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Ashley Stanley, K Chavda, A Subramanian, S V Prabhu, T F Ashavaid
The dopamine receptor-D4 and the dopamine transporter have been investigated for their role in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Reports of their genetic association with ADHD have shown mixed results. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) of the DRD4 and DAT1 genes with ADHD in children. A pilot 1:1 case control study, with 44 clinically confirmed ADHD cases and 44 age/gender matched healthy controls, was conducted at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Patrick Wing-Leung Leung, Janice Ka Yan Chan, Lu Hua Chen, Chi Chiu Lee, Se Fong Hung, Ting Pong Ho, Chun Pan Tang, Robert K Moyzis, James M Swanson
The 48-basepair (48-bp) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in exon 3 of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, ADHD in European-ancestry population is associated with an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the exon 3 VNTR. However, it is intriguing to note that the 7R allele has been found to be of very low prevalence in the Chinese general population. In a previous case-control study, our research team had found that the 7R allele was similarly absent in Chinese ADHD children in Hong Kong...
2017: PloS One
Anne Horn, C Scheller, S du Plessis, R Burger, G Arendt, J Joska, S Sopper, C M Maschke, M Obermann, I W Husstedt, J Hain, P Riederer, E Koutsilieri
We showed previously that higher levels in CSF dopamine in HIV patients are associated with the presence of the dopamine transporter (DAT) 10/10-repeat allele which was also detected more frequently in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected subjects. In the current study, we investigated further whether other genetic dopamine (DA)-related polymorphisms may be related with changes in CSF DA levels and frequency of HIV infection in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, we studied genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and dopamine receptors DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genetic polymorphisms in uninfected and HIV-infected people in two different ethnical groups, a German cohort (Caucasian, 72 individuals with HIV infection and 22 individuals without HIV infection) and a South African cohort (Xhosan, 54 individuals with HIV infection and 19 individuals without HIV infection)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
M Ferrari, C Comi, F Marino, L Magistrelli, F De Marchi, R Cantello, G Riboldazzi, G Bono, M Cosentino
BACKGROUND: Visual hallucinations (VHs) are frequent non-motor complication of Parkinson's disease (PD), associated to a negative prognosis. Previous studies showed an association between dopamine receptor (DR) gene (DR) variants and psychosis in Alzheimer's disease, addictions, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. However, there are only a few studies on DR variants and VHs in PD, which did not provide conclusive results. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine whether genetic differences of DR are associated with visual hallucinations (VHs) in a cohort of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients...
November 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Anthony P King, Maria Muzik, Lindsay Hamilton, Alexander B Taylor, Katherine L Rosenblum, Israel Liberzon
The DRD4 VNTR has been associated with child behavior problems in interaction with maternal insensitivity in European and American cohorts of preschoolers, with the 7-repeat (7R) allele associated with greater problems. We sought to replicate and expand these findings by examining effects on reports of child behavior problems at 18 months. A 63 family sample with data for observed maternal sensitivity ratings, DRD4 VNTR genotype, and maternal report of child behavior problems at 18-months was used in this preliminary analysis...
2016: PloS One
James Doorley, Caitlin Williams, Travis Mallard, Christianne Esposito-Smythers, John McGeary
Though an association exists between sexual trauma and adolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), not all adolescents with a sexual assault history develop STBs. The present study examined whether carrier status of the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism (DRD4 L vs. DRD4S) moderated the relationship between sexual trauma and STBs in a sample of psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. A total of 76 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents provided saliva samples for genotyping procedures and completed assessment measures...
June 7, 2016: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
C Bonvicini, S V Faraone, C Scassellati
The adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of up to 5% and is the most severe long-term outcome of this common disorder. Family studies in clinical samples as well as twin studies suggest a familial liability and consequently different genes were investigated in association studies. Pharmacotherapy with methylphenidate (MPH) seems to be the first-line treatment of choice in adults with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and some studies were conducted on the genes influencing the response to this drug...
