye symptoms. METHODS: Dry eye outpatients with a presenting visual acuity of 20/25 or better in the worse-seeing eye were recruited. Presenting distance visual acuity, tear film break-up time, Schirmer I test and fluorescein were assessed. The severity of dry eye symptoms was assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), and utility values were measured using the time trade-off (TTO), standard gamble (SG1 and SG2) and rating scale (RS) methods...
February 7, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Yueping Ren, Jie Chen, Qinxiang Zheng, Wei Chen
BACKGROUND: Video display terminal (VDT)-associated dry eye (DE) patients are the rising group worldwide, and moisture goggles are the preferable treatment since they are capable of improving tear film stability and DE discomfort. The current study aims to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of the developed warming moist chamber goggles (WMCGs) for VDT-associated DE patients. METHODS: In this prospective self-control study, 22 DE patients (22 eyes) working with VDTs over 4 h daily were enrolled and instructed to wear WMCGs for 15 min...
February 7, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Giuseppe Giannaccare, Piera Versura, Stefano Sebastiani, Chiara Fariselli, Marco Pellegrini, Emilio Campos
INTRODUCTION: Dry eye disease is a multifactorial disease which affects the ocular surface system, and determines ocular discomfort symptoms and visual disturbance. Various types of ocular surgery, including strabismus one, represents a recognized cause for iatrogenic dry eye. However, it is not uncommon that strabismus patients, even not undergone to surgery, report symptoms of ocular discomfort and dryness. Hypothesis We hypothesize that two possible mechanisms may determine dry eye in strabismus patients by setting up a specific vicious circle: firstly, the increased exposure of the area of the bulbar conjunctiva located on the opposite side compared to the deviation may cause the thinning of the tear film lipid layer, with increased tear film instability; secondly, the dysfunctional lubricity secondary to the altered relationship between the eyelids and the deviated globe may cause blinking-related microtrauma, and thus inflammation and tear hyperosmolarity...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Takayuki Sassa, Masato Tadaki, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Akio Kihara
Lipids secreted from the meibomian gland (meibum) form the superficial layer of the tear film and prevent water evaporation from the ocular surface and infection. Here, we identified the fatty acid (FA) elongases responsible for the synthesis of very long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) that constitute the meibum lipids. Elongation of VLCFAs (ELOVL)1 is primarily responsible for the production of saturated VLCFAs, whereas ELOVL1, ELOVL3, and ELOVL4 redundantly participate in the synthesis of monounsaturated VLCFAs. Gene disruption of Elovl1 in mice shortened acyl moieties in the 2 major meibum lipids: cholesteryl esters and wax esters...
January 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Luca Agnifili, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Vincenzo Fasanella, Lorenza Brescia, Barbara Scatena, Francesco Oddone, Leonardo Mastropasqua
PURPOSE: To investigate, using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), the Meibomian gland (MG) features and conjunctival goblet cell density (GCD) in glaucomatous patients controlled with prostaglandin/timolol fixed combinations (PTFCs). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, sixty Caucasian patients treated with PTFCs, fifteen with latanoprost+timolol (L+T) unfixed combination, and fifteen controls were enrolled. Patients underwent the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, tear film break-up time (BUT), corneal staining, Schirmer test I (STI), and IVCM of MGs and goblet cells (GCs)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Wenwen Xue, Ming-Ming Zhu, Bi-Jun Zhu, Jian-Nan Huang, Qian Sun, Yu-Yu Miao, Hai-Dong Zou
PURPOSE: To observe the long-term changes in dry eye symptoms and vision-related quality of life in age-related cataract patients after phacoemulsification. METHODS: A total of 101 cataract patients after phacoemulsification combined with IOL implantation (Ph-IOL) in one eye were enrolled. Visual acuity, tear film breakup time (BUT), and Schirmer test 1 (ST1) were measured before and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores were used to evaluate the severity of dry eye symptoms...
February 1, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Melis Palamar, Pelin Kiyat, Ayse Yagci
PURPOSE: To evaluate dry eye tests and meibography of patients with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with PBK were included. The eyes with PBK were compared with the normal pseudophakic fellow eyes. All patients had undergone a detailed ophthalmic examination including corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining and Oxford scoring, tear film breakup time, Schirmer 1 test, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score assessment, lid margin abnormalities, upper and lower eyelid Meibomian gland evaluation using infrared captures of a biomicroscope...
February 1, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Takashi Itokawa, Yukinobu Okajima, Takashi Suzuki, Koji Kakisu, Hiroko Iwashita, Yoshitaka Murakami, Yuichi Hori
Purpose: To investigate the correlation between the changes in the ocular surface temperature (OST) and tear film stability over soft contact lenses (SCLs). Methods: We enrolled 20 eyes of 20 normal SCL wearers (20 men; 24.4 ± 4.1 years). We used four different daily disposable SCLs: one silicone hydrogel lens (delefilcon A) and three hydrogel lenses (etafilcon A with polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP], etafilcon A, and polymacon). OST was measured every second during 10 seconds without blinking...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Michael T M Wang, Jennifer P Craig
Importance: Tear film breakup time assessment is an integral component of dry eye evaluation. To our knowledge, the comparative discriminative ability of the noninvasive Keratograph (Oculus) vs conventional fluorescein method in detecting dry eye is unknown. Objective: To compare tear film stability measurements obtained with an automated noninvasive corneal topographer vs conventional fluorescein methods and evaluate their respective discriminative ability in detecting dry eye...
February 1, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Charity J Lee, Roy C Levitt, Elizabeth R Felix, Constantine D Sarantopoulos, Anat Galor
Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that dry eye (DE) may be comorbid with other chronic pain conditions. Objectives: To evaluate DE as a comorbid condition in the U.S. veteran population. Methods: Retrospective review of veterans seen in the Veterans Administration Healthcare System (Veteran Affairs) between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014. Dry eye and nonocular pain disorders were ascertained by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes...
November 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Yuan He, Jia Li, Jingfen Zhu, Ying Jie, Ningli Wang, Jun Wang
BACKGROUD: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of intraoperative used hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 2%) on the ocular surface after cataract surgery. METHODS: A total of 149 eyes (149 patients) diagnosed with age-related cataract, age 69.19 ± 9.74 years, were enrolled in this prospective, parallel-design, continuous, randomised controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive HPMC 2% (study group) or balanced salt solution (control group) during the surgery to moisturize the cornea surface...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
L Zhong, C F Ketelaar, R J Braun, C G Begley, P E King-Smith
Evaporation is a recognized contributor to tear film thinning and tear breakup (TBU). Recently, a different type of TBU is observed, where TBU happens under or around a thick area of lipid within a second after a blink. The thick lipid corresponds to a glob. Evaporation alone is too slow to offer a complete explanation of this breakup. It has been argued that the major reason of this rapid tear film thinning is divergent flow driven by a lower surface tension of the glob (via the Marangoni effect). We examine the glob-driven TBU hypothesis in a 1D streak model and axisymmetric spot model...
January 30, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
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