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BAF complex

Pingping Zhu, Yanying Wang, Jiayi Wu, Guanling Huang, Benyu Liu, Buqing Ye, Ying Du, Guangxia Gao, Yong Tian, Lei He, Zusen Fan
Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) may contribute to the high rate of recurrence and heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the biology of hepatic CSCs remains largely undefined. Through analysis of transcriptome microarray data, we identify a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) called lncBRM, which is highly expressed in liver CSCs and HCC tumours. LncBRM is required for the self-renewal maintenance of liver CSCs and tumour initiation. In liver CSCs, lncBRM associates with BRM to initiate the BRG1/BRM switch and the BRG1-embedded BAF complex triggers activation of YAP1 signalling...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
Edu Inam, Felicia Ibanga, Joseph Essien
Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and an incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) assessment model, the bioaccumulation and cancer risk of 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in leafy vegetables (Vernonia amygdalina and Lasianthera africanum) grown in soils within an automobile repair complex environment in Uyo, Nigeria was studied. The total PAHs concentrations recorded for soils ranged from 0.02 to 1.77 mg/kg. The highest level of 1.77 mg/kg was recorded for soils from the main automobile repair complex (site 1)...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Liwen Qiang, Meng Chen, Ling-Yan Zhu, Wei Wu, Qiang Wang
As one of the most popular carbon-based nano-materials, graphene oxide (GO) has the potential to be released in aquatic environment and interact with some coexistent organic pollutants, such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which is an emerging persistent organic pollutant. In this study, the adsorption of PFOS on GO in presence of fulvic acid (FA), the impacts of GO and FA on PFOS toxicokinetics in carp (Cyprinus carpio), and in vitro digestion behaviors were examined. The results indicated that PFOS could be strongly adsorbed on GO with a Freundlich affinity coefficient KF of 580 ± 205 (mg/g)/(mg/L)n, while the adsorption was suppressed by FA due to competitive adsorption...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Christina Bachmann, Huong Nguyen, Joachim Rosenbusch, Linh Pham, Tamara Rabe, Megha Patwa, Godwin Sokpor, Rho H Seong, Ruth Ashery-Padan, Ahmed Mansouri, Anastassia Stoykova, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
Neurogenesis is a key developmental event through which neurons are generated from neural stem/progenitor cells. Chromatin remodeling BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes have been reported to play essential roles in the neurogenesis of the central nervous system. However, whether BAF complexes are required for neuron generation in the olfactory system is unknown. Here, we identified onscBAF and ornBAF complexes, which are specifically present in olfactory neural stem cells (oNSCs) and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), respectively...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Joshua A Smith, Kenton R Holden, Michael J Friez, Julie R Jones, Michael J Lyons
Recent studies have identified mutations in the ARID1B gene responsible for neurodevelopmental delays, intellectual disability, growth delay, and dysmorphic features. ARID1B encodes a subunit of the BAF chromatin-remodeling complex, and mutations in multiple components of the BAF complex have been implicated as causes of Coffin-Siris syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, and non-syndromic intellectual disability. The majority of documented pathogenic ARID1B mutations to date have arisen in a sporadic, de novo manner with no reports of inheritance of a pathogenic mutation from an affected parent...
August 29, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Qiulun Lu, Yufeng Yao, Zhenkun Hu, Changqing Hu, Qixue Song, Jian Ye, Chengqi Xu, Annabel Z Wang, Qiuyun Chen, Qing Kenneth Wang
AGGF1 is an angiogenic factor with therapeutic potential to treat coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI). However, the underlying mechanism for AGGF1-mediated therapeutic angiogenesis is unknown. Here, we show for the first time that AGGF1 activates autophagy, a housekeeping catabolic cellular process, in endothelial cells (ECs), HL1, H9C2, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Studies with Atg5 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the autophagy inhibitors bafilomycin A1 (Baf) and chloroquine demonstrate that autophagy is required for AGGF1-mediated EC proliferation, migration, capillary tube formation, and aortic ring-based angiogenesis...
August 2016: PLoS Biology
Toshiki Takenouchi, Hiroshi Yoshihashi, Yuri Sakaguchi, Tomoko Uehara, Masataka Honda, Takao Takahashi, Kenjiro Kosaki, Sahoko Miyama
Mutations in the BAF complex (mammalian SWI/SNF complex) are responsible for Coffin-Siris syndrome, which is characterized by developmental delay, distinctive facial features, hirsutism, and hypoplasia/aplasia of the fifth finger/fingernails. Hirschsprung disease is characterized by defective stem cells in the enteric neural system, and the involvement of multiple signaling cascades has been implicated. So far, the roles of the BAF complex in the genesis of Hirschsprung disease have remained unknown. Here, we document a patient with coarse facial features, postnatal growth failure, developmental delay, epilepsy, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and cerebellum but without a hypoplastic fifth finger/fingernail...
