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Fluid balance physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431620/role-of-inflammatory-molecules-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-progression-and-diagnosis
#1
REVIEW
Eva Bagyinszky, Vo Van Giau, Kyuhwan Shim, Kyoungho Suk, Seong Soo A An, SangYun Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex disorder and the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia. Several genetic, environmental, and physiological factors, including inflammations and metabolic influences, are involved in the progression of AD. Inflammations are composed of complicated networks of many chemokines and cytokines with diverse cells. Inflammatory molecules are needed for the protection against pathogens, and maintaining their balances is important for normal physiological function. Recent studies demonstrated that inflammation may be involved in neurodegenerative dementia...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407811/saline-versus-balanced-crystalloids-for-intravenous-fluid-therapy-in-the-emergency-department-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-multiple-crossover-trial
#2
Wesley H Self, Matthew W Semler, Jonathan P Wanderer, Jesse M Ehrenfeld, Daniel W Byrne, Li Wang, Leanne Atchison, Matthew Felbinger, Ian D Jones, Stephan Russ, Andrew D Shaw, Gordon R Bernard, Todd W Rice
BACKGROUND: Prior studies in critically ill patients suggest the supra-physiologic chloride concentration of 0.9% ("normal") saline may be associated with higher risk of renal failure and death compared to physiologically balanced crystalloids. However, the comparative effects of 0.9% saline and balanced fluids are largely unexamined among patients outside the intensive care unit, who represent the vast majority of patients treated with intravenous fluids. METHODS/DESIGN: This study, entitled Saline Against Lactated Ringer's or Plasma-Lyte in the Emergency Department (SALT-ED), is a pragmatic, cluster, multiple-crossover trial at a single institution evaluating clinical outcomes of adults treated with 0...
April 13, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399905/cardiac-biomarkers-are-associated-with-maximum-stage-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-patients-a-prospective-analysis
#3
Ryan Haines, Siobhan Crichton, Jessica Wilson, David Treacher, Marlies Ostermann
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether cardiac troponin T (cTnT), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and need for acute renal replacement therapy (RRT) in adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We analysed prospectively collected data for patients admitted to the ICU between June and December 2010 for non-cardiac reasons. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes creatinine criteria were applied to identify patients with AKI including those who received acute RRT...
April 12, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392152/how-exercise-influences-equine-joint-homeostasis
#4
REVIEW
Nikae C R Te Moller, P René van Weeren
The maintenance of joint homeostasis is integral to joint health. Knowledge of the influence of exercise on joint homeostasis is not only relevant for determining sustainable levels of equine athletic training, but also for the study of early development of osteoarthritis or cartilage repair in animal models. This review provides an overview of findings derived from in vivo studies and postmortem analyses investigating exercise effects on various joint tissue components in the horse, supplemented where appropriate with data from small animal models...
March 28, 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384420/not-good-but-not-all-bad-dehydration-effects-on-body-fluids-organ-masses-and-water-flux-through-the-skin-of-rhinella-schneideri-amphibia-bufonidae
#5
Rodolfo C O Anderson, Rafael P Bovo, Carlos E Eismann, Amauri A Menegario, Denis V Andrade
Because of their permeable skin, terrestrial amphibians are constantly challenged by the potential risk of dehydration. However, some of the physiological consequences associated with dehydration may affect aspects that are themselves relevant to the regulation of water balance. Accordingly, we examined the effects of graded levels of dehydration on the rates of evaporative water loss and water absorption through the skin in the terrestrial Neotropical toad, Rhinella schneideri. Concomitantly, we monitored the effects of dehydration on the mass of visceral organs; hematocrit and hemoglobin content; plasma osmolality; and plasma concentration of urea, sodium, chloride, and potassium...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378030/potassium-regulation-in-the-neonate
#6
Melvin Bonilla-Félix
Potassium, the major cation in intracelluar fluids, is essential for vital biological functions. Neonates maintain a net positive potassium balance, which is fundamental to ensure somatic growth but places these infants, especially those born prematurely, at risk for life-threatening disturbances in potassium concentration [K(+)] in the extracellular fluid compartment. Potassium conservation is achieved by maximizing gastrointestinal absorption and minimizing renal losses. A markedly low glomerular filtration rate, plus adaptations in tubular transport along the nephron, result in low potassium excretion in the urine of neonates...
