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Tear film

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053687/bead-based-multiplex-assay-for-analysis-of-tear-cytokine-profiles
#1
Praveen Kumar Balne, Veonice Bijin Au, Louis Tong, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Mukesh Agrawal, John Connolly, Rupesh Agrawal
Tear film is a complex mixture of lipids, proteins and minerals which covers the external surface of the eye, thereby providing lubrication, nutrition and protection to the underlying cells. Analysis of tears is an emerging area for the identification of biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and prognosis of various ocular diseases. Tears are easily accessible and their collection is non-invasive. Therefore, advancing technologies are gaining prominence for identification of multiple analytes in tears to study changes in protein or metabolite composition and its association with pathological conditions...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045169/use-of-topical-cannabinomimetic-palmitoylethanolamide-in-ocular-surface-disease-associated-with-antiglaucoma-medications
#2
Antonio Di Zazzo, Gloria Roberti, Alireza Mashaghi, Tulio Batista Abud, Daniela Pavese, Stefano Bonini
PURPOSE: Chronic use of topical hypotensive therapies in glaucoma patients leads to chronic inflammation of the ocular surface, which decreases the success rate of long-term glaucoma management. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of topical palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) (Defluxa(©)), a well-known anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, in suppressing the ocular surface inflammation associated with the use of hypotensive eye drops. METHODS: In a pilot clinical trial, we enrolled 15 glaucomatous patients who received topical PEA (Defluxa) in addition to the current antiglaucoma drugs, while 15 glaucomatous patients did not receive any additional treatment...
November 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043838/blink-characteristics-controls-and-relation-to-dry-eyes
#3
John D Rodriguez, Keith J Lane, George W Ousler, Endri Angjeli, Lisa M Smith, Mark B Abelson
Blink is a complex phenomenon that is profoundly affected by diverse endogenous and exogenous stimuli. It has been studied in the context of cognition, emotional, and psychological states, as an indicator of fatigue and sleepiness, particularly in the automobile and transportation industry, in visual tasking, and finally, as it relates to tear film stability and ocular surface health. The fact that it is highly variable and has input from so many sources makes it very difficult to study. In the present review, the behavior of blink in many of these systems is discussed, ultimately returning in each instance to a discussion of how these factors affect blink in the context of dry eyes...
October 18, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038781/comparison-between-fish-and-linseed-oils-administered-orally-for-the-treatment-of-experimentally-induced-keratoconjunctivitis-sicca-in-rabbits
#4
Danielle Alves Silva, Gisele Alborgetti Nai, Rogério Giuffrida, Rafael Cabral Barbero, Jacqueline Marcussi Pereira Kuhn, Andressa Caroline da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Zakir Pereira, Maria Fernanda Abbade, Luiz Felipe da Costa Zulim, Carolina Silva Guimarães Pereira, Silvia Franco Andrade
The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two sources of omega 3 and 6, fish oil (FO) and linseed oil (LO), orally administered, alone or in combination, for treating experimentally induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits. Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Seven animals were allocated to the C group (negative control), and KCS was induced in 21 animals by topically applying 1% atropine sulfate drops for 7 days. Treatment with atropine was maintained throughout the study period (12 weeks)...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038779/tear-ferning-in-normal-dogs-and-dogs-with-keratoconjunctivitis-sicca
#5
David Williams, Heather Hewitt
This study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs with normal tear film were evaluated with a full ophthalmoscopic examination and a Schirmer tear test type 1 (STT) determined before tear samples were obtained from the medial canthus with a microhaematocrit capillary tube. 10ul of tear was placed on a microscope slide and the time to first formation of a fern of crystallised tear solute was determined...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036609/computed-flow-and-fluorescence-over-the-ocular-surface
#6
Longfei Li, R J Braun, W D Henshaw, P E King-Smith
Fluorescein is perhaps the most commonly used substance to visualize tear film thickness and dynamics; better understanding of this process aids understanding of dry eye syndrome which afflicts millions of people. We study a mathematical model for tear film flow, evaporation, solutal transport and fluorescence over the exposed ocular surface during the interblink. Transport of the fluorescein ion by fluid flow in the tear film affects the intensity of fluorescence via changes in concentration and tear film thickness...
September 27, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035923/randomized-trial-of-desktop-humidifier-for-dry-eye-relief-in-computer-users
#7
Michael T M Wang, Evon Chan, Linda Ea, Clifford Kam, Yvonne Lu, Stuti L Misra, Jennifer P Craig
SIGNIFICANCE: Dry eye is a frequently reported problem among computer users. Low relative humidity environments are recognized to exacerbate signs and symptoms of dry eye, yet are common in offices of computer operators. Desktop USB-powered humidifiers are available commercially, but their efficacy for dry eye relief has not been established. PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the potential for a desktop USB-powered humidifier to improve tear-film parameters, ocular surface characteristics, and subjective comfort of computer users...