July 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Philippe Jawinski, Sophie Tegelkamp, Christian Sander, Madlen Häntzsch, Jue Huang, Nicole Mauche, Markus Scholz, Janek Spada, Christine Ulke, Ralph Burkhardt, Andreas Reif, Ulrich Hegerl, Tilman Hensch
Dopamine has been implicated in the regulation of sleep-wake states and the circadian rhythm. However, there is no consensus on the impact of two established dopaminergic gene variants: the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met (COMT Val158Met; rs4680) and the dopamine D4 receptor Exon III variable-number-of-tandem-repeat polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR). Pursuing a multi-method approach, we examined their potential effects on circadian preferences, arousal regulation and sleep. Subjects underwent a 7-day actigraphy assessment (SenseWear Pro3), a 20-minute resting EEG (analyzed using VIGALL 2...
2016: Chronobiology International
Shoin Tei, Hiroaki Mitsuhashi, Shoichi Ishiura
This data article tested whether polymorphisms within the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene promoter can lead to differences in the promoter activity. The variants, a 120-bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), -906 T/C, -809 G/A, -616G/C, and -521C/T, were introduced into the DRD4 promoter and the promoter activity was measured in a neural cell line using the luciferase assay. However, no differences were detected among the haplotypes investigated, and the in vitro data obtained from our protocol could not support the involvement of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms in heritable human traits...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Elisa M Trucco, Brian M Hicks, Sandra Villafuerte, Joel T Nigg, Margit Burmeister, Robert A Zucker
Understanding how specific genes contribute to risk for addiction remains challenging. This study tests whether childhood temperament and externalizing behavior in early adolescence account for a portion of the association between specific genetic variants and substance use problems in late adolescence. The sample consisted of 487 adolescents from the Michigan Longitudinal Study, a high-risk sample (70.2% male, 81.7% European American ancestry). Polymorphisms across serotonergic (SLC6A4, 5-HTTLPR), dopaminergic (DRD4, u-VNTR), noradrenergic (SLC6A2, rs36021), and GABAergic (GABRA2, rs279858; GABRA6, rs3811995) genes were examined given prior support for associations with temperament, externalizing behavior, and substance use problems...
2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Travis T Mallard, James Doorley, Christianne L Esposito-Smythers, John E McGeary
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has received considerable attention as a potential genetic contributor to addiction. However, is unclear whether the polymorphism is involved in developing general traits that lead to risky behavior or an intermediate phenotype more specific to substance use disorders. Association studies have produced equivocal results. To control for potential confounds, the present study examined whether the long variant of the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism (DRD4L) is associated with greater substance misuse in a homogenous clinical sample of youth with a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD)...
January 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Andrew C Halley, Melanie Boretsky, David A Puts, Mark Shriver
Polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) have previously been shown to associate with a variety of human behavioral phenotypes, including ADHD pathology, alcohol and tobacco craving, financial risk-taking in males, and broader personality traits such as novelty seeking. Recent research has linked the presence of a 7-repeat (7R) allele in a 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) along exon III of DRD4 to age at first sexual intercourse, sexual desire, arousal and function, and infidelity and promiscuity...
November 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Rebecca A Lundwall, James L Dannemiller
BACKGROUND: Attention provides vital contribution to everyday functioning, and deficits in attention feature in many psychological disorders. Improved understanding of attention may eventually be critical to early identification and treatment of attentional deficits. One step in that direction is to acquire a better understanding of genetic associations with performance on a task measuring reflexive (exogenous) visual attention. Reflexive attention is an important component of overall attention because (along with voluntary selective attention) it participates in determining where attention is allocated and how susceptible to distractors the subject might be...
2015: BMC Neuroscience
Marloes Kleinjan, Rutger C M E Engels, Joseph R DiFranza
BACKGROUND: Among adolescent novice smokers, craving is often the first, and is the most reported, symptom of nicotine dependence. Until now, little has been known about the development of craving symptoms in novice smokers. The aim of this study was to identify specific genetic (i.e., DRD2 Taq1A, DRD4 48 bp VNTR, and OPRM1 A118G polymorphisms) and environmental mechanisms that underlie the emergence of both cue-induced and cognitive craving among adolescent novice smokers. METHOD: A five-wave longitudinal, genetically-informed survey study was conducted with intervals of four months...