April 4, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371470/role-of-renal-vascular-potassium-channels-in-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#7
REVIEW
Max Salomonsson, Jens Christian Brasen, Charlotte M Sorensen
The control of renal vascular tone is important for the regulation of salt and water balance, blood pressure and the protection against damaging elevated glomerular pressure. The K(+) conductance is a major factor in the regulation of the membrane potential (Vm ) in vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) and endothelial cells (EC). The vascular tone is controlled by Vm via its effect on the opening probability of voltage operated Ca(2+) channels (VOCC) in VSMC. When K(+) conductance increases Vm becomes more negative and vasodilation follows, while deactivation of K(+) channels leads to depolarization and vasoconstriction...
March 30, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346012/lymphangiogenesis-fuel-smoke-or-extinguisher-of-inflammation-s-fire
#8
Gabriella R Abouelkheir, Bradley D Upchurch, Joseph M Rutkowski
Lymphangiogenesis is a recognized hallmark of inflammatory processes in tissues and organs as diverse as the skin, heart, bowel, and airways. In clinical and animal models wherein the signaling processes of lymphangiogenesis are manipulated, most studies demonstrate that an expanded lymphatic vasculature is necessary for the resolution of inflammation. The fundamental roles that lymphatics play in fluid clearance and immune cell trafficking from the periphery make these results seemingly obvious as a mechanism of alleviating locally inflamed environments: the lymphatics are simply providing a drain...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336818/increased-exposure-to-sodium-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-changes-basal-and-induced-behavioral-and-neuroendocrine-responses-in-adult-male-offspring
#9
Marcia S Silva, Fabiana Lúcio-Oliveira, Andre Souza Mecawi, Lucas F Almeida, Silvia G Ruginsk, Michael P Greenwood, Mingkwan Greenwood, Laura Vivas, Lucila L K Elias, David Murphy, José Antunes-Rodrigues
Excessive sodium (Na(+)) intake in modern society has been associated with several chronic disorders such as hypertension. Several studies suggest that early life events can program physiological systems and lead to functional changes in adulthood. Therefore, we investigated behavioral and neuroendocrine responses under basal conditions and after 48 h of water deprivation in adult (60-day-old Wistar rats) male, Wistar rats originating from dams were offered only water or 0.15 mol/L NaCl during pregnancy and lactation...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330845/transport-across-the-choroid-plexus-epithelium
#10
Jeppe Praetorius, Helle Hasager Damkier
The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320893/regional-differences-in-nutrient-induced-secretion-of-gut-serotonin
#11
Alyce M Martin, Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Claire F Jessup, Nick J Spencer, Damien J Keating
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide the vast majority of serotonin (5-HT) in the body and constitute half of all enteroendocrine cells. EC cells respond to an array of stimuli, including various ingested nutrients. Ensuing 5-HT release from these cells plays a diverse role in regulating gut motility as well as other important responses to nutrient ingestion such as glucose absorption and fluid balance. Recent data also highlight the role of peripheral 5-HT in various pathways related to metabolic control...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271233/regulation-of-glomerulotubular-balance-flow-activated-proximal-tubule-function
#12
REVIEW
Tong Wang, Sheldon Weinbaum, Alan M Weinstein
The purpose of this review is to summarize our knowledge and understanding of the physiological importance and the mechanisms underlying flow-activated proximal tubule transport. Since the earliest micropuncture studies of mammalian proximal tubule, it has been recognized that tubular flow is an important regulator of sodium, potassium, and acid-base transport in the kidney. Increased fluid flow stimulates Na(+) and HCO3(-) absorption in the proximal tubule via stimulation of Na/H-exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and H(+)-ATPase...
March 7, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267585/disturbances-of-thirst-and-fluid-balance-associated-with-aging
#13
REVIEW
Denovan P Begg
During heat waves, significant mortality and morbidity occurs in elderly populations due to heat-stress and dehydration. The dehydration is primarily attributable to inadequate water intake caused by dysfunction of the central nervous system mechanisms controlling thirst. The phenomenon of a reduced thirst in response to dehydration in aging was first observed decades ago and has been examined extensively since. The reduced thirst and ingestive behavior have been reported consistently in response to hyperosmotic stimuli, hypovolemic stimuli and dehydration in both elderly humans and animal models of aging...