October 13, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033846/epithelial-markers-asma-krt14-and-krt19-unveil-elements-of-murine-lacrimal-gland-morphogenesis-and-maturation
#8
Alison Kuony, Frederic Michon
As an element of the lacrimal apparatus, the lacrimal gland (LG) produces the aqueous part of the tear film, which protects the eye surface. Therefore, a defective LG can lead to serious eyesight impairment. Up to now, little is known about LG morphogenesis and subsequent maturation. In this study, we delineated elements of the cellular and molecular events involved in LG formation by using three epithelial markers, namely aSMA, Krt14, and Krt19. While aSMA marked a restricted epithelial population of the terminal end buds (TEBs) in the forming LG, Krt14 was found in the whole embryonic LG epithelial basal cell layer...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032336/a-mouse-dry-eye-model-induced-by-topical-administration-of-the-air-pollutant-particulate-matter-10
#9
Juan Li, Gang Tan, Xiaoyan Ding, Yahong Wang, Anhua Wu, Qichen Yang, Lei Ye, Yi Shao
AIM: To introduce a novel dry eye mouse model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10 (PM10). METHOD: A total of 60 male BALB/c mice were used in this study and divided into two groups: group A (PBS eye drops, n=30) and group B (PM10 eye drop group, n=30). Each treatment was dosed four times a day, every time 50ul with the concentration of 5mg/ml PM10, for 14 consecutive days in the right eye. The clinical manifestations of dry eye were measured before therapy and 4, 7 and 14days post-treatment respectively, which included the tear volume, tear break-up (BUT) time, corneal fluorescein staining, rose bengal staining, Lissamine Green staining and inflammatory index...
October 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023989/impact-of-contact-lens-material-and-design-on-the-ocular-surface
#10
Javier Ruiz-Alcocer, Daniel Monsálvez-Romín, Santiago García-Lázaro, César Albarrán-Diego, José Luis Hernández-Verdejo, David Madrid-Costa
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact on the ocular surface of a daily disposable hydrogel contact lens with high water content compared with two silicone hydrogel daily disposable lenses of lower water content. METHODS: The hydrogel lens assessed was made from nesofilcon A and the silicone hydrogel lenses were made of delefilcon A and stenfilcon A. Contact lens thickness was measured to assess material stability during daily wear, and ocular surface parameters such as tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus area and central corneal thickness were also assessed...
October 11, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974425/comparison-of-treatment-effect-across-varying-severities-of-meibomian-gland-dropout
#11
Philip R K Turnbull, Stuti L Misra, Jennifer P Craig
PURPOSE: Better understanding of the pathophysiology of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) has provided the opportunity to develop treatments which could be tailored for specific presentations of MGD. This study sought to directly compare treatment effectiveness for three current therapies across differing levels of MG dropout. METHODS: Subjects (n=81), grouped by infrared meibography dropout proportions, into either no (control), mild, or pronounced MG dropout, were randomised to receive treatment with a latent heat device (n=25), liposomal spray (n=28), or heated warm compress (n=28)...
September 30, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966997/lacrimal-gland-nk-cells-are-developmentally-and-functionally-similar-to-conventional-nk-cells
#12
Timothy Erick, Lilit Grigoryan, Laurent Brossay
The murine lacrimal gland (LG), which produces crucial components of the ocular tear film, contains a population of natural killer (NK) cells. LG NK cells appear to belong to the conventional NK cell lineage, based on their cell surface receptor and transcription factor expression, absence in NFIL3(-/-) mice, and lack of RORγt expression during development. LG NK cells produce IFN-γ during the early stages of systemic murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. This effector response occurs in the absence of noticeable MCMV replication in the LG, indicating that LG NK cells are being activated by soluble factors...
April 1, 2017: Immunohorizons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964684/comparison-of-the-influence-of-corneo-scleral-and-scleral-lenses-on-ocular-surface-and-tear-film-metrics-in-a-presbyopic-population
#13
Edouard Lafosse, Daniel Monsálvez Romín, José-Juan Esteve-Taboada, James S Wolffsohn, Cristian Talens-Estarelles, Santiago García-Lázaro
PURPOSE: To assess and compare the effect of the corneo-scleral lenses (C-ScL) and scleral lenses (ScL) on tear film parameters and central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy presbyopic subjects. METHODS: Thirty subjects wore two contact lenses (CLs), randomly assigned, of neutral power, but of different diameters, 12.7mm (C-ScL) and 18mm (ScL) and being equal in the others parameters: material (HS100) and centre thickness (0.29mm). At baseline, 20min after insertion and at 8h, the tear meniscus area (TMA) and CCT was measured (with optical coherence tomography) as well as tear osmolarity...
