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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098781/distinct-neurotoxicity-profile-of-listeriolysin-o-from-listeria-monocytogenes
#1
Jana Maurer, Sabrina Hupp, Carolin Bischoff, Christina Foertsch, Timothy J Mitchell, Trinad Chakraborty, Asparouh I Iliev
Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are protein toxins that originate from Gram-positive bacteria and contribute substantially to their pathogenicity. CDCs bind membrane cholesterol and build prepores and lytic pores. Some effects of the toxins are observed in non-lytic concentrations. Two pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, cause fatal bacterial meningitis, and both produce toxins of the CDC family-pneumolysin and listeriolysin O, respectively. It has been demonstrated that pneumolysin produces dendritic varicosities (dendrite swellings) and dendritic spine collapse in the mouse neocortex, followed by synaptic loss and astrocyte cell shape remodeling without elevated cell death...
January 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098593/familial-dysbetalipoproteinemia-an-underdiagnosed-lipid-disorder
#2
Charlotte Koopal, A David Marais, Frank L J Visseren
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review pathophysiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of familial dysbetalipoproteinemia; a model disease for remnant metabolism and remnant-associated cardiovascular risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia is characterized by remnant accumulation caused by impaired remnant clearance, and premature cardiovascular disease. Most familial dysbetalipoproteinemia patients are homozygous for apolipoprotein ε2, which is associated with decreased binding of apolipoprotein E to the LDL receptor...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097634/schizophrenia-impact-on-family-dynamics
#3
REVIEW
Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar, Mar Rus-Calafell, Thomas K J Craig, Matias Irarrazaval, Alfonso Urzúa, Laurent Boyer, David R Williams
In many societies, family members are now the primary caregivers of mental health patients, taking on responsibilities traditionally under the purview of hospitals and medical professionals. The impact of this shift on the family is high, having both an emotional and economic toll. The aim of this paper is to review the main changes that occur in family dynamics for patients with schizophrenia. The article addresses three central themes: (i) changes in the family at the onset of the disorder, (ii) consequences for family members because of their caregiver role, and (iii) family interventions aimed at improving the complex dynamics within the family...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097511/brain-calcification-and-movement-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Vladimir S Kostić, Igor N Petrović
Brain calcifications may be an incidental finding on neuroimaging in normal, particularly older individuals, but can also indicate numerous hereditary and nonhereditary syndromes, and metabolic, environmental, infectious, autoimmune, mitochondrial, traumatic, or toxic disorders. Bilateral calcifications most commonly affecting the basal ganglia may often be found in idiopathic cases, and a new term, primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), has been proposed that recognizes the genetic causes of the disorder and that calcifications occurred well beyond the basal ganglia...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097206/-18-f-av-1451-pet-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-due-to-mapt-mutation
#5
W Richard Bevan Jones, Thomas E Cope, Luca Passamonti, Tim D Fryer, Young T Hong, Franklin Aigbirhio, Jillian J Kril, Shelley L Forrest, Kieren Allinson, Jonathan P Coles, P Simon Jones, Maria G Spillantini, John R Hodges, John T O'Brien, James B Rowe
The validation of tau radioligands could improve the diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and the assessment of disease-modifying therapies. Here, we demonstrate that binding of the tau radioligand [(18)F]AV-1451 was significantly abnormal in both magnitude and distribution in a patient with familial frontotemporal dementia due to a MAPT 10 + 16C>T gene mutation, recapitulating the pattern of neuropathology seen in her father. Given the genetic diagnosis and the non-Alzheimer's pathology, these findings suggest that [(18)F]AV-1451 might be a useful biomarker in primary tauopathies...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096507/de-novo-phosphorylation-and-conformational-opening-of-the-tyrosine-kinase-lck-act-in-concert-to-initiate-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#6
Lars Philipsen, Amarendra V Reddycherla, Roland Hartig, Janine Gumz, Matthias Kästle, Andreas Kritikos, Mateusz P Poltorak, Yury Prokazov, Evgeny Turbin, André Weber, Werner Zuschratter, Burkhart Schraven, Luca Simeoni, Andreas J Müller
The enzymatic activity of the Src family tyrosine kinase p56(Lck) (Lck) is tightly controlled by differential phosphorylation of two tyrosine residues, Tyr(394) and Tyr(505) Phosphorylation of Tyr(394) and the conformational opening of Lck are believed to activate the kinase, whereas Tyr(505) phosphorylation is thought to generate a closed, inactive conformation of Lck. We investigated whether the conformation of Lck and its phosphorylation state act in concert to regulate the initiation of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling...
