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Tear film

Shizuka Koh, Cynthia I Tung, Yasushi Inoue, Vishal Jhanji
The precorneal tear film is maintained by blinking and exhibits different phases in the tear cycle. The tear film serves as the most anterior surface of the eye and plays an important role as a first refractive component of the eye. Alterations in tear film dynamics may cause both vision-related and ocular surface-related symptoms. Although the optical quality associated with the tear film dynamics previously received little attention, objective measurements of optical quality using wavefront sensors have enabled us to quantify optical aberrations induced by the tear film...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Yibo Dong, Yiyang Xie, Chen Xu, Yafei Fu, Xing Fan, Xuejian Li, Le Wang, Fangzhu Xiong, Weiling Guo, Guanzhong Pan, Qiuhua Wang, Fengsong Qian, Jie S Sun
Chemical vapor deposited graphene suffers from two problems: transfer from metal catalysts to insulators, and photoresist induced degradation during patterning. Both result in macroscopic and microscopic damages such as holes, tears, doping, and contamination, translated into property and y1ield dropping. We attempt to solve the problems simultaneously. A nickel thin film is evaporated on SiO2 as sacrificial catalyst, on which surface graphene is grown. A polymer (PMMA) support is spin-coated on the graphene...
June 14, 2018: Nanotechnology
Gabrielle Fornazari, Thiago Alegre Coelho Ferreira, Elizabeth Santin, Josiane Carla Panisson, Alex Maiorka, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira
Problems with indoor husbandry and immunological challenges are some of the stressors that broilers may face which can affect production. Infectious diseases can compound the effects of excessive concentrations of ammonia causing respiratory and ocular inflammation and increased lacrimal production in broiler chickens. The objectives of this investigation were to establish normal values of tear production in chicks and compare the practicality of the different methods. Palpebral fissure length (PFL) and tear production were evaluated in Cobb 500 chicks at 5 d old and then at 5 d of age by the following methods: modified Schirmer's test I (mSTT1), phenol red cotton thread tear test (PRCTTT), and standardized endodontic absorbent paper point test (EAPPTT)...
June 8, 2018: Poultry Science
W H Xu, J Y Qu, Y L Chen, M C Zhang
Objective: To investigate the influence of blue light from visual display terminals (VDTs) on human ocular surface. Methods: Prospective intervention test Thirty volunteers were recruited to watch videos on the same VDT in a dark environment, about 40 cm from the screen. Volunteers were supposed to watch videos in the night shift mode that reduces the amount of blue light for 1 hour. At the same time of the second day, they watched the same videos on the VDT in the normal mode for 1 hour. Tear film break-up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining scores, lipid layer thickness (LLT), times of blinking in 19...
June 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Tomoya Nakamachi
Dry eye syndrome is defined as a disorder of the tear film caused by either a decreased production in tears or a disruption to the stability of the complex tear film, which causes damage to the ocular surface. It has been developed the medicine for dry eye syndrome focusing anti-inflammation or mucin secretion, however, no treatment has been developed focusing on the effect of elevation of the lacrimal secretion. We recently identified that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-null mice develop dry eye-like symptoms such as corneal keratinization and tear reduction...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Michael T M Wang, Leslie Tien, Alicia Han, Jung Min Lee, Dabin Kim, Maria Markoulli, Jennifer P Craig
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of blinking on tear film parameters, ocular surface characteristics, and dry eye symptomology. METHODS: A total of 154 participants were recruited in an age, gender and ethnicity-matched cross-sectional study, of which 77 exhibited clinically detectable incomplete blinking, and 77 did not. Blink rate, dry eye symptomology, tear film parameters, and ocular surface characteristics were assessed in a single clinical session. RESULTS: Overall, a higher proportion of participants exhibiting incomplete blinking fulfilled the TFOS DEWS II dry eye diagnostic criteria (64% versus 44%, p = 0...
