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Neural differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926868/cmyc-regulates-the-size-of-the-premigratory-neural-crest-stem-cell-pool
#1
Laura Kerosuo, Marianne E Bronner
The neural crest is a transient embryonic population that originates within the central nervous system (CNS) and then migrates into the periphery and differentiates into multiple cell types. The mechanisms that govern neural crest stem-like characteristics and self-renewal ability are poorly understood. Here, we show that the proto-oncogene cMyc is a critical factor in the chick dorsal neural tube, where it regulates the size of the premigratory neural crest stem cell pool. Loss of cMyc dramatically decreases the number of emigrating neural crest cells due to reduced self-renewal capacity, increased cell death, and shorter duration of the emigration process...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926491/early-pathogenic-event-of-alzheimer-s-disease-documented-in-ipscs-from-patients-with-psen1-mutations
#2
Juan Yang, Hanzhi Zhao, Yu Ma, Guilai Shi, Jian Song, Yu Tang, Song Li, Ting Li, Nan Liu, Fan Tang, Junjie Gu, Lingling Zhang, Zhuohua Zhang, Xiaohui Zhang, Ying Jin, Weidong Le
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related dementia characterized by progressive neuronal loss. However, the molecular mechanisms for the neuronal loss is still debated. Here, we used induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of familial AD patients carrying PSEN1 mutations to study the early pathogenic event of AD. We found that premature neuronal differentiation with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis occured in AD-iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (AD-NPCs) once neuronal differentiation was initiated, together with higher levels of Aβ42 and phosphorylated tau...
December 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925861/modeling-heavy-ion-impairment-of-hippocampal-neurogenesis-after-acute-and-fractionated-irradiation
#3
Eliedonna Cacao, Francis A Cucinotta
Radiation-induced impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is a concern due to its reported association with cognitive detriments after radiotherapy for brain cancers and the possible risks to astronauts chronically exposed to space radiation. Here, we have extended our recent work in a mouse model of impaired neurogenesis after exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion radiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis for a variety of radiation types after acute or fractionated irradiation...
December 7, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925650/a-pupil-size-response-model-to-assess-fear-learning
#4
Christoph W Korn, Matthias Staib, Athina Tzovara, Giuseppe Castegnetti, Dominik R Bach
During fear conditioning, pupil size responses dissociate between conditioned stimuli that are contingently paired (CS+) with an aversive unconditioned stimulus, and those that are unpaired (CS-). Current approaches to assess fear learning from pupil responses rely on ad hoc specifications. Here, we sought to develop a psychophysiological model (PsPM) in which pupil responses are characterized by response functions within the framework of a linear time-invariant system. This PsPM can be written as a general linear model, which is inverted to yield amplitude estimates of the eliciting process in the central nervous system...
December 7, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925613/experience-dependent-hippocampal-pattern-differentiation-prevents-interference-during-subsequent-learning
#5
Serra E Favila, Avi J H Chanales, Brice A Kuhl
The hippocampus is believed to reduce memory interference by disambiguating neural representations of similar events. However, there is limited empirical evidence linking representational overlap in the hippocampus to memory interference. Likewise, it is not fully understood how learning influences overlap among hippocampal representations. Using pattern-based fMRI analyses, we tested for a bidirectional relationship between memory overlap in the human hippocampus and learning. First, we show that learning drives hippocampal representations of similar events apart from one another...
April 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924614/gdf11-treatment-attenuates-the-recovery-of-skeletal-muscle-function-after-injury-in-older-rats
#6
Yu Zhou, Neel Sharma, David Dukes, Maria B Myzithras, Priyanka Gupta, Ashraf Khalil, Julius Kahn, Jennifer S Ahlberg, David B Hayes, Michael Franti, Tracy Criswell
Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function results in loss of mobility for elderly patients. Novel therapies that can protect and/or restore muscle function during aging would have profound effects on the quality of life for this population. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) has been proposed as a "youthful" circulating factor that can restore cardiac, neural, and skeletal muscle functions in aging animals. However, conflicting data has been recently published that casts doubt on these assertions. We used a complex rat model of skeletal muscle injury that physiologically mimics injuries seen in patients; to investigate the ability of GDF11 and to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration after injury in older rats...
