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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453930/the-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-allele-is-associated-with-lower-selenium-levels-in-the-brain-implications-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Barbara Rita Cardoso, Dominic J Hare, Monica Lind, Catriona A McLean, Irene Volitakis, Simon M Laws, Colin L Masters, Ashley I Bush, Blaine R Roberts
The antioxidant activity of selenium, which is mainly conferred by its incorporation into dedicated selenoproteins, has been suggested as a possible neuroprotective approach for mitigating neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease, although there is inconsistent information with respect to selenium levels in the Alzheimer's disease brain. We examined the concentration and cellular compartmentalization of selenium in the temporal cortex of Alzheimer's disease and control brain tissue. We found that Alzheimer's disease was associated with decreased selenium concentration in both soluble (i...
April 28, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453493/s-adenosylmethionine-attenuates-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation-induced-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-through-modulation-of-glutathione-metabolism
#2
Qian Li, Jing Cui, Chen Fang, Min Liu, Guowen Min, Liang Li
Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are mainly involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid-β (Aβ), the main component of senile plaques, is a kind of strong inducer of oxidative stress. Glutathione is an endogenous antioxidant protecting cells from oxidative injury. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) produced in the methionine cycle is the primary methyl donor and the precursor of glutathione. In this study, the Aβ intrahippocampal injection rat model and cultured SH-SY5Y cells were used to explore the neuroprotective effect of SAM...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453492/quantification-of-butyrylcholinesterase-activity-as-a-sensitive-and-specific-biomarker-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Ian R Macdonald, Selena P Maxwell, G Andrew Reid, Meghan K Cash, Drew R DeBay, Sultan Darvesh
Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques are a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, a significant number of cognitively normal older adults can also have Aβ plaques. Thus, distinguishing AD from cognitively normal individuals with Aβ plaques (NwAβ) based on Aβ plaque detection is challenging. It has been observed that butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) accumulates in plaques preferentially in AD. Thus, detecting BChE-associated plaques has the potential as an improved AD biomarker. We present Aβ, thioflavin-S, and BChE quantification of 26 postmortem brain tissues; AD (n = 8), NwAβ (n = 6), cognitively normal without plaques (n = 8), and other common dementias including corticobasal degeneration, frontotemporal dementia with tau, dementia with Lewy bodies, and vascular dementia...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453491/neurofibrillary-tangles-of-a%C3%AE-x-40-in-alzheimer-s-disease-brains
#4
Ana-María Lacosta, Daniel Insua, Hassnae Badi, Pedro Pesini, Manuel Sarasa
The two pathognomonic lesions in the brain of AD patients are senile plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Previous studies have demonstrated that amyloid-β (Aβ) is a component of both senile plaques and NFTs, and have showed that intracellular accumulation of Aβ is toxic for cells and precedes the appearance of extracellular amyloid deposits. Here we report that there are numerous intraneuronal NFT and extraneuronal NFT immunoreactive for Aβx-40 in which there is no co-localization with tau staining suggesting the existence of two different neurodegenerating populations associated with the intracellular accumulation of either tau protein or Aβx-40 in AD...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453490/plasma-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-alzheimer-s-disease-related-changes-in-late-life-depression
#5
Chiemi Yamazaki, Toshio Tamaoki, Akihiko Nunomura, Kenichi Tamai, Kazuyuki Yasuda, Nobutaka Motohashi
To elucidate an involvement of amyloid dysmetabolism in the pathophysiology of depression, we investigated associations of plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) levels with Alzheimer's disease-related changes in neuroimaging and cognitive dysfunction in patients with late-life depression. Higher plasma Aβ40, but not Aβ42 nor Aβ40/Aβ42 ratio, was associated with higher degree of parahippocampal atrophy and lower verbal fluency performance. Indeed, high plasma Aβ40 predicted poor cognitive prognosis of depressed patients with mild cognitive impairment...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453489/changes-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-peptides-due-to-tauopathy
#6
Petra Majerova, Peter Barath, Alena Michalicova, Stanislav Katina, Michal Novak, Andrej Kovac
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and progressive supranuclear palsy are two common neurodegenerative tauopathies, and the most common cause of progressive brain dementia in elderly affecting more than 35 million people. The tauopathies are characterized by abnormal deposition of microtubule associated protein tau into intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed mainly of the hyperphosphorylated form of the protein. The diagnosis of tauopathies is based on the presence of clinical features and pathological changes...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453488/assessment-of-novel-curcumin-derivatives-as-potent-inhibitors-of-inflammation-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-aggregation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Johant Lakey-Beitia, Yisett González, Deborah Doens, David E Stephens, Ricardo Santamaría, Enrique Murillo, Marcelino Gutiérrez, Patricia L Fernández, K S Rao, Oleg V Larionov, Armando A Durant-Archibold
