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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880744/notice-to-readers-final-2015-reports-of-nationally-notifiable-infectious-diseases-and-conditions
#1
(no author information available yet)
The table listed in this report on pages 1307-1321 presents finalized data, as of June 30, 2016, from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) for 2015. These data will be published in more detail in the Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015 (1). Because no cases were reported in the United States during 2015, the following diseases do not appear in this early release table: anthrax; dengue hemorrhagic fever; diphtheria; eastern equine encephalitis virus disease, nonneuroinvasive; poliomyelitis, paralytic; poliovirus infection, nonparalytic; severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV); smallpox; western equine encephalitis virus disease, neuroinvasive and nonneuroinvasive; yellow fever; and viral hemorrhagic fevers...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869924/yellow-fever-outbreaks-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil-2000-2010
#2
Leila Del Castillo Saad, Rita Barradas Barata
OBJECTIVE: to describe yellow fever occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period 2000-2010. METHODS: this was a descriptive study using data regarding human cases, epizootics in non-human primates and virus vector isolation in São Paulo State, between 2000 and 2010. RESULTS: three sylvatic yellow fever outbreaks were registered in the state with 32 human cases and 15 deaths; the cases occurred in unvaccinated individuals exposed to the sylvatic form of transmission; epizootics was confirmed before the virus began circulating in humans in the region of São José do Rio Preto and the virus was isolated twice in vectors...
July 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869724/mosquito-oviposition-behavior-and-vector-control
#3
REVIEW
Jonathan F Day
The burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. The selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. The dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. Mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of oviposition behaviors that ensure eggs are deposited into microenvironments conducive for successful larval development and the emergence of the next mosquito generation...
November 18, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864138/sarniensine-a-mesembrine-type-alkaloid-isolated-from-nerine-sarniensis-an-indigenous-south-african-amaryllidaceae-with-larvicidal-and-adulticidal-activities-against-aedes-aegypti
#4
Marco Masi, Alet E van der Westhuyzen, Nurhayat Tabanca, Marco Evidente, Alessio Cimmino, Ivan R Green, Ulrich R Bernier, James J Becnel, Jeffrey R Bloomquist, Willem A L van Otterlo, Antonio Evidente
A new mesembrine-type alkaloid, named sarniensine, was isolated together with tazettine, lycorine, the main alkaloid, and 3-epimacronine from Nerine sarniensis, with the last two produced for the first time by this plant. This Amaryllidaceae, which is indigenous of South Africa, was investigated for its alkaloid content, because the organic extract of its bulbs showed strong larvicidal activity with an LC50 value of 0.008μgμL(-1) against first instar Aedes aegypti larvae and with an LD50 value 4.6μg/mosquito against adult female Ae...
November 15, 2016: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853521/zika-mosquito-vectors-the-jury-is-still-out
#5
Walter S Leal
After a 40-year hiatus, the International Congress of Entomology (ICE 2016) convened in Orlando, Florida (September 25-30, 2016). One of the symposia at ICE 2016, the Zika Symposium, covered multiple aspects of the Zika epidemic, including epidemiology, sexual transmission, genetic tools for reducing transmission, and particularly vector competence. While there was a consensus among participants that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a vector of the Zika virus, there is growing evidence indicating that the range of mosquito vectors might be wider than anticipated...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849599/yellow-fever-virus-capsid-protein-is-a-potent-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-that-binds-double-stranded-rna
#6
Glady Hazitha Samuel, Michael R Wiley, Atif Badawi, Zach N Adelman, Kevin M Myles
Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus (YFV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV), profoundly affect human health. The successful transmission of these viruses to a human host depends on the pathogen's ability to overcome a potentially sterilizing immune response in the vector mosquito. Similar to other invertebrate animals and plants, the mosquito's RNA silencing pathway comprises its primary antiviral defense. Although a diverse range of plant and insect viruses has been found to encode suppressors of RNA silencing, the mechanisms by which flaviviruses antagonize antiviral small RNA pathways in disease vectors are unknown...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824100/identification-of-a-new-broadly-cross-reactive-epitope-within-domain-iii-of-the-duck-tembusu-virus-e-protein
#7
Chenxi Li, Xiaofei Bai, Runze Meng, Wulin Shaozhou, Qingshan Zhang, Ronghong Hua, Jyung-Hurng Liu, Ming Liu, Yun Zhang
In 2010, a pathogenic flavivirus termed duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) caused widespread outbreak of egg-drop syndrome in domesticated ducks in China. Although the glycoprotein E of DTMUV is an important structural component of the virus, the B-cell epitopes of this protein remains uncharacterized. Using phage display and mutagenesis, we identified a minimal B-cell epitope, (374)EXE/DPPFG(380), that mediates binding to a nonneutralizing monoclonal antibody. DTMUV-positive duck serum reacted with the epitope, and amino acid substitutions revealed the specific amino acids that are essential for antibody binding...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818122/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-brazilian-strain-of-yellow-fever-virus-from-an-epizootic-outbreak-in-2009
#8
Taissa Ricciardi Jorge, Ana Luiza Pamplona Mosimann, Lucia de Noronha, Angela Maron, Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos Santos
During a series of epizootics caused by Yellow fever virus in Brazil between 2007 and 2009, a monkey was found dead (May 2009) in a sylvatic area in the State of Paraná. Brain samples from this animal were used for immunohistochemical analysis and isolation of a wild-type strain of YFV. This viral strain was characterized, and sequence analyzes demonstrated that it is closely related with YFV strains of the recently identified subclade 1E of the South American genotype I. Further characterization included indirect-immunofluorescence of different infected cell lines and analysis of the kinetics of virus replication and infectivity inhibition by type I IFN...
