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Fluid balance physiology

Yingchuan Peng, Kangxu Wang, Wenxi Fu, Chengwang Sheng, Zhaojun Han
Double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) degrading nuclease is responsible for the rapid degradation of dsRNA molecules, and thus accounts for variations in RNA interference (RNAi) efficacy among insect species. Here, the biochemical properties and tissue-specific activities of dsRNA degrading nucleases in four insects ( Spodoptera litura, Locusta migratoria, Periplaneta americana , and Zophobas atratus ) from different orders were characterized using a modified assay method. The results revealed that all insect dsRNA degrading nucleases tested showed high activity in alkaline environments at optimal Mg2+ concentrations and elevated temperatures...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ramin Bighamian, Bahram Parvinian, Christopher G Scully, George Kramer, Jin-Oh Hahn
This paper presents a physiological model to reproduce hemodynamic responses to blood volume perturbation. The model consists of three sub-models: a control-theoretic model relating blood volume response to blood volume perturbation; a simple physics-based model relating blood volume to stroke volume and cardiac output; and a phenomenological model relating cardiac output to blood pressure. A unique characteristic of this model is its balance for simplicity and physiological transparency. Initial validity of the model was examined using experimental data collected from 11 animals...
April 2018: Control Engineering Practice
Steven D Hicks, Paige Jacob, Frank A Middleton, Omar Perez, Zofia Gagnon
Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) mediate adaptive responses to exercise and may serve as biomarkers of exercise intensity/capacity. Expression of miRNAs is altered in skeletal muscle, plasma, and saliva following exertion. Females display unique physiologic responses to endurance exercise, and miRNAs respond to pathologic states in sex-specific patterns. However sex-specific miRNA responses to exercise remain unexplored. This study utilized high-throughput RNA sequencing to measure changes in salivary RNA expression among 25 collegiate runners following a single long-distance run...
June 8, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Anne Marie Lynge Pedersen, Christiane E Sørensen, Gordon B Proctor, Guy H Carpenter, Jörgen Ekström
Saliva is a complex fluid produced by three pairs of major salivary glands and by hundreds of minor salivary glands. It comprises a large variety of constituents and physicochemical properties, which are important for the maintenance of oral health. Saliva not only protects the teeth and the oropharyngeal mucosa, it also facilitates articulation of speech, and is imperative for mastication and swallowing. Furthermore, saliva plays an important role in maintaining a balanced microbiota. Thus, the multiple functions provided by saliva are essential for proper protection and functioning of the body as a whole and for the general health...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Stanley S Hillman
Anurans are the most terrestrial order of amphibians. Couple the high driving forces for evaporative loss in terrestrial environments and their low resistance to evaporation, dehydration is an inevitable stress on their water balance. Anurans have the greatest tolerances for dehydration of any vertebrate group, some species can tolerate evaporative losses up to 45% of their standard body mass. Anurans have remarkable capacities to regulate blood volume with hemorrhage and dehydration compared to mammals. Stabilization of blood volume is central to extending dehydration tolerance, since it avoids both the hypovolemic and hyperviscosity stresses on cardiac output and its consequential effects on aerobic capacity...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Chenglong Li, Hong Wang, Nan Liu, Ming Jia, Haitao Zhang, Xiuming Xi, Xiaotong Hou
BACKGROUND: Early fluid expansion could prevent postoperative organ hypoperfusion. However, excessive fluid resuscitation adversely influences multiple organ systems. This retrospective, observational study aimed to investigate the relationship between early negative fluid balance and postoperative mortality in critically ill adult patients following cardiovascular surgery. METHODS: In total, 567 critically ill patients who had undergone cardiovascular surgery and whose intensive care unit length of stay (LOS) was more than 24 hours were enrolled...