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly population worldwide. Brain inflammation plays a key role in the progression of AD. Deposition of senile plaques in the brain stimulates an inflammatory response with the overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as the neuroinflammatory cytokine. interleukin-6. Curcumin has been revealed to be a potential agent for treating AD following different neuroprotective mechanisms, such as inhibition of aggregation and decrease in brain inflammation...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453487/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-predict-driving-decline-brief-report
#8
Ganesh M Babulal, Sarah H Stout, Denise Head, David M Holtzman, Anne M Fagan, John C Morris, Catherine M Roe
We examined whether neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) interact with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (amyloid-β42 [Aβ42], tau, phosphorylated tau181 [ptau181], tau/Aβ42, and ptau181/Aβ42) of Alzheimer's disease pathology to predict driving decline among cognitively-normal older adults (N = 116) aged ≥65. Cox proportional hazards models examined time to receiving a rating of marginal or fail on the driving test. Age, education, and gender were adjusted in the models. Participants with more abnormal CSF (Aβ42, tau/Aβ42, ptau181/Aβ42) and NPS were faster to receive a marginal/fail on the road test compared to those without NPS...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453486/cognitive-deficits-after-cerebral-ischemia-and-underlying-dysfunctional-plasticity-potential-targets-for-recovery-of-cognition
#9
Holly M Stradecki-Cohan, Charles H Cohan, Ami P Raval, Kunjan R Dave, Diego Reginensi, Rolando A Gittens, Mehdi Youbi, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon
Cerebral ischemia affects millions of people worldwide and survivors suffer from long-term functional and cognitive deficits. While stroke and cardiac arrest are typically considered when discussing ischemic brain injuries, there is much evidence that smaller ischemic insults underlie neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The "regenerative" capacity of the brain relies on several aspects of plasticity that are crucial for normal functioning; less affected brain areas may take over function previously performed by irreversibly damaged tissue...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453485/tau-oligomers-in-sera-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-aged-controls
#10
Michala Kolarova, Urmi Sengupta, Ales Bartos, Jan Ricny, Rakez Kayed
Although tau protein was long regarded as an intracellular protein with several functions inside the cell, new evidence has shown tau secretion into the extracellular space. The active secretion of tau could be a physiological response of neurons to increased intracellular amounts of tau during the progression of tau pathology. We looked for potential differences in the serum levels of toxic tau oligomers in regards to cognitive impairment of subjects. We detected tau oligomers in the serum of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, but they were also present to some extent in the serum of healthy older subjects where the levels positively correlated with aging (Spearman r = 0...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453484/can-better-management-of-periodontal-disease-delay-the-onset-and-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Alice Harding, Sarita Robinson, St John Crean, Sim K Singhrao
A risk factor relationship exists between periodontal disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD) via tooth loss, and improved memory following dental intervention. This links the microbial contribution from indigenous oral periodontal pathogens to the manifestation of chronic conditions, such as AD. Here, we use Porphyromonas gingivalis infection to illustrate its effect on mental health. P. gingivalis infection, in its primary sub-gingival niche, can cause polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis. Dysbiosis describes the residency of select commensals from the oral cavity following co-aggregation around the dominant keystone pathogen, such as P...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453483/remyelination-a-potential-therapeutic-strategy-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Junjun Sun, Hong Zhou, Feng Bai, Zhijun Zhang, Qingguo Ren
Myelin is a lipid-rich multilamellar membrane that wraps around long segments of neuronal axons and it increases the conduction of action potentials, transports the necessary trophic support to the neuronal axons, and reduces the energy consumed by the neuronal axons. Together with axons, myelin is a prerequisite for the higher functions of the central nervous system and complex forms of network integration. Myelin impairments have been suggested to lead to neuronal dysfunction and cognitive decline. Accumulating evidence, including brain imaging and postmortem and genetic association studies, has implicated myelin impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453482/higher-peripheral-trem2-mrna-levels-relate-to-cognitive-deficits-and-hippocampal-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
Yi Jayne Tan, Adeline S L Ng, Ashwati Vipin, Joseph K W Lim, Russell J Chander, Fang Ji, Yingwei Qiu, Simon K S Ting, Shahul Hameed, Tih-Shih Lee, Li Zeng, Nagaendran Kandiah, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Variants in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) are associated with increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Recent studies have reported inconsistent peripheral TREM2 mRNA expression levels and relationship with cognitive scores in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Additionally, no study has examined the association of peripheral TREM2 levels with neuroimaging measures in AD and MCI. OBJECTIVE: To determine peripheral TREM2 mRNA levels in AD, amnestic MCI (aMCI) and healthy controls, and the association with cognitive performance and brain structural changes...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453480/a-multifunctional-biocompatible-drug-candidate-is-highly-effective-in-delaying-pathological-signs-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-5xfad-mice
