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Gene-environment interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149620/the-dopamine-d4-receptor-gene-birth-weight-maternal-depression-maternal-attention-and-the-prediction-of-disorganized-attachment-at-36-months-of-age-a-prospective-gene%C3%A3-environment-analysis
#1
Justin Graffi, Ellen Moss, Alexia Jolicoeur-Martineau, Gal Moss, Vanessa Lecompte, Katherine Pascuzzo, Vanessa Babineau, Cathryn Gordon-Green, Viara R Mileva-Seitz, Klaus Minde, Roberto Sassi, Meir Steiner, James L Kennedy, Helene Gaudreau, Robert Levitan, Michael J Meaney, Ashley Wazana
BACKGROUND: Efforts to understand the developmental pathways for disorganized attachment reflect the importance of disorganized attachment on the prediction of future psychopathology. The inconsistent findings on the prediction of disorganized attachment from the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene, birth weight, and maternal depression as well as the evidence supporting the contribution of early maternal care, suggest the importance of exploring a gene by environment model. METHODS: Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability, and Neurodevelopment project; consisting of 655 mother-child dyads...
November 14, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148066/predicting-the-use-of-corporal-punishment-child-aggression-parent-religiosity-and-the-bdnf-gene
#2
Reut Avinun, Maayan Davidov, David Mankuta, Ariel Knafo-Noam
Corporal punishment (CP) has been associated with deleterious child outcomes, highlighting the importance of understanding its underpinnings. Although several factors have been linked with parents' CP use, genetic influences on CP have rarely been studied, and an integrative view examining the interplay between different predictors of CP is missing. We focused on the separate and joint effects of religiosity, child aggression, parent's gender, and a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) substitution in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene...
November 17, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147568/environmental-influences-on-the-skin-microbiome-of-humans-and-cattle-in-rural-madagascar
#3
Melissa B Manus, James J Yu, Lawrence P Park, Olaf Mueller, Sarah C Windsor, Julie E Horvath, Charles L Nunn
Background and objectives: The skin harbors a dynamic community of microorganisms, where contact with humans, other animals and the environment can alter microbial communities. Most research on the human skin microbiome features Western populations living in hygienic conditions, yet these populations have vastly different patterns of environmental contact than the majority of people on Earth, including those living in developing countries. Methodology: We studied skin microbial communities of humans and cattle (zebu) in rural Madagascar to investigate how zebu ownership affects microbial composition of the human skin, and to characterize non-Western human and zebu skin communities more generally...
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147033/socratic-seminar-with-data-a-strategy-to-support-student-discourse-and-understanding
#4
Joan Griswold, Loren Shaw, Maureen Munn
A Socratic seminar can be a powerful tool for increasing students' ability to analyze and interpret data. Most commonly used for text-based discussion, we found that using Socratic seminar to engage students with data contributes to student understanding by allowing them to reason through and process complex information as a group. This approach also provides teachers with insights about student misconceptions and understanding of concepts by listening to the student-driven discussion. This article reports on Socratic seminar in the context of a high school type 2 diabetes curriculum that explores gene and environment interactions...
August 2017: American Biology Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146500/motility-biofilm-formation-apoptotic-effect-and-virulence-gene-expression-of-atypical-salmonella-typhimurium-outside-and-inside-caco-2-cells
#5
Ibtissem Chakroun, Abdelkarim Mahdhi, Patricia Morcillo, Hector Cordero, Alberto Cuesta, Amina Bakhrouf, Kacem Mahdouani, M Ángeles Esteban
Disease outbreaks related to waterborne pathogen contamination throughout the world as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing persistent infection are of renewed interest. In this research, we studied the effects of prolonged exposure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to the cues encountered in the extracellular environment particularly in seawater microcosm on bacterial virulence and subsequent infection in Caco-2 cells. Our data show a significant difference in biofilm formation, swimming and swarming motilities between normal and stressed cells of S...
