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Fluid balance physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105603/resuscitation-fluid-composition-affects-hepatic-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-early-sepsis
#1
Amanda L Patrick, Peter M Grin, Nicole Kraus, Michelle Gold, Matthew Berardocco, Patricia C Liaw, Alison E Fox-Robichaud
BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation is a crucial therapy for sepsis, and the use of balanced fluids and/or isotonic albumin may improve patient survival. We have previously demonstrated that resuscitation with normal saline results in increased hepatic leukocyte recruitment in a murine model of sepsis. Given that clinical formulations of albumin are in saline, our objectives were to develop a novel balanced electrolyte solution specifically for sepsis and to determine if supplementing this solution with albumin would improve the inflammatory response in sepsis...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100478/adropin-acts-in-the-rat-paraventricular-nucleus-to-influence-neuronal-excitability
#2
Spencer P Loewen, Alastair V Ferguson
Adropin is a peptide hormone with cardiovascular and metabolic roles in the periphery, including effects on glucose and lipid homeostasis. Central administration of adropin has been shown to inhibit water intake in rats, however, the site at which central adropin acts has yet to be elucidated. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a critical autonomic control center, plays essential roles in the control of fluid balance, energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation, and is therefore a potential target for centrally acting adropin...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087126/cardiac-lymphatics-a-new-avenue-for-therapeutics
#3
REVIEW
Taina Vuorio, Annakaisa Tirronen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Recent progress in lymphatic vessel biology and in novel imaging techniques has established the importance of the lymphatic vasculature as part of the cardiovascular system. The lymphatic vessel network regulates many physiological processes important for heart function such as fluid balance, transport of extravasated proteins, and trafficking of immune cells. Therefore, lymphangiogenic therapy could be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, for example by improving reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) from atherosclerotic lesions or by resolving edema and fibrosis after myocardial infarction...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051332/activation-of-the-central-melanocortin-system-chronically-reduces-body-mass-without-the-necessity-of-long-term-caloric-restriction
#4
I Côté, Y Sakarya, N Kirichenko, D Morgan, C S Carter, N Tümer, P J Scarpace
Melanotan II (MTII) is a potent appetite suppressor that rapidly reduces body mass. Given the rapid loss of anorexic response upon chronic MTII treatment, most investigations have focused on the initial physiological adaptations. However, other evidence supports MTII as a long-term modulator of energy balance that remains to be established. Therefore, we examined the chronic effects of MTII on energy homeostasis. MTII (high or low dose) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) was infused into the lateral ventricle of the brain of 6-month-old F344BN rats (6-7/group) over 40 days...
October 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039439/hypothalamic-s1p-s1pr1-axis-controls-energy-homeostasis-in-middle-aged-rodents-the-reversal-effects-of-physical-exercise
#5
Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva, Carlos Kiyoshi Katashima, Carla G Bueno Silva, Luciene Lenhare, Thayana Oliveira Micheletti, Rafael Ludemann Camargo, Ana Carolina Ghezzi, Juliana Alves Camargo, Alexandre Moura Assis, Natalia Tobar, Joseane Morari, Daniela S Razolli, Leandro Pereira Moura, José Rodrigo Pauli, Dennys Esper Cintra, Lício Augusto Velloso, Mario J A Saad, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle
Recently, we demonstrated that the hypothalamic S1PR1/STAT3 axis plays a critical role in the control of food consumption and energy expenditure in rodents. Here, we found that reduction of hypothalamic S1PR1 expression occurs in an age-dependent manner, and was associated with defective thermogenic signaling and weight gain. To address the physiological relevance of these findings, we investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise on the hypothalamic S1PR1/STAT3 axis. Chronic exercise increased S1PR1 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus, restoring the anorexigenic and thermogenic signals in middle-aged mice...
December 26, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017410/disorders-of-sodium-and-water-homeostasis
#6
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen DiBartola
This review article discusses normal and abnormal sodium balance in small animals. The terms and concepts central to understanding normal sodium and water balance are presented as well as of the physiology of body fluid compartments and the movement of fluid between those compartments. As dysnatremia is a very common disorder across the spectrum of critically ill patients, the main focus of the article is to present several clinical examples of both acute and chronic hypernatremia and hyponatremia and their practical, clinical management...