#14
Hadar Segal-Gavish, Ortal Danino, Yael Barhum, Tali Ben-Zur, Ella Shai, David Varon, Daniel Offen, Bilha Fischer
BACKGROUND: Metal-ion-chelation was suggested to prevent zinc and copper ions-induced amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation and oxidative stress, both implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In a quest for biocompatible metal-ion chelators potentially useful for AD therapy, we previously tested a series of nucleoside 5'-phosphorothioate derivatives as agents for decomposition of Cu(I)/Cu(II)/Zn(II)-Aβ-aggregates, and as inhibitors of OH radicals formation in Cu(I) or Fe(II) /H2O2 solution...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453479/cognitive-domain-dispersion-association-with-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology
#15
Michael Malek-Ahmadi, Sophie Lu, YanYan Chan, Sylvia E Perez, Kewei Chen, Elliott J Mufson
Within neuropsychology, the term dispersion refers to the degree of variation in performance between different cognitive domains for an individual. Previous studies have demonstrated that cognitively normal individuals displaying higher dispersion are at an increased risk for progressing to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, we determined 1) whether increased dispersion in older adults was associated with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and 2) whether increased cognitive dispersion accurately differentiated MCI and AD from non-cognitively impaired (NCI) individuals...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453478/functional-reserve-experience-participating-in-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-is-associated-with-gender-and-functional-independence-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
Courtney Berezuk, Konstantine K Zakzanis, Joel Ramirez, Anthony C Ruocco, Jodi D Edwards, Brandy L Callahan, Sandra E Black
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease may be explained by gender differences in IADL involvement. OBJECTIVE: We introduce a novel theoretical construct, termed functional reserve, and empirically examine gender differences in IADL experience as a proxy of this reserve. METHODS: We cross-sectionally examined men (n = 502) and women (n = 340) with MCI from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453477/diagnostic-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-as-identified-in-saliva-using-1h-nmr-based-metabolomics
#17
Ali Yilmaz, Tim Geddes, BeomSoo Han, Ray O Bahado-Singh, George Wilson, Khaled Imam, Michael Maddens, Stewart F Graham
Using 1H NMR metabolomics, we biochemically profiled saliva samples collected from healthy-controls (n = 12), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) sufferers (n = 8), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n = 9). We accurately identified significant concentration changes in 22 metabolites in the saliva of MCI and AD patients compared to controls. This pilot study demonstrates the potential for using metabolomics and saliva for the early diagnosis of AD. Given the ease and convenience of collecting saliva, the development of accurate and sensitive salivary biomarkers would be ideal for screening those at greatest risk of developing AD...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453476/reduced-cerebral-blood-flow-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-assessed-using-phase-contrast-mri
#18
Reyes García de Eulate, Irene Goñi, Alvaro Galiano, Marta Vidorreta, Miriam Recio, Mario Riverol, José L Zubieta, María A Fernández-Seara
There is increasing evidence of a vascular contribution to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In some cases, prior work suggests that chronic brain hypoperfusion could play a prime pathogenic role contributing to the accumulation of amyloid-β,while other studies favor the hypothesis that vascular dysfunction and amyloid pathology are independent, although synergistic, mechanisms contributing to cognitive impairment. Vascular dysfunction can be evaluated by assessing cerebral blood flow impairment. Phase contrast velocity mapping by MRI offers a non-invasive means of quantifying the total inflow of blood to the brain...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453474/neuropsychological-profile-in-the-c9orf72-associated-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#19
Noora-Maria Suhonen, Ramona M Haanpää, Ville Korhonen, Jari Jokelainen, Anni Pitkäniemi, Anna-Leena Heikkinen, Johanna Krüger, Päivi Hartikainen, Seppo Helisalmi, Mikko Hiltunen, Tuomo Hänninen, Anne M Remes
While the C9ORF72 expansion is a major cause of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), little is known of the resultant cognitive profile. Our aim was to characterize the neuropsychological profile of the C9ORF72 associated bvFTD. We contrasted structured neuropsychological assessments of the C9ORF72 expansion carrier bvFTD patients (n = 26) with non-carrier bvFTD patients (n = 47) and those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 47). As compared to the non-carrier bvFTD patients, the C9ORF72 expansion carriers performed at a higher level in an immediate verbal memory test while showing poorer phonemic verbal fluency...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453473/prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease-a-comparison-of-the-cognitive-and-clinical-profiles
#20
Dilman Sadiq, Tim Whitfield, Lean Lee, Tim Stevens, Sergi Costafreda, Zuzana Walker
BACKGROUND: Dementia must be diagnosed accurately and early in the disease course to allow pathology-specific treatments to be effective. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially at the prodromal stage. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and neuropsychological profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients who, at follow-up, progressed to AD (retrospectively AD-MCI) or DLB (retrospectively DLB-MCI) or remained MCI...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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