August 11, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Cristina Dias, Sara B Estruch, Sarah A Graham, Jeremy McRae, Stephen J Sawiak, Jane A Hurst, Shelagh K Joss, Susan E Holder, Jenny E V Morton, Claire Turner, Julien Thevenon, Kelly Mellul, Gabriela Sánchez-Andrade, Ximena Ibarra-Soria, Pelagia Deriziotis, Rui F Santos, Song-Choon Lee, Laurence Faivre, Tjitske Kleefstra, Pentao Liu, Mathew E Hurles, Simon E Fisher, Darren W Logan
Intellectual disability (ID) is a common condition with considerable genetic heterogeneity. Next-generation sequencing of large cohorts has identified an increasing number of genes implicated in ID, but their roles in neurodevelopment remain largely unexplored. Here we report an ID syndrome caused by de novo heterozygous missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations in BCL11A, encoding a transcription factor that is a putative member of the BAF swi/snf chromatin-remodeling complex. Using a comprehensive integrated approach to ID disease modeling, involving human cellular analyses coupled to mouse behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular phenotyping, we provide multiple lines of functional evidence for phenotypic effects...
August 4, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Courtney Hodges, Jacob G Kirkland, Gerald R Crabtree
During the last decade, a host of epigenetic mechanisms were found to contribute to cancer and other human diseases. Several genomic studies have revealed that ∼20% of malignancies have alterations of the subunits of polymorphic BRG-/BRM-associated factor (BAF) and Polybromo-associated BAF (PBAF) complexes, making them among the most frequently mutated complexes in cancer. Recurrent mutations arise in genes encoding several BAF/PBAF subunits, including ARID1A, ARID2, PBRM1, SMARCA4, and SMARCB1 These subunits share some degree of conservation with subunits from related adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes in model organisms, in which a large body of work provides insight into their roles in cancer...
2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Tran Tuoc, Ekrem Dere, Konstantin Radyushkin, Linh Pham, Huong Nguyen, Anton B Tonchev, Guoqiang Sun, Anja Ronnenberg, Yanhong Shi, Jochen F Staiger, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Anastassia Stoykova
The BAF chromatin remodeling complex plays an essential role in brain development. However its function in postnatal neurogenesis in hippocampus is still unknown. Here, we show that in postnatal dentate gyrus (DG), the BAF170 subunit of the complex is expressed in radial glial-like (RGL) progenitors and in cell types involved in subsequent steps of adult neurogenesis including mature astrocytes. Conditional deletion of BAF170 during cortical late neurogenesis as well as during adult brain neurogenesis depletes the pool of RGL cells in DG, and promotes terminal astrocyte differentiation...
July 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Ana Silvina Nacht, Andy Pohl, Roser Zaurin, Daniel Soronellas, Javier Quilez, Priyanka Sharma, Roni H Wright, Miguel Beato, Guillermo P Vicent
Eukaryotic gene regulation is associated with changes in chromatin compaction that modulate access to DNA regulatory sequences relevant for transcriptional activation or repression. Although much is known about the mechanism of chromatin remodeling in hormonal gene activation, how repression is accomplished is much less understood. Here we report that in breast cancer cells, ligand-activated progesterone receptor (PR) is directly recruited to transcriptionally repressed genes involved in cell proliferation along with the kinases ERK1/2 and MSK1...
August 15, 2016: EMBO Journal
Houssem Chalghmi, Ines Zrafi, Pierre-Yves Gourves, Jean-Paul Bourdineaud, Dalila Saidane-Mosbahi
The spatial and seasonal alteration in a battery of biomarkers responses (enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase, catalase and acetylcholinesterase and lipid peroxidation) were investigated to assess the metal derived effects in clam (Ruditapes decussatus) gills, collected from Tunis lagoon (Tunisia). Trace metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) concentrations were assessed seasonally in sediments and tissues of R. decussatus from three different sites (S1, S2 and S3). Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) analysis showed a spatio-temporal variation of metal uptake rates in clams through sediments...