December 22, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995008/desflurane-inhalation-before-ischemia-increases-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-vascular-leakage-in-isolated-rabbit-lungs
#7
Yoshiaki Oshima, Seiji Sakamoto, Kazumasa Yamasaki, Shinsuke Mochida, Kazumi Funaki, Naoki Moriyama, Akihiro Otsuki, Ryo Endo, Masato Nakasone, Shunsaku Takahashi, Tomomi Harada, Yukari Minami, Yoshimi Inagaki
BACKGROUND: Isoflurane and sevoflurane protect lungs with ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We examined the influence of desflurane on IR lung injury using isolated rabbit lungs perfused with a physiological salt solution. METHODS: The isolated lungs were divided into three groups: IR, desflurane-treated ischemia-reperfusion (DES-IR), and ventilation/perfusion-continued control (Cont) groups (n = 6 per group). In the DES-IR group, inhalation of desflurane at 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) was conducted in a stable 30-min phase...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986254/inhibition-of-na-k-cl-cotransporter-isoform-1-reduces-lung-injury-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion
#8
Chou-Chin Lan, Chung-Kan Peng, Shih-En Tang, Hsueh-Ju Lin, Sung-Sen Yang, Chin-Pyng Wu, Kun-Lun Huang
OBJECTIVES: Ischemia-reperfusion acute lung injury is characterized by increased vascular permeability, lung edema, and neutrophil sequestration. Ischemia-reperfusion acute lung injury occurs in lung transplantation and other major surgical procedures. Effective regulation of alveolar fluid balance is critical for pulmonary edema. Sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter regulates alveolar fluid and is associated with inflammation. We hypothesized that sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter is important in ischemia-reperfusion acute lung injury...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933039/the-contribution-of-mathematical-modeling-to-understanding-dynamic-aspects-of-rumen-metabolism
#9
André Bannink, Henk J van Lingen, Jennifer L Ellis, James France, Jan Dijkstra
All mechanistic rumen models cover the main drivers of variation in rumen function, which are feed intake, the differences between feedstuffs and feeds in their intrinsic rumen degradation characteristics, and fractional outflow rate of fluid and particulate matter. Dynamic modeling approaches are best suited to the prediction of more nuanced responses in rumen metabolism, and represent the dynamics of the interactions between substrates and micro-organisms and inter-microbial interactions. The concepts of dynamics are discussed for the case of rumen starch digestion as influenced by starch intake rate and frequency of feed intake, and for the case of fermentation of fiber in the large intestine...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#10
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895287/sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-is-there-a-connection-with-inner-ear-electrolytic-disorders-a-literature-review
#11
EDITORIAL
Andrea Ciorba, Virginia Corazzi, Chiara Bianchini, Claudia Aimoni, Henryk Skarzynski, Piotr Henryk Skarzynski, Stavros Hatzopoulos
Electrolytic disorders of the inner ear represent a model that could be implicated in partially explaining the pathogenesis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Different types of electrolytes and different inner-ear loci are involved in cochlear homeostasis physiologically, to ensure the maintenance of an ion-balanced cochlear environment allowing a normal hair cell function. It has been hypothesized that a sudden loss of endocochlear potential, due to a rapid disruption of the inner ear fluid osmolality, could be responsible for a deterioration of the hearing function caused by damaged hair cells...
December 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881573/intestinal-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-2-plays-a-crucial-role-in-hyperosmotic-transitions-of-a-euryhaline-teleost
#12
Andrew J Esbaugh, Brett Cutler
Euryhaline fishes, such as the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), must quickly transition between hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic physiological strategies. When freshwater individuals transition to seawater they are exposed to increased diffusive water loss and ion gain. To maintain osmoregulatory balance these animals must drink and absorb seawater through the intestine, followed by ion excretion at the gills. The ability of fishes to transition between strategies can limit the magnitude of osmotic shock that can be tolerated...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876640/physiological-state-tunes-mesolimbic-signaling-lessons-from-sodium-appetite-and-inspiration-from-randall-r-sakai
#13
REVIEW
Samantha M Fortin, Mitchell F Roitman
Sodium deficit poses a life-threatening challenge to body fluid homeostasis and generates a sodium appetite - the behavioral drive to ingest sodium. Dr. Randall R. Sakai greatly contributed to our understanding of the hormonal responses to negative sodium balance and to the central processing of these signals. Reactivity to the taste of sodium solutions and the motivation to seek and consume sodium changes dramatically with body fluid balance. Here, we review studies that collectively suggest that sodium deficit recruits the mesolimbic system to play a role in the behavioral expression of sodium appetite...