January 17, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096487/a-clostridium-difficile-specific-gel-forming-protein-required-for-optimal-spore-germination
#7
M Lauren Donnelly, William Li, Yong-Qing Li, Lauren Hinkel, Peter Setlow, Aimee Shen
: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming obligate anaerobe that is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. In order for C. difficile to initiate infection, its aerotolerant spore form must germinate in the gut of mammalian hosts. While almost all spore-forming organisms use transmembrane germinant receptors to trigger germination, C. difficile uses the pseudoprotease CspC to sense bile salt germinants. CspC activates the related subtilisin-like protease CspB, which then proteolytically activates the cortex hydrolase SleC...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096446/the-rpn-yhga-like-proteins-of-escherichia-coli-k-12-and-their-contribution-to-reca-independent-horizontal-transfer
#8
Anthony W Kingston, Christine Ponkratz, Elisabeth A Raleigh
: Bacteria use a variety of DNA mobilizing enzymes to facilitate environmental niche adaptation via horizontal gene transfer. This has led to real world problems, like the spread of antibiotic resistance, yet many mobilization proteins remain undefined. Here, we investigate the uncharacterized family of YhgA-like "transposase_31" proteins (PF04754). Our primary focus was the genetic and biochemical properties of the five E. coli K-12 members of this family, which we designate RpnA-RpnE for recombination promoting nuclease...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096293/the-role-of-mdm2-and-mdm4-in-breast-cancer-development-and-prevention
#9
REVIEW
Sue Haupt, Reshma Vijayakumaran, Jeffreena Panimaya, Andrew Burgess, Elgene Lim, Ygal Haupt
The major cause of death from breast cancer is not the primary tumour, but relapsing, drug-resistant, metastatic disease. Identifying factors that contribute to aggressive cancer offers important leads for therapy. Inherent defense against carcinogens depends on the individual molecular make-up of each person. Important molecular determinants of these responses are under the control of the mouse double minute (MDM) family: comprised of the proteins MDM2 and MDM4. In normal, healthy adult cells, the MDM family functions to critically regulate measured, cellular responses to stress and subsequent recovery...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096238/activation-of-trpa1-channel-by-antibacterial-agent-triclosan-induces-vegf-secretion-in-human-prostate-cancer-stromal-cells
#10
Sandra Derouiche, Pascal Mariot, Marine Warnier, Eric Vancauwenberghe, Gabriel Bidaux, Pierre Gosset, Brigitte Mauroy, Jean-Louis Bonnal, Christian Slomianny, Philippe Delcourt, Etienne Dewailly, Natalia Prevarskaya, Morad Roudbaraki
Accruing evidence indicates that exposure to environmental compounds may adversely impact human health and promote carcinogenesis. Triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial agent widely used as a preservative in personal care products, has been shown to act as an endocrine disruptor in hormone-dependent tissues. Here we demonstrate a new molecular mechanism by which TCS stimulates the secretion by human prostate cancer stromal cells of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a factor known to promote tumour growth...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095883/moderated-online-social-therapy-for-carers-of-young-people-recovering-from-first-episode-psychosis-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
John Gleeson, Reeva Lederman, Helen Herrman, Peter Koval, Dina Eleftheriadis, Sarah Bendall, Sue M Cotton, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez
BACKGROUND: First-episode psychosis most often has its onset during late adolescence. In caring for the young person, families endure high levels of stress and depression. Meanwhile, the social networks of families often erode. Our group has previously shown that family cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) leads to significantly improved perceived stress compared with specialist first-episode treatment as usual; however, there are well-known barriers to the dissemination of effective family interventions...
January 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095838/communication-with-families-regarding-organ-and-tissue-donation-after-death-in-intensive-care-comfort-protocol-for-an-intervention-study
#12
Julie E Potter, Robert G Herkes, Lin Perry, Rosalind M Elliott, Anders Aneman, Jorge L Brieva, Elena Cavazzoni, Andrew T H Cheng, Michael J O'Leary, Ian M Seppelt, Val Gebski
BACKGROUND: Discussing deceased organ donation can be difficult not only for families but for health professionals who initiate and manage the conversations. It is well recognised that the methods of communication and communication skills of health professionals are key influences on decisions made by families regarding organ donation. METHODS: This multicentre study is being performed in nine intensive care units with follow-up conducted by the Organ and Tissue Donation Service in New South Wales (NSW) Australia...
January 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095727/mentor-mother-support-for-mothers-experiencing-intimate-partner-violence-in-family-practice-a-qualitative-study-of-three-different-perspectives-on-the-facilitators-and-barriers-of-implementation
#13
Maartje J W Loeffen, Jasper Daemen, Fred P J F Wester, Miranda G H Laurant, Sylvie H Lo Fo Wong, Antoine L M Lagro-Janssen
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent and associated with physical and mental health problems. Mentor mother support is a low threshold intervention in family practice consisting of support by non-professionals trained to support mothers experiencing IPV. A mentor mother support study showed reduced exposure to IPV and decreased symptoms of depression. OBJECTIVES: Identify factors determining implementation success of mentor mother support in family practice...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of General Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095335/guilt-shame-and-expressed-emotion-in-carers-of-people-with-long-term-mental-health-difficulties-a-systematic-review
#14
Mary Gemma Cherry, Peter James Taylor, Stephen Lloyd Brown, Jake Wilfred Rigby, William Sellwood
Expressed emotion (EE) is a global index of familial emotional climate, whose primary components are emotional over-involvement (EOI) and critical comments (CC)/hostility. There is a strong theoretical rationale for hypothesising that carers' guilt and shame may be differentially associated with their EOI and CC/hostility respectively. This systematic review investigates the magnitude of these theorised associations in carers of people with long-term mental health difficulties. Electronic searches (conducted in May 2016 across Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO and ProQuest) were supplemented with iterative hand searches...