September 27, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958587/investigation-of-antioxidant-systems-in-human-meibomian-gland-and-conjunctival-tissues
#14
Hachemi Nezzar, Joyce N Mbekeani, Anais Noblanc, Frédéric Chiambaretta, Joël R Drevet, Ayhan Kocer
Oxidative stress associated with direct contact with the environment and light exposure is one very potent and continuous stressor of the ocular surface and more internal structures of the eye that should cope with it. Permanent replenishment of tears together with its superficial lipid layer produced by the meibomian glands (MG) is one protective mechanism. The lipid-rich fraction of the tears is there to prevent evaporation of the more aqueous fractions, however lipids are particularly sensitive to oxidative damage that could thus alter tear film quality...
September 27, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957980/functional-morphology-of-the-lipid-layer-of-the-tear-film
#15
Reiko Arita, Shima Fukuoka, Naoyuki Morishige
Meibomian glands secrete the oily layer of the tear film, which prevents excessive evaporation of tear fluid. Dysfunction of meibomian glands is not only one of the causes of evaporative dry eye but also one of the main causes of entire dry eye. To understand the pathophysiology of meibomian gland dysfunction, it is important to evaluate both the morphology and function of the meibomian gland. We previously reported that meibography enabled visualization of the morphology of the meibomian gland. Meanwhile, tear interferometry was introduced as an evaluation method for the function of the meibomian gland...
November 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957833/effects-of-lens-care-solutions-on-hydrogel-lens-performance
#16
Britney Kitamata-Wong, Tiffany Yuen, Wing Li, Tatyana Svitova, Yixiu Zhou, Meng C Lin
SIGNIFICANCE: Lens care multipurpose solutions (MPSs) can have varying effects on contact lens (CL) surface properties and the corneal epithelium. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of newer MPS on CL comfort and dryness, prelens tear-film stability, and ocular-surface health. In vitro study was also performed to assess the effect of MPSs on CL surface properties. METHODS: Acuvue 2 CLs were soaked in control solution, Clear Care (CC), or test solutions: PureMoist, Biotrue, RevitaLens (RL), or saline solution (SS)...
September 27, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957399/risk-factors-for-severe-meibomian-gland-atrophy-in-a-young-adult-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Thao N Yeh, Meng C Lin
PURPOSE: Assess potential risk factors for severe Meibomian gland atrophy (SMGA) in a young adult population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using medical history and ocular surface examination to evaluate relationships with study outcomes: SMGA, tear lipid layer (TLL) thickness, non-invasive (NITBUT) and fluorescein (FTBUT) tear breakup times, and symptoms using the Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED) questionnaire. RESULTS: One hundred one participants (101; 202 eyes; Age: mean±SD = 22...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956698/relevance-of-lipid-based-products-in-the-management-of-dry-eye-disease
#18
Jean-Sébastien Garrigue, Mourad Amrane, Marie-Odile Faure, Juha M Holopainen, Louis Tong
Components of the ocular surface synergistically contribute to maintaining and protecting a smooth refractive layer to facilitate the optimal transmission of light. At the air-water interface, the tear film lipid layer (TFLL), a mixture of lipids and proteins, plays a key role in tear surface tension and is important for the physiological hydration of the ocular surface and for ocular homeostasis. Alterations in tear fluid rheology, differences in lipid composition, or downregulation of specific tear proteins are found in most types of ocular surface disease, including dry eye disease (DED)...
November 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954026/evaluation-of-the-ocular-surface-following-bariatric-surgery
#19
Natalia Ponte Nogueira Marques, Sérgio Felberg, Jeison Nadai de Barros, Carlos Alberto Malheiros
Purpose: To identify and evaluate changes in the ocular surface in obese patients with bariatric surgery. Methods: The study included 89 randomly selected patients; 81 (91.0%) were women, 35 were preoperative, 32 were included 0-12 months after surgery, and 22 were included >12 months after surgery. All patients completed a dry eye-specific questionnaire and were evaluated by the tear ferning test, tear-film breakup time (BUT), Schirmer's test I, examination of the ocular surface by 1% rose Bengal staining, and impression cytology...
July 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950941/ocular-surface-inflammation-impairs-structure-and-function-of-meibomian-gland
#20
REVIEW
Shin Mizoguchi, Hiroki Iwanishi, Reiko Arita, Kumi Shirai, Takayoshi Sumioka, Masahide Kokado, James V Jester, Shizuya Saika
Dysfunction of the meibomian glands alters secreted meibum quantitatively and qualitatively that can lead to damage to the ocular surface epithelium. In response to an unstable tear film cause by meibomian gland dysfunction, ocular surface epithelium is damaged and expresses inflammatory cytokines leading to secondary ocular inflammation. In turn, inflammatory disorders of the palpebral conjunctiva and lid margin may affect the structure and function of meibomian gland. The disorders include allergic conjunctivitis, long-term usage of contact lenses, dermatological diseases that affect conjunctival homeostasis, Stevens-Johnson's syndrome or chemical burning of the ocular surface and lid margin...
October 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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