November 19, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857488/porosity-of-bleb-capsule-declines-rapidly-with-fluid-challenge
#14
Surinder S Pandav, Craig M Ross, Faisal Thattaruthody, Ritambhra Nada, Nirbhai Singh, Natasha Gautam, Stephen Beirne, Gordon G Wallace, Mark B Sherwood, Jonathan G Crowston, Michael Coote
INTRODUCTION: The porosity of the fibrous capsule around a glaucoma drainage device (GDD) may be the most important functional attribute. The factors that determine capsular porosity are not well understood. Failed GDD surgeries are usually associated with thick impervious capsules and components of aqueous have been implicated in this process. PURPOSE: In this study, we interrogated the effect of passage of nonaqueous fluid on capsular porosity in mature (but aqueous naïve) blebs in a previously reported GDD model (the "Center for Eye Research Australia Implant")...
September 2016: Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825851/targeting-the-apelin-pathway-as-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#15
Jiu-Chang Zhong, Zhen-Zhou Zhang, Wang Wang, Shaun M K McKinnie, John C Vederas, Gavin Y Oudit
The apelin/apelin receptor system is widely distributed and has a dominant role in cardiovascular homeostasis and disease. The apelin gene is X-linked and is synthesized as a 77 amino acid pre-pro-peptide that is subsequently cleaved to generate a family of apelin peptides that possess similar functions but display different tissue distribution, potency and receptor binding affinity. Loss-of-function experiments using the apelin and the apelin receptor knockout mice and gain-of-function experiments using apelin peptides have delineated a well-defined role of the apelin axis in cardiovascular physiology and diseases...
November 4, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808448/toxicological-perspective-on-the-osmoregulation-and-ionoregulation-physiology-of-major-ions-by-freshwater-animals-teleost-fish-crustacea-aquatic-insects-and-mollusca
#16
REVIEW
Michael B Griffith
Anthropogenic sources increase freshwater salinity and produce differences in constituent ions compared with natural waters. Moreover, ions differ in physiological roles and concentrations in intracellular and extracellular fluids. Four freshwater taxa groups are compared, to investigate similarities and differences in ion transport processes and what ion transport mechanisms suggest about the toxicity of these or other ions in freshwater. Although differences exist, many ion transporters are functionally similar and may belong to evolutionarily conserved protein families...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808057/-mountain-medicine-ii
#17
Bjørn Bay, Kasper Fjellhaugen Hjuler
Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain medicine. The first part covered high-altitude physiology and medical aspects of objective alpine dangers and the increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This part covers altitude sickness, fluid balance, nutrition, and precautions for patients with pre-existing medical conditions, pregnant women and children...
October 31, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785155/improper-hydration-induces-global-gene-expression-changes-associated-with-renal-development-in-infant-mice
#18
Chong-Su Kim, Dong-Mi Shin
BACKGROUND: The kidney is a major organ in which fluid balance and waste excretion is regulated. For the kidney to achieve maturity with functions, normal renal developmental processes need to occur. Comprehensive genetic programs underlying renal development during the prenatal period have been widely studied. However, postnatal renal development, from infancy to the juvenile period, has not been studied yet. Here, we investigated whether structural and functional kidney development was still ongoing in early life by analyzing the renal transcriptional networks of infant (4 weeks old) and juvenile (7 weeks old) mice...
2016: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783857/magnocellular-neurons-and-posterior-pituitary-function
#19
Colin H Brown
The posterior pituitary gland secretes oxytocin and vasopressin (the antidiuretic hormone) into the blood system. Oxytocin is required for normal delivery of the young and for delivery of milk to the young during lactation. Vasopressin increases water reabsorption in the kidney to maintain body fluid balance and causes vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure. Oxytocin and vasopressin secretion occurs from the axon terminals of magnocellular neurons whose cell bodies are principally found in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747968/perioperative-intravenous-fluid-therapy-in-children-guidelines-from-the-association-of-the-scientific-medical-societies-in-germany
#20
Robert Sümpelmann, Karin Becke, Sebastian Brenner, Christian Breschan, Christoph Eich, Claudia Höhne, Martin Jöhr, Franz-Josef Kretz, Gernot Marx, Lars Pape, Markus Schreiber, Jochen Strauss, Markus Weiss
This consensus- based S1 Guideline for perioperative infusion therapy in children is focused on safety and efficacy. The objective is to maintain or re-establish the child's normal physiological state (normovolemia, normal tissue perfusion, normal metabolic function, normal acid- base- electrolyte status). Therefore, the perioperative fasting times should be as short as possible to prevent patient discomfort, dehydration, and ketoacidosis. A physiologically composed balanced isotonic electrolyte solution (BS) with 1-2...
January 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
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