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Neural differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227760/cross-frequency-coupling-during-auditory-perception-in-human-cortex
#1
Urszula Malinowska, Dana Boatman-Reich, Urszula Malinowska, Dana Boatman-Reich, Urszula Malinowska, Dana Boatman-Reich
Cross-frequency coupling plays an important role in coordinating neuronal computations underlying human perception, learning and memory. Here we compared four methods for measuring phase/amplitude coupling (PAC) of theta (4-7 Hz) and high-gamma (70-150 Hz) in intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings. Time-frequency spectral and time-domain evoked responses were derived for comparison. All four methods showed significant increases in theta/high-gamma PAC in auditory cortex at sites where significant event-related increases in high-gamma power were also observed...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227499/promotion-and-guidance-of-neural-network-formation-on-su-8-photoresist-microchannels-adjusted-with-multilayer-films
#2
Yung-Chiang Liu, I-Chi Lee, Kin-Fong Lei, Yung-Chiang Liu, I-Chi Lee, Kin-Fong Lei, Yung-Chiang Liu, I-Chi Lee, Kin-Fong Lei
Induction of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and establishment of neural network are important issues on neural engineering. In this work, a platform was designed to control and evaluate the differentiation of NSPCs, neurite direction, and to promote the neurite outgrowth. Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films provide surface properties by and have been used to regulate NSPCs differentiation in our previous study. Herein, a culture platform composed of SU-8 microchannel and PEM films was designed to achieve the goal of promoting NSPCs differentiation and to evaluate the effect of PEM films on the guidance of neural network formation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227435/gelatin-methacrylamide-hydrogel-with-graphene-nanoplatelets-for-neural-cell-laden-3d-bioprinting
#3
Wei Zhu, Brent T Harris, Lijie Grace Zhang, Wei Zhu, Brent T Harris, Lijie Grace Zhang, Wei Zhu, Brent T Harris, Lijie Grace Zhang
Nervous system is extremely complex which leads to rare regrowth of nerves once injury or disease occurs. Advanced 3D bioprinting strategy, which could simultaneously deposit biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components in a layer-by-layer manner, may be a promising solution to address neural damages. Here we presented a printable nano-bioink composed of gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA), neural stem cells, and bioactive graphene nanoplatelets to target nerve tissue regeneration in the assist of stereolithography based 3D bioprinting technique...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227432/colony-size-effect-on-neural-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-microprinted-on-stromal-cells
#4
Ramila Joshi, James Buchanan, Hossein Tavana, Ramila Joshi, James Buchanan, Hossein Tavana, Ramila Joshi, James Buchanan, Hossein Tavana
Controlling cellular microenvironment to induce neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains a major challenge. We address this need by introducing a micro-engineered co-culture system that resembles embryonic development in terms of direct intercellular interactions and induces neural differentiation of ESCs. A polymeric aqueous two-phase system (ATPS)-mediated robotic microprinting technology allows precise localization of mouse ESCs (mESCs) over a layer of supporting stromal cells. mESCs proliferate over a 2-week culture period into a single colony of defined size...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226658/on-an-analogue-signal-processing-circuit-in-the-nematode-c-elegans
#5
Roghieh Skandari, Yuichi Iino, Jonathan H Manton, Roghieh Skandari, Yuichi Iino, Jonathan H Manton, Roghieh Skandari, Yuichi Iino, Jonathan H Manton
In this work we will work on analogue signal processing in the neural circuit of C. elegans which is able to detect the analogue signals from the environment and produce locomotive behaviours which are in accordance with experiments. The signals in C. elegans are processed in a purely analogue procedure, since no action potential has been recorded in its neural activity. We aim to show how signal processing can be executed in analogue domain in a living creature. In order to do that we will model two different behaviours of C...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226539/directing-the-spatial-patterning-of-motor-neuron-differentiation-in-engineered-microenvironments
#6
Christopher J Demers, Greg Cox, Scott D Collins, Rosemary L Smith, Christopher J Demers, Greg Cox, Scott D Collins, Rosemary L Smith, Greg Cox, Christopher J Demers, Scott D Collins, Rosemary L Smith
Embryonic development of the spinal cord proceeds through a carefully orchestrated temporal and spatial sequence of chemical cues to provide precise patterning of adult cell types. Recreating this complex microenvironment in a standard cell culture dish is difficult, if not impossible. In this paper, a microfluidic device is used to recapitulate, in vitro, the graded patterning events which occur during early spinal cord development. The microdevice design is developed using COMSOL modeling, with which the spatiotemporal profiles of multiple, diffusible morphogens are simulated...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225961/analysis-of-the-histomorphologic-profile-of-invasive-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-from-2002-to-2011-in-a-pathology-laboratory-in-the-region-of-campos-gerais-brazil
#7
Fernanda Magri de Souza, Eloina Do Rocio Valenga Baroni, Mário Rodrigues Montemór
Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common type of malignant skin cancer. It is also quite aggressive. The increasing incidence of the disease can be altered given its connection with sun exposure. The aim of this study was to establish the clinical and histomorphological profile of squamous cell carcinoma in the region of Campos Gerais, State of Paraná, Brazil and analyze and compare the features of the disease found in the literature. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in a pathology laboratory with selected invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma reports issued after excisional biopsy from January 2002 to December 2011...