June 1, 2018: Perfusion
Emily E Noble, Joel D Hahn, Vaibhav R Konanur, Ted M Hsu, Stephen J Page, Alyssa M Cortella, Clarissa M Liu, Monica Y Song, Andrea N Suarez, Caroline C Szujewski, Danielle Rider, Jamie E Clarke, Martin Darvas, Suzanne M Appleyard, Scott E Kanoski
Classical mechanisms through which brain-derived molecules influence behavior include neuronal synaptic communication and neuroendocrine signaling. Here we provide evidence for an alternative neural communication mechanism that is relevant for food intake control involving cerebroventricular volume transmission of the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). Results reveal that the cerebral ventricles receive input from approximately one-third of MCH-producing neurons. Moreover, MCH cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels increase prior to nocturnal feeding and following chemogenetic activation of MCH-producing neurons...
May 15, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Karin Becke, Christoph Eich, Claudia Höhne, Martin Jöhr, Andreas Machotta, Markus Schreiber, Robert Sümpelmann
Inspired by the Choosing Wisely initiative, a group of pediatric anesthesiologists representing the German Working Group on Paediatric Anaesthesia (WAKKA) coined and agreed upon 10 concise positive ("dos") or negative ("don'ts") evidence-based recommendations. (i) In infants and children with robust indications for surgical, interventional, or diagnostic procedures, anesthesia or sedation should not be avoided or delayed due to the potential neurotoxicity associated with the exposure to anesthetics...
May 30, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
S Horst, R Kawati, J Rasmusson, A Pikwer, M Castegren, M Lipcsey
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic fluid overload is associated with increased mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Decisions on fluid therapy may, at times, be based on other factors than physiological endpoints. We hypothesized that because of psychological factors volume of available fluid bags would affect the amount of resuscitation fluid administered to ICU patients. METHODS: We performed a prospective intervention cross-over study at 3 Swedish ICUs by replacing the standard resuscitation fluid bag of Ringer's Acetate 1000 mL with 500 mL bags (intervention group) for 5 separate months and then compared it with the standard bag size for 5 months (control group)...
May 30, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Kim Marie C Macygin, Erik Kulstad, Robert K Mokszycki, Morgan Goldsmith
Health care providers are increasingly challenged to balance cost considerations for devices, drugs, and staffing all while continuing to provide excellent care. Patients in both the post-acute and acute care settings often require fluid and/or medication when their oral route is compromised and vascular access may not be warranted or immediately accessible. The rectum is an underutilized administration point that can be accessed with speed and relative ease. Areas Covered: Literature reviews of pharmaceutical, medical, and nursing references reveal current and historical science that validates the rectal route as a means of alternative administration for fluids and medications...
May 30, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Arnaud Deveze, Han Matsuda, Maya Elziere, Tetsuo Ikezono
Perilymphatic fistula (PLF) is defined as an abnormal communication between the fluid (perilymph)-filled space of the inner ear and the air-filled space of the middle ear and mastoid, or cranial spaces. PLF is located in the round or oval window, fractured bony labyrinth, microfissures, anomalous footplate, and can occur after head trauma or barotrauma, chronic inflammation, or in otic capsule dehiscence. This clinical entity was initially proposed more than a century ago, yet it has remained a topic of controversy for more than 50 years...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
N J Ekbal, P Hennis, A Dyson, M Mythen, M F M James, M Singer
BACKGROUND: Commercially available crystalloid solutions used for volume replacement do not exactly match the balance of electrolytes found in plasma. Large volume administration may lead to electrolyte imbalance and potential harm. We hypothesised that haemodilution using solutions containing different anions would result in diverse biochemical effects, particularly on acid-base status, and different outcomes. METHODS: Anaesthetised, fluid-resuscitated, male Wistar rats underwent isovolaemic haemodilution by removal of 10% blood volume every 15 min, followed by replacement with one of three crystalloid solutions based on acetate, lactate, or chloride...