June 5, 2018: Ocular Surface
Miki Uchino, Motoko Kawashima, Yuichi Uchino, Natume Suzuki, Hiroto Mitamura, Miki Mizuno, Yuichi Hori, Norihiko Yokoi, Kazuo Tsubota
PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of a dry eye mobile application (app) for screening dry eye disease (DED) at educational tear events in Japan. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, Japanese subjects visiting a "Tears Day" event were selected randomly. They completed questionnaires and underwent ophthalmic evaluations for DED (using Japanese revised diagnostic criteria) including a functional visual acuity (FVA) test. The app calculated FVA using the average of the continuous VA over 30 s...
June 5, 2018: Ocular Surface
Piotr D Szyperski
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the applicability of the fractal dimension (FD) estimators to assess lateral shearing interferometric (LSI) measurements of tear film surface quality. Retrospective recordings of tear film measured with LSI were used: 69 from healthy subjects and 41 from patients diagnosed with dry eye syndrome. Five surface quality descriptors were considered, four based on FD and a previously reported descriptor operating in a spatial frequency domain (M2 ), presenting temporal kinetics of post-blink tear film...
June 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Di-Kan Wang, Si-En Zhang, Yu-Xiong Su, Guang-Sen Zheng, Wei-Fa Yang, Gui-Qing Liao
PURPOSE: Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is a relatively common disease that results in discomfort, tear film instability, visual impairment, and ocular surface damage. Artificial tear substitutes may be suitable for the treatment of mild KCS, but no effective treatment currently exists for severe KCS. Therefore, this study evaluated the effectiveness of autologous microvascular submandibular gland transplantation in the treatment of severe KCS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 61 eyes (56 patients) with severe KCS were treated with autologous submandibular gland transplantation from June 2002 to June 2017...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Lele Cui, Sisi Chen, Weihe Zhou, Kaixuan Sheng, Lei Zhang, Meixiao Shen, Ming Li
Purpose: To determine conjunctival overlap over the edge of soft contact lens and to visualize the peripheral postlens tear film (PoLTF) underneath soft contact lenses using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). Methods: Twenty participants (4 males and 16 females, 23.0 ± 3.7 years) were fitted with two different types of soft contact lenses randomly. The limbus with lens was imaged with the UHR-OCT at the horizontal meridian every two hours up to 6 hours during lens wear...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Xue Zhang, Zhishun Liu, Wentao Ding, Jun Zhang, Huan Shi, Wenzeng Zhu
BACKGROUND: Dry eye disease (DED) is a very common disease. Although several current treatments offer some symptomatic relief, moderate to severe DED is still difficult to cure at present. Acupuncture may be effective for DED via its promotion of tear secretion and ability to improve symptoms, but evidence of its effectiveness is limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of acupuncture versus artificial tears in moderate to severe DED. METHODS/DESIGN: A total of 120 participants with moderate to severe DED will be randomly assigned to either an acupuncture group or an artificial tear group at a ratio of 1:1...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Wen-Long Hu, Pei-Chang Wu, Li-Yen Pan, Hun-Ju Yu, Chih-Chin Pan, Yu-Chiang Hung
BACKGROUND: Dry eye is a common ophthalmologic disorder that causes ocular discomfort and has become a worldwide health concern. Patients with dry eye often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) because of unsatisfactory conventional treatments. Acupuncture is one of the most popular interventions of CAM used, and laser acupuncture (LA) is a noninvasive technique. METHODS: This protocol is a 2-center randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of laser acupuncture on dry eye...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ren-Wen Ho, Po-Chiung Fang, Tsai-Ling Chao, Chun-Chih Chien, Ming-Tse Kuo
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT) and aqueous tear production after botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) injection in patients with benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS). Eleven and six patients with BEB and HFS, respectively, who received BoNT injection were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study. The blepharospasm disability index (BSDI), blink pattern, dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test 1 findings, LLT, eyelid performance, and corneal integrity were evaluated before and after treatment...