January 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225193/human-neural-progenitor-transplantation-rescues-behavior-and-reduces-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-a-transgenic-model-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#8
Natalie R S Goldberg, Samuel E Marsh, Joseph Ochaba, Brandon C Shelley, Hayk Davtyan, Leslie M Thompson, Joan S Steffan, Clive N Svendsen, Mathew Blurton-Jones
Synucleinopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders sharing the common feature of misfolding and accumulation of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (α-syn) into insoluble aggregates. Within this diverse group, Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is characterized by the aberrant accumulation of α-syn in cortical, hippocampal, and brainstem neurons, resulting in multiple cellular stressors that particularly impair dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission and related motor and cognitive function. Recent studies show that murine neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation can improve cognitive or motor function in transgenic models of Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease, and DLB...
February 22, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223921/epigenetic-modulation-of-stem-cells-in-neurodevelopment-the-role-of-methylation-and-acetylation
#9
REVIEW
Martyna Podobinska, Ilona Szablowska-Gadomska, Justyna Augustyniak, Ioanna Sandvig, Axel Sandvig, Leonora Buzanska
The coordinated development of the nervous system requires fidelity in the expression of specific genes determining the different neural cell phenotypes. Stem cell fate decisions during neurodevelopment are strictly correlated with their epigenetic status. The epigenetic regulatory processes, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications discussed in this review article, may impact both neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and differentiation and thus play an important role in neurodevelopment. At the same time, stem cell decisions regarding fate commitment and differentiation are highly dependent on the temporospatial expression of specific genes contingent on the developmental stage of the nervous system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223232/the-versatility-and-paradox-of-gdf-11
#10
REVIEW
A Jamaiyar, W Wan, D M Janota, M K Enrick, W M Chilian, L Yin
In addition to its roles in embryonic development, Growth and Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF 11) has recently drawn much interest about its roles in other processes, such as aging. GDF 11 has been shown to play pivotal roles in the rescue of the proliferative and regenerative capabilities of skeletal muscle, neural stem cells and cardiomyocytes. We would be remiss not to point that some controversy exists regarding the role of GDF 11 in biological processes and whether it will serve as a therapeutic agent. The latest studies have shown that the level of circulating GDF 11 correlates with the outcomes of patients with cardiovascular diseases, cancer and uremia...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223217/pax3-inhibits-%C3%AE-tubulin-iii-expression-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cell
#11
Sixian Cao, Jinfeng Du, Yan Lv, Hengrong Lin, Zuming Mao, Man Xu, Mei Liu, Yan Liu
PAX3 functions at the nodal point in neural stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Using bioinformatics methods, we identified PAX3 as a potential regulator of β-Tubulin-III (TUBB3) gene transcription, and the results indicated that PAX3 might be involved in neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation by orchestrating the expression of cytoskeletal proteins. In the present study, we reported that PAX3 could inhibit the differentiation of NSCs and the expression of TUBB3. Further, using luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrated that PAX3 could bind to the promoter region of TUBB3 and inhibit TUBB3 transcription...
February 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222502/subclinical-doses-of-atp-sensitive-potassium-channel-modulators-prevent-alterations-in-memory-and-synaptic-alterations-in-memory-and-synaptic-%C3%AE
#12
Karla Salgado-Puga, Javier Rodríguez-Colorado, Roberto A Prado-Alcalá, Fernando Peña-Ortega
In addition to coupling cell metabolism and excitability, ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) are involved in neural function and plasticity. Moreover, alterations in KATP activity and expression have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and during amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced pathology. Thus, we tested whether KATP modulators can influence Aβ-induced deleterious effects on memory, hippocampal network function, and plasticity. We found that treating animals with subclinical doses (those that did not change glycemia) of a KATP blocker (Tolbutamide) or a KATP opener (Diazoxide) differentially restrained Aβ-induced memory deficit, hippocampal network activity inhibition, and long-term synaptic plasticity unbalance (i...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222099/morphological-study-of-tooth-development-in-podoplanin-deficient-mice
#13
Kenyo Takara, Naoki Maruo, Kyoko Oka, Chiaki Kaji, Yuji Hatakeyama, Naruhiko Sawa, Yukinari Kato, Junro Yamashita, Hiroshi Kojima, Yoshihiko Sawa
Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220575/generation-of-storable-retinal-organoids-and-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-from-adherent-human-ips-cells-in-xeno-free-and-feeder-free-conditions
#14
Sacha Reichman, Amélie Slembrouck, Giuliana Gagliardi, Antoine Chaffiol, Angélique Terray, Céline Nanteau, Anais Potey, Morgane Belle, Oriane Rabesandratana, Jens Duebel, Gael Orieux, Emeline F Nandrot, José-Alain Sahel, Olivier Goureau
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are potentially useful in regenerative therapies for retinal disease. For medical applications, therapeutic retinal cells, such as retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells or photoreceptor precursors, must be generated under completely defined conditions. To this purpose, we have developed a two-step xeno-free/feeder-free (XF/FF) culture system to efficiently differentiate hiPSCs into retinal cells. This simple method, relies only on adherent hiPSCs cultured in chemically defined media, bypassing embryoid body formation...