November 3, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814732/detection-of-dengue-virus-serotypes-1-2-and-3-in-selected-regions-of-kenya-2011-2014
#9
Limbaso Konongoi, Victor Ofula, Albert Nyunja, Samuel Owaka, Hellen Koka, Albina Makio, Edith Koskei, Fredrick Eyase, Daniel Langat, Randal J Schoepp, Cynthia Ann Rossi, Ian Njeru, Rodney Coldren, Rosemary Sang
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne disease, is associated with illness of varying severity in countries in the tropics and sub tropics. Dengue cases continue to be detected more frequently and its geographic range continues to expand. We report the largest documented laboratory confirmed circulation of dengue virus in parts of Kenya since 1982. METHODS: From September 2011 to December 2014, 868 samples from febrile patients were received from hospitals in Nairobi, northern and coastal Kenya...
November 4, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812357/emergence-and-spreading-potential-of-zika-virus
#10
REVIEW
Álvaro Fajardo, Juan Cristina, Pilar Moreno
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) closely related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. ZIKV remained neglected, confined to enzootic transmission cycles in Africa and Asia, until the first significant outbreak was reported in Micronesia in 2007. Subsequent epidemics of growing incidence occurred in French Polynesia and other South Pacific Islands, and recently, in the Americas. The latter and currently ongoing outbreak of unprecedented incidence revealed the association of ZIKV infection with the occurrence of severe congenital malformations and neurological diseases, leading to a widespread concern about its potential to pose a global public health threat...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809228/sodium-channel-mutations-and-pyrethroid-resistance-in-aedes-aegypti
#11
REVIEW
Yuzhe Du, Yoshiko Nomura, Boris S Zhorov, Ke Dong
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insect pests and human disease vectors. Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary targets of pyrethroid insecticides. Mutations in the sodium channel have been shown to be responsible for pyrethroid resistance, known as knockdown resistance (kdr), in various insects including mosquitoes. In Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the principal urban vectors of dengue, zika, and yellow fever viruses, multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in the sodium channel gene have been found in pyrethroid-resistant populations and some of them have been functionally confirmed to be responsible for kdr in an in vitro expression system, Xenopus oocytes...
October 31, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809220/genome-investigations-of-vector-competence-in-aedes-aegypti-to-inform-novel-arbovirus-disease-control-approaches
#12
REVIEW
David W Severson, Susanta K Behura
Dengue (DENV), yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission to humans by a mosquito host is confounded by both intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Besides virulence factors of the individual arboviruses, likelihood of virus transmission is subject to variability in the genome of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The "vectorial capacity" of A. aegypti varies depending upon its density, biting rate, and survival rate, as well as its intrinsic ability to acquire, host and transmit a given arbovirus...
October 30, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800692/waiting-in-the-wings-the-potential-of-mosquito-transmitted-flaviviruses-to-emerge
#13
Duncan R Smith
The sudden dramatic emergence of the mosquito transmitted flavivirus Zika virus has bought to the world's attention a relatively obscure virus that was previously only known to specialist researchers. The genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae contains a number of well-known mosquito transmitted human pathogenic viruses including the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. However, the genus also contains a number of lesser known human pathogenic viruses transmitted by mosquitoes including Wesselsbron virus, Ilheus virus, St...