May 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ji Hua Xu, Shi-Li Ding, Bo Chen, Shou-Cheng Wu
The aim of the present study was to develop a method which can solve the problem of partial tearing of the Achilles tendon insertion caused by the debridement for Haglund's syndrome using endoscopy-assisted percutaneous repair. Seven patients with Haglund's syndrome were prospectively recruited. All 7 patients (3 female, 4 male) had intratendinous calcifications. Preoperative diagnosis was made according to the clinical symptoms and diagnosis, medical examination results, plain film radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xiaodan Jiang, Yuexin Wang, Huibin Lv, Yan Liu, Mingzhou Zhang, Xuemin Li
Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a novel treatment - intra-meibomian gland (MG) injection of the anti-VEGF agent bevacizumab - for MG dysfunction (MGD) with eyelid-margin vascularity. Methods: A total of 26 eyes from 13 patients diagnosed with MGD and eyelid-margin vascularity were included in our study. Patients received intra-meibomian gland injections of bevacizumab (150 μL, 2.5 mg/0.1 mL) at multiple sites with a 29 G needle where telangiectasia was severe...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Erlend C S Landsend, Øygunn A Utheim, Hilde R Pedersen, Hans Christian D Aass, Neil Lagali, Darlene A Dartt, Rigmor C Baraas, Tor P Utheim
Purpose: To investigate the tear cytokine profile in congenital aniridia, and correlate cytokine levels with ophthalmologic findings. Methods: We examined 35 patients with aniridia and 21 healthy controls. Tear fluid was collected with Schirmer I test and capillary tubes from each eye, and the concentration of 27 inflammatory cytokines determined using multiplex bead assay. Eyes of all participants were examined with tests for dry eye disease, including evaluation of meibomian glands (meibography)...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sergio Claudio Saccà, Carlo Alberto Cutolo, Daniele Ferrari, Paolo Corazza, Carlo Enrico Traverso
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to have numerous beneficial effects, owing to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. From a metabolic standpoint, the mitochondria play a fundamental role in cellular homeostasis, and oxidative stress can affect their functioning. Indeed, the mitochondria are the main source of ROS, and an imbalance between ROS and antioxidant defenses leads to oxidative stress. In addition, aging, the decline of cellular functions, and continual exposure to light underlie many diseases, particularly those of the eye...
May 24, 2018: Nutrients
Bo Tan, Yixiu Zhou, Tiffany L Yuen, Kristina Lin, Langis Michaud, Meng C Lin
SIGNIFICANCE: The present study with small-diameter scleral lenses (SLs) revealed that post-lens tear thickness (PoLTT) was significantly associated with post-lens tear mixing, but not with central corneal edema, after short-term SL wear. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of SL tear clearance (PoLTT) on central corneal thickness and post-lens tear dynamics during 5-hour lens wear. METHODS: Neophytes with no active ocular disease were fitted bilaterally with SLs (hofocon A; 15...
May 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Alex Nikolov, Darsh Wasan, Jongju Lee
For a long time, the phenomenon known as the "tears of wine" was believed to be due only to the surface tension gradient (e.g., the Thomson-Marangoni stress on the fluid/fluid surface's dynamics of wetting) and gravity. We experimentally demonstrated that the wine tear formation is not solely due to the surface tension gradient; instead, the ridge instability triggers the wine tears. Pouring wine into a glass causes a wine film to form on the glass. The film drains down under gravity and a ridge forms at its upper part...
May 5, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Jeffery Schafer, William Reindel, Robert Steffen, Gary Mosehauer, Joseph Chinn
Background: Sustained digital display viewing reduces eye blink frequency and tear film stability. To retain water and preserve a smooth optical surface, contact lens manufacturers have integrated the humectant polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) into silicone hydrogel contact lenses. In this study, extended blink time (EBT) was used to assess visual stability over a prolonged blink interval of two PVP-containing silicone hydrogel lenses, samfilcon A (SAM) and senofilcon A (SEN). Materials and methods: This randomized, bilateral, masked, crossover study assessed lens performance in ten subjects after 16 hours of wear...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
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