July 13, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Yun Sol Jo, Min Sung Kim, Nam Jin Yoo, Sug Hyung Lee, Sang Yong Song
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Yuri A Zarate, Elizabeth Bhoj, Julie Kaylor, Dong Li, Yoshinori Tsurusaki, Noriko Miyake, Naomichi Matsumoto, Shubha Phadke, Luis Escobar, Afifa Irani, Hakon Hakonarson, Samantha A Schrier Vergano
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS, MIM 135900), is a well-described, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by coarse facial features, hypertrichosis, sparse scalp hair, and hypo/aplastic digital nails and phalanges, typically of the 5th digits. Mutations in the BAF (SWI/SNF)-complex subunits (SMARCA4, SMARCE1, SMARCB1, SMARCA2, ARID1B, and ARID1A) have been shown to cause not only CSS, but also related disorders including Nicolaides-Baraitser (MIM 601358) syndrome and ARID1B-intellectual disability syndrome (MIM 614562)...
August 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
A N Hasan, A Selvakumar, E Shabrova, X-R Liu, F Afridi, G Heller, I Riviere, M Sadelain, B Dupont, R J O'Reilly
The lack of persistence of infused T cells is a principal limitation of adoptive immunotherapy in man. Interleukin (IL)-15 can sustain memory T cell expansion when presented in complex with IL-15Rα (15Rα/15). We developed a novel in-vitro system for generation of stable 15Rα/15 complexes. Immunologically quantifiable amounts of IL-15 were obtained when both IL-15Rα and IL-15 genes were co-transduced in NIH 3T3 fibroblast-based artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing human leucocyte antigen (HLA) A:0201, β2 microglobulin, CD80, CD58 and CD54 [A2-artificial antigen presenting cell (AAPC)] and a murine pro-B cell line (Baf-3) (A2-AAPC(15Rα/15) and Baf-3(15Rα/15) )...
November 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Hilda Lomelí, Jorge Castillo-Robles
Mammalian SWI/SNF or BAF chromatin-remodeling complexes are polymorphic assemblies of homologous subunit families that remodel nucleosomes. BAF57 is a subunit of the BAF complexes; it is encoded only in higher eukaryotes and is present in all mammalian assemblies. Its main structural feature is a high-mobility group domain, the DNA-binding properties of which suggest that BAF57 may play topological roles as the BAF complex enters or exits the nucleosome. BAF57 displays specific interactions with a number of proteins outside the BAF complex...
June 2016: FEBS Letters
Karen W Gripp, Laura Baker, Aida Telegrafi, Kristin G Monaghan
The genetic basis of numerous intellectual disability (ID) syndromes has recently been identified by applying exome analysis on a research or clinical basis. There is significant clinical overlap of biologically related syndromes, as exemplified by Nicolaides-Baraitser (NCBRS) and Coffin-Siris (CSS) syndrome. Both result from mutations affecting the BAF (mSWI/SNF) complex and belong to the growing category of BAFopathies. In addition to the notable clinical overlap between these BAFopathies, heterogeneity exists for patients clinically diagnosed with one of these conditions...
July 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Huong Nguyen, Godwin Sokpor, Linh Pham, Joachim Rosenbusch, Anastassia Stoykova, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
The multi-subunit chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF (known as BAF for Brg/Brm-associated factor) complexes play essential roles in development. Studies have shown that the loss of individual BAF subunits often affects local chromatin structure and specific transcriptional programs. However, we do not fully understand how BAF complexes function in development because no animal mutant had been engineered to lack entire multi-subunit BAF complexes. Importantly, we recently reported that double conditional knock-out (dcKO) of the BAF155 and BAF170 core subunits in mice abolished the presence of the other BAF subunits in the developing cortex...
May 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
Maryna Panamarova, Andy Cox, Krzysztof B Wicher, Richard Butler, Natalia Bulgakova, Shin Jeon, Barry Rosen, Rho H Seong, William Skarnes, Gerald Crabtree, Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz
Dynamic control of gene expression is essential for the development of a totipotent zygote into an embryo with defined cell lineages. The accessibility of genes responsible for cell specification to transcriptional machinery is dependent on chromatin remodelling complexes such as the SWI\SNF (BAF) complex. However, the role of the BAF complex in early mouse development has remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that BAF155, a major BAF complex subunit, regulates the assembly of the BAF complex in vivo and regulates lineage specification of the mouse blastocyst...
April 15, 2016: Development
Zhana Duren, Yong Wang
Chromatin regulators (CRs) are crucial for connecting the chromatin level and transcriptome level by modulating chromatin structures, establishing, and maintaining epigenetic modifications. We present a systematic method to identify MOdulation of transcriptional regulation via CHromatin Activity (MOCHA) from gene expression data and demonstrate its advantage in associating CRs to their chromatin localization and understand CRs' function. We first re-construct the CRs modulation network by integrating the correlation and conditional correlation concepts...
2016: Scientific Reports
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