November 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775637/zika-virus-infection-and-microcephaly-evidence-for-a-causal-link
#14
Jin-Na Wang, Feng Ling
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to the Dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. Since the explosive outbreaks of ZIKV in Latin America in 2015, a sudden increase in the number of microcephaly cases has been observed in infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. The severity of this condition raises grave concerns, and extensive studies on the possible link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly have been conducted. There is substantial evidence suggesting that there is a causal link between ZIKV and microcephaly, however, future studies are warranted to solidify this association...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773535/n6-methyladenosine-in-flaviviridae-viral-rna-genomes-regulates-infection
#15
Nandan S Gokhale, Alexa B R McIntyre, Michael J McFadden, Allison E Roder, Edward M Kennedy, Jorge A Gandara, Sharon E Hopcraft, Kendra M Quicke, Christine Vazquez, Jason Willer, Olga R Ilkayeva, Brittany A Law, Christopher L Holley, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Matthew J Evans, Mehul S Suthar, Shelton S Bradrick, Christopher E Mason, Stacy M Horner
The RNA modification N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) post-transcriptionally regulates RNA function. The cellular machinery that controls m(6)A includes methyltransferases and demethylases that add or remove this modification, as well as m(6)A-binding YTHDF proteins that promote the translation or degradation of m(6)A-modified mRNA. We demonstrate that m(6)A modulates infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Depletion of m(6)A methyltransferases or an m(6)A demethylase, respectively, increases or decreases infectious HCV particle production...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763787/laboratory-diagnosis-of-zika-virus-infection
#16
Marie Louise Landry, Kirsten St George
CONTEXT: -The rapid and accurate diagnosis of Zika virus infection is an international priority. OBJECTIVE: -To review current recommendations, methods, limitations, and priorities for Zika virus testing. DATA SOURCES: -Sources include published literature, public health recommendations, laboratory procedures, and testing experience. CONCLUSIONS: -Until recently, the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection was confined to public health or research laboratories that prepared their own reagents, and test capacity has been limited...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746901/illustrating-and-homology-modeling-the-proteins-of-the-zika-virus
#17
Sean Ekins, John Liebler, Bruno J Neves, Warren G Lewis, Megan Coffee, Rachelle Bienstock, Christopher Southan, Carolina H Andrade
The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which is similar to dengue virus, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Recent outbreaks in South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and in particular Brazil have led to concern for the spread of the disease and potential to cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been known of for over 60 years there is very little in the way of knowledge of the virus with few publications and no crystal structures. No antivirals have been tested against it either in vitro or in vivo...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742355/pyrethroid-resistance-in-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus-important-mosquito-vectors-of-human-diseases
#18
Letícia B Smith, Shinji Kasai, Jeffrey G Scott
Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes are vectors of important human disease viruses, including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control adult Aedes mosquitoes, especially during disease outbreaks. Herein, we review the status of pyrethroid resistance in A. aegypti and A. albopictus, mechanisms of resistance, fitness costs associated with resistance alleles and provide suggestions for future research. The widespread use of pyrethroids has given rise to many populations with varying levels of resistance worldwide, albeit with substantial geographical variation...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719755/french-aedes-albopictus-are-able-to-transmit-yellow-fever-virus
#19
Fadila Amraoui, Marie Vazeille, Anna Bella Failloux
We assessed the ability of a French population of Aedes albopictus to transmit yellow fever virus (YFV). Batches of 30 to 40 female mosquitoes were analysed at 7, 14 and 21 days post-exposure (dpe). Bodies, heads and saliva were screened for YFV. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies and heads at 7, 14 and 21 dpe whereas the virus was found in saliva only from 14 dpe. Our results showed that Ae. albopictus can potentially transmit YFV.
September 29, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707454/yellow-fever-vaccine-associated-neurotropic-disease-yel-and-a-case-report
#20
Jolanta Florczak-Wyspiańska, Ewa Nawotczyńska, Wojciech Kozubski
Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, which is a serious and potentially fatal disease with no specific antiviral treatment that can be effectively prevented by an attenuated vaccine (YEL). Despite the long history of safe and efficacious YF vaccination, sporadic case reports of serious adverse events (SAEs) have been reported, including yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND). YEL-AND usually appears within one month of YF vaccination, manifesting as meningoencephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)...
September 22, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
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