December 6, 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923998/interplay-between-h1-and-hmgn-epigenetically-regulates-olig1-2-expression-and-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#7
Tao Deng, Yuri Postnikov, Shaofei Zhang, Lillian Garrett, Lore Becker, Ildikó Rácz, Sabine M Hölter, Wolfgang Wurst, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Michael Bustin
An interplay between the nucleosome binding proteins H1 and HMGN is known to affect chromatin dynamics, but the biological significance of this interplay is still not clear. We find that during embryonic stem cell differentiation loss of HMGNs leads to down regulation of genes involved in neural differentiation, and that the transcription factor OLIG2 is a central node in the affected pathway. Loss of HMGNs affects the expression of OLIG2 as well as that of OLIG1, two transcription factors that are crucial for oligodendrocyte lineage specification and nerve myelination...
December 6, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923664/arhgef1-is-expressed-in-cortical-neural-progenitor-cells-and-regulates-neurite-outgrowth-of-newly-differentiated-neurons
#8
Xiaoliang Xiang, Xiaoji Zhuang, Shengnan Li, Lei Shi
Neurite outgrowth is crucial for the maturation of neurons and the establishment of anatomical connections during development of the nervous system. We report here that Arhgef1, a RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor previously found expressed in the early stages of neuronal development to regulate neurite outgrowth, is also highly expressed in cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs). To better dissect its role in NPCs, we knocked down Arhgef1 expression in these cells and induced differentiated of them into neurons...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923395/regulation-of-downstream-neuronal-genes-by-proneural-transcription-factors-during-initial-neurogenesis-in-the-vertebrate-brain
#9
Michelle Ware, Houda Hamdi-Rozé, Julien Le Friec, Véronique David, Valérie Dupé
BACKGROUND: Neurons arise in very specific regions of the neural tube, controlled by components of the Notch signalling pathway, proneural genes, and other bHLH transcription factors. How these specific neuronal areas in the brain are generated during development is just beginning to be elucidated. Notably, the critical role of proneural genes during differentiation of the neuronal populations that give rise to the early axon scaffold in the developing brain is not understood. The regulation of their downstream effectors remains poorly defined...
December 7, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922061/thermo-sensitive-hydrogels-combined-with-decellularised-matrix-deliver-bfgf-for-the-functional-recovery-of-rats-after-a-spinal-cord-injury
#10
He-Lin Xu, Fu-Rong Tian, Cui-Tao Lu, Jie Xu, Zi-Liang Fan, Jing-Jing Yang, Pian-Pian Chen, Ya-Dong Huang, Jian Xiao, Ying-Zheng Zhao
Because of the short half-life, either systemic or local administration of bFGF shows significant drawbacks to spinal injury. In this study, an acellular spinal cord scaffold (ASC) was encapsulated in a thermo-sensitive hydrogel to overcome these limitations. The ASC was firstly prepared from the spinal cord of healthy rats and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. bFGF could specifically complex with the ASC scaffold via electrostatic or receptor-mediated interactions...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921242/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-adipose-tissue-differentiated-into-neuronal-or-glial-phenotype-express-different-aquaporins
#11
Rosanna Avola, Adriana Carol Eleonora Graziano, Giovanna Pannuzzo, Venera Cardile
Aquaporins (AQPs) are 13 integral membrane proteins that provide selective pores for the rapid movement of water and other uncharged solutes, across cell membranes. Recently, AQPs have been focused for their role in production, circulation, and homeostasis of the cerebrospinal fluid and their importance in several human diseases is becoming clear. This study investigated the time course (0, 14, and 28 days) of AQP1, 4, 7, 8, and 9 during the neural differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue (AT)...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920882/paroxetine-can-enhance-neurogenesis-during-neurogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#12
Maliheh Jahromi, Shahnaz Razavi, Nushin Amirpour, Zahra Khosravizadeh
BACKGROUND: Some antidepressant drugs can promote neuronal cell proliferation in vitro as well as hippocampal neurogenesis in human and animal models. Furthermore, adipose tissue is an available source of adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate in to multiple lineages. Therefore, human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (hAD-SCs) may be a suitable source for regenerative medical applications. Since there is no evidence for the effect of Paroxetine as the most commonly prescribed antidepressant drug for neurogenic potential of hADSCs, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Paroxetine on proliferation and neural differentiation of hADSCs...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920753/neuroproteomics-and-systems-biology-approach-to-identify-temporal-biomarker-changes-post-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#13