November 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145853/molecular-characterization-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-in-clinical-isolates-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#6
Kevin M Raible, Bhaswati Sen, Nancy Law, Tiffany E Bias, Christopher L Emery, Garth D Ehrlich, Suresh G Joshi
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen which is establishing as a major cause of morbidity and mortality within the healthcare community. The success of this pathogen is largely due to its ability to rapidly gain resistance to antimicrobial therapies and its capability to persist in an abiotic environment through the production of a biofilm. Our tertiary-care hospital has showed high incidence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates. METHODS: In this study we explore both genotypic and phenotypic properties of 26 CRAB isolates: 16 isolates were collected from January 2010 to March 2011, and 10 were collected between February and May 2015...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145140/fluoxetine-modulates-the-transcription-of-genes-involved-in-serotonin-dopamine-and-adrenergic-signalling-in-zebrafish-embryos
#7
V Cunha, P Rodrigues, M M Santos, P Moradas-Ferreira, M Ferreira
Neurotransmitters pathways in fish and mammals are phylogenetically conserved. Therefore, the environmental presence of psychopharmaceuticals, such as fluoxetine (FLU), are likely to interact with fish serotonergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic systems, affecting their response and associated biological functions. Hence, the present work aimed at evaluating the effects of FLU in the transcription of genes involved in serotonin, dopamine and adrenergic transporters and receptors signalling in early stages of Danio rerio development...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143599/epistasis-physical-capacity-related-genes-and-exceptional-longevity-fndc5-gene-interactions-with-candidate-genes-foxoa3-and-apoe
#8
Noriyuki Fuku, Roberto Díaz-Peña, Yasumichi Arai, Yukiko Abe, Hirofumi Zempo, Hisashi Naito, Haruka Murakami, Motohiko Miyachi, Carlos Spuch, José A Serra-Rexach, Enzo Emanuele, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Alejandro Lucia
BACKGROUND: Forkhead box O3A (FOXOA3) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) are arguably the strongest gene candidates to influence human exceptional longevity (EL, i.e., being a centenarian), but inconsistency exists among cohorts. Epistasis, defined as the effect of one locus being dependent on the presence of 'modifier genes', may contribute to explain the missing heritability of complex phenotypes such as EL. We assessed the potential association of epistasis among candidate polymorphisms related to physical capacity, as well as antioxidant defense and cardiometabolic traits, and EL in the Japanese population...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143595/why-nature-prevails-over-nurture-in-the-making-of-the-elite-athlete
#9
Evelina Georgiades, Vassilis Klissouras, Jamie Baulch, Guan Wang, Yannis Pitsiladis
While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes and the environment...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143202/tobacco-plants-expressing-the-maize-nitrate-transporter-zmnrt2-1-exhibit-altered-responses-of-growth-and-gene-expression-to-nitrate-and-calcium
#10
Abubakar Ibrahim, Xiao-Lu Jin, Yu-Bin Zhang, Jessica Cruz, Paveena Vichyavichien, Nwadiuto Esiobu, Xing-Hai Zhang
BACKGROUND: Nitrate uptake is a highly regulated process. Understanding the intricate interactions between nitrate availability and genetically-controlled nitrate acquisition and metabolism is essential for improving nitrogen use efficiency and increasing nitrate uptake capacity for plants grown in both nitrate-poor and nitrate-enriched environments. In this report, we introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) the constitutively expressed maize high-affinity transporter ZmNrt2.1 gene that would bypass the tight control for the endogenous nitrate-responsive genes...
November 15, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142298/shaping-bacterial-population-behavior-through-computer-interfaced-control-of-individual-cells
#11
Remy Chait, Jakob Ruess, Tobias Bergmiller, Gašper Tkačik, Călin C Guet
Bacteria in groups vary individually, and interact with other bacteria and the environment to produce population-level patterns of gene expression. Investigating such behavior in detail requires measuring and controlling populations at the single-cell level alongside precisely specified interactions and environmental characteristics. Here we present an automated, programmable platform that combines image-based gene expression and growth measurements with on-line optogenetic expression control for hundreds of individual Escherichia coli cells over days, in a dynamically adjustable environment...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139003/differential-roles-for-arca-and-arcb-homologues-in-swarming-motility-in-serratia-marcescens-fs14
#12
Xiaolan Zhang, Defeng Wu, Tengfei Guo, Tingting Ran, Weiwu Wang, Dongqing Xu
ArcAB is a two-component regulatory system that can help bacteria respond to and survive in a changing environment. To identify the function of ArcAB homologues in Serratia marcescens FS14, in-frame deletion mutants of the arcA, arcB and arcAB genes were constructed. Surprisingly, ArcB affects the motility of FS14, but ArcA does not. These results are the reverse of those found in Escherichia coli. Further studies demonstrated that ArcB could promote bacterial motility by activating the synthesis of flagella and particularly by activating the expression of the biosurfactant serrawettin W1...