March 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258569/aquaporins-in-respiratory-system
#14
Yuanlin Song, Linlin Wang, Jian Wang, Chunxue Bai
Aquaporins (AQPs ) are water channel proteins supposed to facilitating fluid transport in alveolar space, airway humidification, pleural fluid absorption, and submucosal gland secretion . In this chapter, we mainly focus on the expression of 4 AQPs in the lungs which include AQP1, AQP2 , AQP4 and AQP5 in normal and disease status, and the experience of AQPs function from various model and transgenic mice were summarized in detail to improve our understanding of the role of AQPs in fluid balance of respiratory system...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252537/daily-lowest-hemoglobin-and-risk-of-organ-dysfunctions-in-critically-ill-patients
#15
Sarah J Hemauer, Adam J Kingeter, Xue Han, Matthew S Shotwell, Pratik P Pandharipande, Liza M Weavind
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between hemoglobin levels and the daily risk of individual organ dysfunctions in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Saint Thomas Hospital Medical and Surgical ICUs. PATIENTS: Medical and surgical ICU patients admitted with respiratory failure or shock. INTERVENTIONS: Baseline demographic data, and detailed in-ICU and hospital data, including daily lowest hemoglobin, were collected up to hospital day 30...
May 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240700/factors-influencing-weaning-older-adults-from-mechanical-ventilation-an-integrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Karen V Stieff, Fidelindo Lim, Leon Chen
This study aim was to describe the influences that affect weaning from mechanical ventilation among older adults in the intensive care unit (ICU). Adults older than 65 years comprised only 14.5% of the US population in 2014; however, they accounted up to 45% of all ICU admissions. As this population grows, the number of ICU admissions is expected to increase. One of the most common procedures for hospitalized adults 75 years and older is mechanical ventilation. An integrative review methodology was applied to analyze and synthesize primary research reports...
April 2017: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142133/perioperative-hemodynamic-instability-and-fluid-overload-are-associated-with-increasing-acute-kidney-injury-severity-and-worse-outcome-after-cardiac-surgery
#17
Anja Haase-Fielitz, Michael Haase, Rinaldo Bellomo, Paolo Calzavacca, Anke Spura, Hassina Baraki, Ingo Kutschka, Christian Albert
PURPOSE: The study aimed to investigate patients' characteristics, fluid and hemodynamic management, and outcomes according to the severity of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). METHODS: In a single-center, prospective cohort study, we enrolled 282 adult cardiac surgical patients. In a secondary analysis, we assessed preoperative patients' characteristics, physiological variables, and medication for intra- and postoperative fluid and hemodynamic management and outcomes according to CSA-AKI stages by the Renal risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease (RIFLE) classification...
2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131530/cystatin-c-guided-vancomycin-dosing-in-critically-ill-patients-a%C3%A2-quality-improvement-project
#18
Erin Frazee, Andrew D Rule, John C Lieske, Kianoush B Kashani, Jason N Barreto, Abinash Virk, Philip J Kuper, Ross A Dierkhising, Nelson Leung
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine whether a vancomycin dosing algorithm based on estimated glomerular filtration rate from creatinine and cystatin C levels (eGFRcr-cys) improves target trough concentration achievement compared to an algorithm based on estimated creatinine clearance (eCLcr) in critically ill patients. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective quality improvement project evaluated intensive care unit (ICU) patients started on intravenous vancomycin using one of 2 different strategies...
May 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118414/copeptin-predicts-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients
#19
Konstantin A Krychtiuk, Maria C Honeder, Max Lenz, Gerald Maurer, Johann Wojta, Gottfried Heinz, Kurt Huber, Walter S Speidl
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit exhibit a high mortality rate irrespective of the cause of admission. Besides its role in fluid and electrolyte balance, vasopressin has been described as a stress hormone. Copeptin, the C-terminal portion of provasopressin mirrors vasopressin levels and has been described as a reliable biomarker for the individual's stress level and was associated with outcome in various disease entities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether circulating levels of copeptin at ICU admission are associated with 30-day mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117000/vasopressin-and-related-peptides-potential-value-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment-of-clinical-disorders
#20
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Tymoteusz Zera, Piotr Sosnowski, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Anna Puszko, Aleksandra Misicka
Vasopressin (AVP) and its receptors play a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. As a consequence, the vasopressin system has emerged as an important target for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in a number of medical conditions. Stoichiometric generation of AVP with copeptin, which is relatively accessible in the blood for measurements, makes copeptin a valuable surrogate of AVP. In this review, we present the regulation of release of AVP and activation of V1a, V1b, and V2 vasopressin receptors under physiological and pathological conditions...
January 19, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
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