Firas H Kobeissy, Joy D Guingab-Cagmat, Zhiqun Zhang, Ahmed Moghieb, Olena Y Glushakova, Stefania Mondello, Angela M Boutté, John Anagli, Richard Rubenstein, Hisham Bahmad, Amy K Wagner, Ronald L Hayes, Kevin K W Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a critical health problem of which diagnosis, management, and treatment remain challenging. TBI is a contributing factor in approximately one-third of all injury-related deaths in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 1.7 million people suffer a TBI in the United States annually. Efforts continue to focus on elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying TBI pathophysiology and defining sensitive and specific biomarkers that can aid in improving patient management and care...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920532/the-effect-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-on-neuronal-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-precursors
#14
Klára Jiráková, Monika Šeneklová, Daniel Jirák, Karolína Turnovcová, Magda Vosmanská, Michal Babič, Daniel Horák, Pavel Veverka, Pavla Jendelová
INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is suitable for noninvasive long-term tracking. We labeled human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursors (iPSC-NPs) with two types of iron-based nanoparticles, silica-coated cobalt zinc ferrite nanoparticles (CZF) and poly-l-lysine-coated iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (PLL-coated γ-Fe2O3) and studied their effect on proliferation and neuronal differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the effect of these two contrast agents on neural precursor cell proliferation and differentiation capability...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920146/selectivity-in-post-encoding-connectivity-with-high-level-visual-cortex-is-associated-with-reward-motivated-memory
#15
Vishnu P Murty, Alexa Tompary, R Alison Adcock, Lila Davachi
: Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems level consolidation. While high reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for those experiences prioritizes high value information. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that post-encoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of post-encoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920144/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#16
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
: MBD1 belongs to a family of methyl-CpG binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers", linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs), and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919831/neural-representation-of-cost-benefit-selections-in-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-self-paced-decision-making
#17
Shuai Wang, Yi Shi, Bao-Ming Li
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucial for decision making which involves the processing of cost-benefit information. Our previous study has shown that ACC is essential for self-paced decision making. However, it is unclear how ACC neurons represent cost-benefit selections during the decision-making process. In the present study, we trained rats on the same "Do More Get More" (DMGM) task as in our previous work. In each trial, the animals stand upright and perform a sustained nosepoke of their own will to earn a water reward, with the amount of reward positively correlated to the duration of the nosepoke (i...
December 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919675/individual-differences-in-internal-noise-are-consistent-across-two-measurement-techniques
#18
Greta Vilidaite, Daniel H Baker
Internal noise is a fundamental limiting property on visual processing. Internal noise has previously been estimated with the equivalent noise paradigm using broadband white noise masks and assuming a linear model. However, in addition to introducing noise into the detecting channel, white noise masks can suppress neural signals, and the linear model does not satisfactorily explain data from other paradigms. Here we propose estimating internal noise from a nonlinear gain control model fitted to contrast discrimination data...
December 2, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919646/role-of-neurotrophic-factors-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Shih-Jen Tsai
Neurotrophins (NTs), a family of proteins including nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4, are essential for neural growth, survival, and differentiation, and are therefore crucial for brain development. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is one of the most common childhood onset psychiatric disorders. Studies have suggested that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of the disorder, although the precise causes of ADHD have not yet been identified...
November 30, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919332/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-mammalian-brain
#20
Daniela Hladik, Soile Tapio
Epidemiological studies on the atomic-bomb survivors, cancer survivors and occupational cohorts provide strong evidence for multifaceted damage to brain after ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced late effects may manifest as brain tumors or cognitive impairment. Decreased neurogenesis and differentiation, alteration in neural structure and synaptic plasticity as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation are suggested to contribute to adverse effects in the brain. In addition to neural stems cells, several brain-specific mature cell types including endothelial and glial cells are negatively affected by ionizing radiation...
October 2016: Mutation Research
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