June 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Simon C Rowan, Keith D Rochfort, Lucie Piouceau, Philip M Cummins, Malachy O'Rourke, Paul McLoughlin
Fluid filtration in the pulmonary microcirculation depends on the hydrostatic and oncotic pressure gradients across the endothelium, and the selective permeability of the endothelial barrier. Maintaining normal fluid balance depends both on specific properties of the endothelium and of the perfusing blood. Although some of the essential properties of blood needed to prevent excessive fluid leak have been identified and characterised, our understanding of these remains incomplete. The role of perfusate viscosity in maintaining normal fluid exchange has not previously been examined...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Sanjeev R Shah, Gautam Bhave
Dysnatremias or abnormalities in plasma [Na+ ] are often termed disorders of water balance, an unclear physiologic concept often confused with changes in total fluid balance. However, most clinicians clearly recognize that hypertonic or hypotonic gains or losses alter plasma [Na+ ], while isotonic changes do not modify plasma [Na+ ]. This concept can be conceptualized as the electrolyte free water balance (EFWB), which defines the non-isotonic components of inputs and outputs to determine their effect on plasma [Na+ ]...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Liana Codes, Ygor Gomes de Souza, Ricardo Azevedo Cruz D'Oliveira, Jorge Luiz Andrade Bastos, Paulo Lisboa Bittencourt
AIM: To analyze whether fluid overload is an independent risk factor of adverse outcomes after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one patients submitted to LT were retrospectively evaluated. Data regarding perioperative and postoperative variables previously associated with adverse outcomes after LT were reviewed. Cumulative fluid balance (FB) in the first 12 h and 4 d after surgery were compared with major adverse outcomes after LT. RESULTS: Most of the patients were submitted to a liberal approach of fluid administration with a mean cumulative FB over 5 L and 10 L, respectively, in the first 12 h and 4 d after LT...
April 24, 2018: World Journal of Transplantation
Ting Zhang, Ju Yang, Yongwei Sun, Yan Kang, Jia Yang, Zhi Qi
Ecological studies have revealed significant decreases in calcium (Ca) levels in various soils, and widely occurring physiological Ca deficits worldwide. These changes may cause decreases in plant diversity and increases in plant vulnerability to environmental stress, but the underlying cellular mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we found that in Arabidopsis thaliana roots, deprivation of Ca2+ , but not other minerals, dramatically enhanced plasma membrane invagination, endosome formation, and trafficking to the vacuole through the trans-Golgi network and pre-vacuole compartment, a typical pathway of endocytosis...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Patricia D A Lima, Anne-Laure Nivet, Qi Wang, Yi-An Chen, Arthur Leader, Annie Cheung, Chii-Ruey Tzeng, Benjamin K Tsang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a continuum of endocrine and reproductive disorders characterized by hyperandrogenism, antral follicle growth arrest and chronic inflammation. Macrophages play key role in inflammation and the balance between M1 (inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) macrophages determines physiological/pathological outcomes. Here, we investigated if hyperandrogenism increases ovarian chemerin altering the balance of M1 and M2 macrophages and the granulosa cell death. Ovarian chemerin was up-regulated by 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in lean and overweight rats; while increased serum chemerin levels were only evident in overweight rats, suggesting that the serum chemerin may be reflective of a systemic response and associated with obesity, whereas increased ovarian chemerin expression is a localized response independent of the metabolic status...
April 24, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Joana Silva, Luís Gonçalves, Patrícia Pontífice Sousa
BACKGROUND: shock refers to a physiological situation that puts life at risk. Its early identification and the timely institution of therapeutic measures can avoid death. Despite the frequent administration of fluid therapy as a treatment for shock, the type and dose of fluids to be delivered remain undetermined. AIM: to determine the type of fluids to be administered and the type of approach to be performed in the different types of shock. METHOD: integrative literature review...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
H Wang, N Cui, Y K Zhou, W Cheng, L Li, Y Long, D W Liu
Objective: To evaluate the effect of continuous veno venous hemofiltration (CVVH) on neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Critically ill patients with AKI who needed CVVH and admitted to Department of Critical Care Medicine of Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled prospectively from January 2015 to June 2015. AN69 membrane filters were used for CVVH. Prefilter, postfilter,and plasma NGAL measurements were taken at 10 mins, 4 hours and 8 hours (T 10 min, T 4 h, T 8 h) after CVVH...
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Zaccaria Ricci, Stefano Romagnoli
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is commonly applied in critically ill patients affected by severe acute kidney injury for solute and volume control and to optimize acid-base and electrolytes balance. Although CRRT represents a life-saving procedure for these patients, it is a representation of a non-physiologic artificial kidney and the potential benefits of the treatment could be hampered by clinical and technical side effects. Different parts of the CRRT system can be a source of technical complications...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
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