2015: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Yushi Jiang, Rachel Bachner-Melman, Soo Hong Chew, Richard P Ebstein
On a large sample of 2288 Han Chinese undergraduates, we investigated how religion and DRD4 are related to human altruistic giving behavior as measured with the Andreoni-Miller Dictator Game. This game enables us to clearly specify (non-)selfishness, efficiency, and fairness motives for sharing. Participants were further classified into religious categories (Christian, Buddhist-Tao, and No Religion) based on self-reports, and genotyped for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene exon III VNTR. Our analysis revealed a significant interaction between religion and DRD4 correlated with giving behavior solely among males: Whereas no significant association between religion and sharing decisions was observed in the majority 4R/4R genotype group, a significant difference in giving behavior between Christian and non-Christian males was seen in the non-4R/4R group, with Christian men being overall more altruistic (less selfish and fairer) than non-Christian men...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Marco Cosentino, Marco Ferrari, Natasa Kustrimovic, Emanuela Rasini, Franca Marino
Dopamine is a key transmitter in the neuroimmune network, acting through five dopaminergic receptors (DR): the D1-like D1 and D5 and the D2-like D2, D3 and D4. Several DR gene variants exist and may affect DR expression and activity. We assessed total lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood of healthy subjects and their association with selected DR gene variants (DRD1 rs4532 and rs686, DRD5 rs6283, DRD2 rs1800497 and rs6277, DRD3 rs6280 and rs1800828, DRD4 rs747302 and 7 48-base pair VNTR)...
October 2015: Human Immunology
Luise Poustka, Katrin Zohsel, Dorothea Blomeyer, Christine Jennen-Steinmetz, Brigitte Schmid, Patricia Trautmann-Villalba, Sarah Hohmann, Katja Becker, Günter Esser, Martin H Schmidt, Daniel Brandeis, Tobias Banaschewski, Manfred Laucht
Recent longitudinal studies have indicated that affective and behavioral dysregulation in childhood is associated with an increased risk for various negative outcomes in later life. However, few studies to date have examined early mechanisms preceding dysregulation during early childhood. Aim of this study was to elucidate early mechanisms relating to dysregulation in later life using data from an epidemiological cohort study on the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth to adulthood. At age 3 months, mothers and infants were videotaped during a nursing and playing situation...
November 2015: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Ansley Stanfill, Donna Hathaway, Ann Cashion, Ramin Homayouni, Patricia Cowan, Carol Thompson, Behrouz Madahian, Yvette Conley
Kidney transplant recipients often experience a significant amount of weight gain in the first year post-transplantation. While demographic factors such as age, race, and sex have been associated with weight gain in this population, these factors do not explain all of the variability seen. A number of studies have suggested that genetics also plays a critical role in weight changes. Recently, alterations in the activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine have been associated with weight change, and gene expression studies in kidney transplant recipients have supported this association...
2015: PloS One
Crisciele Fontana, Márcia R Vitolo, Paula D B Campagnolo, Vanessa S Mattevi, Júlia P Genro, Silvana Almeida
Variants of dopamine system genes such as the DRD4 and the SLC6A3 genes may be involved in food intake regulation because the dopaminergic system influences food reward. We investigated an association of polymorphisms in the DRD4 (exon 3 VNTR) and SLC6A3 (3'UTR VNTR, rs2550948, rs2652511 and rs1048953) genes with food intake and nutritional status in children. This prospective cohort study recruited 359 children at birth. Dietary data and nutritional status were collected at 1 year, 3-4 years, and 7-8 years of age...
December 2015: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Karina Villalba, Jessy G Devieux, Rhonda Rosenberg, Jean Lud Cadet
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals continue to experience neurocognitive deterioration despite virologically successful treatments. The causes of neurocognitive impairment are still unclear. However, several factors have been suggested including the role of genetics. There is evidence suggesting that neurocognitive impairment is heritable and individual differences in cognition are strongly driven by genetic variations. The contribution of genetic variants affecting the metabolism and activity of dopamine may influence these individual differences...
2015: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
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