February 20, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219985/activity-induced-synaptic-structural-modifications-by-an-activator-of-integrin-signaling-at-the-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#15
Joo Yeun Lee, Junhua Geng, Juhyun Lee, Andrew R Wang, Karen T Chang
Activity-induced synaptic structural modification is crucial for neural development and synaptic plasticity, but the molecular players involved in this process are not well defined. Here, we report that a protein named Shriveled, Shv, regulates synaptic growth and activity-dependent synaptic remodeling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Depletion of Shv causes synaptic overgrowth and an accumulation of immature boutons. We find that Shv physically and genetically interacts with βPS integrin. Furthermore, Shv is secreted during intense, but not mild, neuronal activity to acutely activate integrin signaling, induce synaptic bouton enlargement, and increase postsynaptic glutamate receptor abundance...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219951/generation-of-thalamic-neurons-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#16
Atsushi Shiraishi, Keiko Muguruma, Yoshiki Sasai
Thalamus is a diencephalic structure that plays crucial roles in relaying and modulating sensory and motor information to the neocortex. The thalamus develops in the dorsal part of the neural tube at the level of the caudal forebrain. However, the molecular mechanisms that are essential for thalamic differentiation are still unknown. Here we have succeeded in the generation of thalamic neurons from mouse ES cells (mESCs) by modifying the default method that induces the most-anterior neural type in self-organizing culture...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219946/distinct-intracellular-ca-2-dynamics-regulate-apical-constriction-and-differentially-contribute-to-neural-tube-closure
#17
Makoto Suzuki, Masanao Sato, Hiroshi Koyama, Yusuke Hara, Kentaro Hayashi, Naoko Yasue, Hiromi Imamura, Toshihiko Fujimori, Takeharu Nagai, Robert E Campbell, Naoto Ueno
Early in the development of the central nervous system, progenitor cells undergo a shape change, called apical constriction, that triggers the neural plate to form a tubular structure. How apical constriction in the neural plate is controlled, and contributes to tissue morphogenesis, are not fully understood. In this study, we show that intracellular calcium ions (Ca(2+)) are required for Xenopus neural tube formation, and that there are two types of Ca(2+)-concentration changes, a single-cell and a multicellular wave-like fluctuation, in the developing neural plate...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219675/tcf7l2-plays-crucial-roles-in-forebrain-development-through-regulation-of-thalamic-and-habenular-neuron-identity-and-connectivity
#18
Myungsin Lee, Jiyeon Yoon, Hobeom Song, Bumwhee Lee, Lam Tri Duc, Jaeseung Yoon, Kwanghee Baek, Hans Clevers, Yongsu Jeong
The thalamus acts as a central integrator for processing and relaying sensory and motor information to and from the cerebral cortex, and the habenula plays pivotal roles in emotive decision making by modulating dopaminergic and serotonergic circuits. These neural compartments are derived from a common developmental progenitor domain, called prosomere 2, in the caudal forebrain. Thalamic and habenular neurons exhibit distinct molecular profile, neurochemical identity, and axonal circuitry. However, the mechanisms of how their progenitors in prosomere 2 give rise to these two populations of neurons and contribute to the forebrain circuitry remains unclear...
February 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218914/persistently-active-neurons-in-human-medial-frontal-and-medial-temporal-lobe-support-working-memory
#19
Jan Kamiński, Shannon Sullivan, Jeffrey M Chung, Ian B Ross, Adam N Mamelak, Ueli Rutishauser
Persistent neural activity is a putative mechanism for the maintenance of working memories. Persistent activity relies on the activity of a distributed network of areas, but the differential contribution of each area remains unclear. We recorded single neurons in the human medial frontal cortex and medial temporal lobe while subjects held up to three items in memory. We found persistently active neurons in both areas. Persistent activity of hippocampal and amygdala neurons was stimulus-specific, formed stable attractors and was predictive of memory content...
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218899/prospective-identification-of-hematopoietic-lineage-choice-by-deep-learning
#20
Felix Buggenthin, Florian Buettner, Philipp S Hoppe, Max Endele, Manuel Kroiss, Michael Strasser, Michael Schwarzfischer, Dirk Loeffler, Konstantinos D Kokkaliaris, Oliver Hilsenbeck, Timm Schroeder, Fabian J Theis, Carsten Marr
Differentiation alters molecular properties of stem and progenitor cells, leading to changes in their shape and movement characteristics. We present a deep neural network that prospectively predicts lineage choice in differentiating primary hematopoietic progenitors using image patches from brightfield microscopy and cellular movement. Surprisingly, lineage choice can be detected up to three generations before conventional molecular markers are observable. Our approach allows identification of cells with differentially expressed lineage-specifying genes without molecular labeling...
February 20, 2017: Nature Methods
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