January 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095294/a-novel-slc12a1-gene-mutation-associated-with-hyperparathyroidism-hypercalcemia-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus-and-nephrocalcinosis-in-four-patients
#15
Sariya Wongsaengsak, Alaina P Vidmar, Ananta Addala, Elaine S Kamil, Paola Seqeira, Benjamin Fass, Pisit Pitukcheewanont
Solute Carrier Family 12 member 1 (SLC12A1) gene encodes the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (NKCC2) at the apical membrane of the thick ascending loop of Henle (TAL). Bartter's syndrome (BS) type I is a rare, autosomal recessive, renal tubular disorder associated with mutation of the SLC12A1 gene. Presenting features include: hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. The many allelic variants reported present with a spectrum of phenotypes, biochemical abnormalities and clinical severities...
January 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095072/parental-coping-depressive-symptoms-and-children-s-asthma-control-and-school-attendance-in-low-income-racially-and-ethnically-diverse-urban-families
#16
Erin M Rodríguez, Harsha Kumar, Juliana Alba-Suarez, Lisa Sánchez-Johnsen
OBJECTIVE: Low-income urban children of color are at elevated risk for poor asthma control. This cross-sectional study examined associations among parents' coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement), parental depressive symptoms, and children's asthma outcomes (asthma control and school attendance) in a predominantly low-income, racially/ethnically diverse sample of families. METHODS: Parents (N = 78; 90% female) of children (33% female; 46% Black; 38% Latino) ages 5 to 17 years old (M = 9...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094605/multiple-protocadherins-are-expressed-in-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-and-might-play-a-role-in-tight-junction-protein-regulation
#17
Christina Dilling, Norbert Roewer, Carola Y Förster, Malgorzata Burek
Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are a large family of cadherin-related molecules. They play a role in cell adhesion, cellular interactions, and development of the central nervous system. However, their expression and role in endothelial cells has not yet been characterized. Here, we examined the expression of selected clustered Pcdhs in endothelial cells from several vascular beds. We analyzed human and mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) lines and primary cells, mouse myocardial microvascular endothelial cell line, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094433/bmp15-knockout-like-effect-in-familial-premature-ovarian-insufficiency-with-persistent-ovarian-reserve
#18
Anne Mayer, Baptiste Fouquet, Michel Pugeat, Micheline Misrahi
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) affects 1-2% of women under 40 years. BMP15 variants have been described in POI. We studied a family with two sisters compound heterozygous for deletions in the BMP15 gene on chromosome Xp11.22 yielding a human "knockout-like" effect: a c.151_152delGA deletion yielded a p.Glu51IlefsTer27 mutation transmitted by the hemizygous father and a c.189_198delAGGGCATTCAinsTG deletion/insertion yielded a p.Glu64AlafsTer12 mutation transmitted by the heterozygous mother. Both deletions resulted in frameshifts with premature stop codons at positions 78 and 76 in the proregion, precluding mature BMP15 production...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094051/competition-policy-for-health-care-provision-in-portugal
#19
Pedro Pita Barros
We review the role of competition among healthcare providers in Portugal, which has a public National Health Service (NHS) at the core of the health system. There is little competition among healthcare providers within the NHS. Competition among NHS primary care providers is hindered by excess demand (many residents in Portugal do not have a designated family doctor). Competition among NHS hospitals has been traditionally limited to cases of maximum guaranteed waiting time for surgery being exceeded. The Portuguese Competition Authority enforces competition law...
December 23, 2016: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093663/large-prospective-analysis-of-the-reasons-patients-do-not-pursue-brca-genetic-testing-following-genetic-counseling
#20
Sommer Hayden, Sarah Mange, Debra Duquette, Nancie Petrucelli, Victoria M Raymond
Genetic counseling (GC) and genetic testing (GT) identifies high-risk individuals who benefit from enhanced medical management. Not all individuals undergo GT following GC and understanding the reasons why can impact clinical efficiency, reduce GT costs through appropriate identification of high-risk individuals, and demonstrate the value of pre-GT GC. A collaborative project sponsored by the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services prospectively collects anonymous data on BRCA-related GC visits performed by providers in Michigan, including demographics, patient/family cancer history, GT results, and reasons for declining GT...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
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