November 14, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134515/neuroprotective-potential-and-paracrine-activity-of-stromal-vs-culture-expanded-hmsc-derived-from-wharton-jelly-under-co-cultured-with-hippocampal-organotypic-slices
#13
Sylwia Dabrowska, Joanna Sypecka, Anna Jablonska, Lukasz Strojek, Miroslaw Wielgos, Krystyna Domanska-Janik, Anna Sarnowska
Regardless of enormous translational progress in stem cell clinical application, our knowledge about biological determinants of transplantation-related protection is still limited. In addition to adequate selection of the cell source well dedicated to a specific disease and optimal standardization of all other pre-transplant procedures, we have decided to focus more attention to the impact of culture time and environment itself on molecular properties and regenerative capacity of cell cultured in vitro. The aim of this investigation was to determine neuroprotection-linked cell phenotypic and functional changes that could spontaneously take place when freshly isolated Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cell (WJ-MSC) undergo standard selection, growth, and spontaneous differentiation throughout passaging in vitro...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133838/fungal-networks-serve-as-novel-ecological-routes-for-enrichment-and-dissemination-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-as-exhibited-by-microcosm-experiments
#14
Rashid Nazir, Ju-Pei Shen, Jun-Tao Wang, Hang-Wei Hu, Ji-Zheng He
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment and their subsequent acquisition by clinically important microorganisms are a serious concern. However, the spread of environmental ARGs remain largely unknown. We report, for the first time, the involvement of soil fungi in the distribution of bacteria with ARGs via soil microcosms. qPCR assay detected unique ARGs specifically found in the mycosphere of different fungi. Interestingly, the taxonomically and ecologically different fungi exerted different selection pressures on ARGs originating from the same source...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133413/socioeconomic-status-and-genetic-influences-on-cognitive-development
#15
David N Figlio, Jeremy Freese, Krzysztof Karbownik, Jeffrey Roth
Accurate understanding of environmental moderation of genetic influences is vital to advancing the science of cognitive development as well as for designing interventions. One widely reported idea is increasing genetic influence on cognition for children raised in higher socioeconomic status (SES) families, including recent proposals that the pattern is a particularly US phenomenon. We used matched birth and school records from Florida siblings and twins born in 1994-2002 to provide the largest, most population-diverse consideration of this hypothesis to date...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130176/assessing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-autoinducer-effects-on-mammalian-epithelial-cells
#16
Jake Everett, Rebecca Gabrilska, Kendra P Rumbaugh, Elena Vikström
The human mucosal environment in the gut is rich with interactions between microbiota and mammalian epithelia. Microbes such as the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa may use quorum sensing to communicate with other microorganisms and mammalian cells to alter gene expression. Here, we present methodologies to evaluate the effects of P. aeruginosa N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL) on Caco-2 cell monolayers. First, we describe a method for assessing barrier function and permeability of epithelial cells when exposed to 3O-C12-HSL by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular flow using fluorescently labeled dextran...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129791/resting-state-networks-mediate-the-effect-of-genotype-by-environment-interaction-on-mental-health
#17
Gennady G Knyazev, Alexander N Savostyanov, Andrey V Bocharov, Daria V Bazovkina, Ekaterina A Proshina
A number of studies have shown that the presence of short (S) allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is associated with a higher risk for depression following exposure to stressful life events. These findings are in line with neuroimaging studies showing that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism has an effect on the connectivity among key areas involved in emotion regulation. Here using mediated moderation analysis, we show that electrophysiological manifestations of resting state networks in the alpha frequency band mediate the effect of 5-HTTLPR by stress interaction on depression/anxiety symptoms in a nonclinical sample...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127314/modulation-of-transcriptional-mineralocorticoid-receptor-activity-by-casein-kinase-2
#18
Stefanie Ruhs, Nicole Strätz, Katja Quarch, Antonia Masch, Mike Schutkowski, Michael Gekle, Claudia Grossmann
The pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases is a multifunctional process in which the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, is involved as proven by numerous clinical studies. The development of pathophysiological MR actions depends on the existence of additional factors e.g. inflammatory cytokines and seems to involve posttranslational MR modifications e.g. phosphorylation. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that can be activated under inflammatory conditions as the MR...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126434/whole-blood-microrna-expression-pattern-differentiates-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-their-seropositive-first-degree-relatives-and-healthy-unrelated-control-subjects
#19
Vidyanand Anaparti, Irene Smolik, Xiaobo Meng, Victor Spicer, Neeloffer Mookherjee, Hani El-Gabalawy
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms can integrate gene-environment interactions that mediate disease transition from preclinical to clinically overt rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To better understand their role, we evaluated microRNA (miRNA, miR) expression profile in indigenous North American patients with RA who were positive for anticitrullinated protein antibodies; their autoantibody-positive, asymptomatic first-degree relatives (FDRs); and disease-free healthy control subjects (HCs). METHODS: Total RNA was isolated from whole blood samples obtained from HC (n = 12), patients with RA (n = 18), and FDRs (n = 12)...
November 10, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126191/evolution-of-exploitative-interactions-during-diversification-in-bacillus-subtilis-biofilms
#20
Anna Dragoš, Nivedha Lakshmanan, Marivic Martin, Balázs Horváth, Gergely Maróti, Carolina Falcón García, Oliver Lieleg, Ákos T Kovács
Microbial biofilms are tightly packed, heterogeneous structures that serve as arenas for social interactions. Studies on Gram negative models reveal that during evolution in structured environments like biofilms, isogenic populations commonly diversify into phenotypically and genetically distinct variants. These variants can settle in alternative biofilm niches and develop new types of interactions that greatly influence population productivity. Here, we explore the evolutionary diversification of pellicle biofilms of the Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis...
November 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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