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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941407/targeted-neurogenesis-pathway-based-gene-analysis-identifies-adora2a-associated-with-hippocampal-volume-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Emrin Horgusluoglu-Moloch, Kwangsik Nho, Shannon L Risacher, Sungeun Kim, Tatiana Foroud, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Paul S Aisen, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Simon Lovestone, Andrew Simmons, Michael W Weiner, Andrew J Saykin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients display hippocampal atrophy, memory impairment, and cognitive decline. New neurons are generated throughout adulthood in 2 regions of the brain implicated in AD, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the olfactory bulb. Disruption of this process contributes to neurodegenerative diseases including AD, and many of the molecular players in AD are also modulators of adult neurogenesis. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis in AD have been underexplored...
August 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941357/microrna-in-alzheimer-s-disease-revisited-implications-for-major-neuropathological-mechanisms
#2
Reihaneh Dehghani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) goes far beyond neurotoxicity resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and accumulation of Aβ in the form of the plaque or neurofibrillary tangles are the known primary culprits of AD pathogenesis and target for various regulatory mechanisms. Hyper-phosphorylation of tau, a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, precipitates its aggregation and prevents its clearance. Lipid particles, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein receptors can act in favor or against Aβ and tau accumulation by altering neural membrane characteristics or dynamics of transport across the blood-brain barrier...
September 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941354/modulatory-effect-of-caffeic-acid-on-cholinesterases-inhibitory-properties-of-donepezil
#3
Odunayo Michael Agunloye, Ganiyu Oboh
Background Donepezil hydrochloride commonly used in the management of Alzheimer's disease (AD), exhibiting its inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity thereby enhance cognitive function. Caffeic acid member of hydroxycinnamic acid is widely present in human diet. This study aims to investigate influence of caffeic acid on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory properties of donepezil (in vitro). Methods 5 mg of donepezil was dissolved in 50 mL distilled water while 10 mg of caffeic acid was dissolved in 100 mL distilled water...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938337/pulse-pressure-is-associated-with-plasma-amyloid-%C3%AE-transport-dysfunction
#4
Yu Jiang, Suhang Shang, Pei Li, Chen Chen, Liangjun Dang, Jin Wang, Kang Huo, Meiying Deng, Jingyi Wang, Qiumin Qu
OBJECTIVE: Increased pulse pressure (PP) has been implicated in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease in middle-aged and elderly adults. Considering the close relationship between peripheral amyloid-β clearance and brain amyloid-β deposition, we investigated the potential association between PP and plasma amyloid-β transport function. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1118 participants underwent a health assessment and quantification of plasma amyloid-β and amyloid-β transporter expression...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938220/metabolic-correlate-of-memory-deficit-awareness-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-implication-in-cortical-midline-structure
#5
Tomomichi Iizuka, Masashi Kameyama
The neural substrate of memory-deficit awareness has been studied in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about that in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). To determine the neural substrates of memory-deficit awareness in DLB, we investigated the relationship between awareness of memory-deficit and glucose metabolism in DLB. Thirty-four patients with DLB were assessed by (18)F-FDG-PET and dopamine transporter (DAT)-SPECT. The awareness was evaluated using an awareness index that represents the discrepancy between objective and subjective memory scores...
September 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938186/electrochemiluminescence-resonance-energy-transfer-system-between-gnrs-and-ru-bpy-3-2-application-in-magnetic-aptasensor-for-%C3%AE-amyloid
#6
Hong Ke, Haifeng Sha, Yinfang Wang, Weiwei Guo, Xin Zhang, Zhiming Wang, Chusen Huang, Nengqin Jia
Electrochemiluminescent (ECL) assay has gradually drawn increasing interest in the biomedical analysis. This paper proposed a new methodology for ultrasensitive and facile detection of Alzheimer's disease marker β-amyloid (Aβ) by fabricating a sandwich-type ECL sensing platform. Herein, electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) was employed to determine Aβ concentration, which can be attributed to the quenching effect from RET between Ru(bpy)3(2+) and gold nanorods (GNRs) acting as ECL-RET electron donor and acceptor, respectively...
September 14, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938009/altering-neuronal-excitability-to-preserve-network-connectivity-in-a-computational-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Willem de Haan, Elisabeth C W van Straaten, Alida A Gouw, Cornelis J Stam
Neuronal hyperactivity and hyperexcitability of the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region is an increasingly observed phenomenon in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). In later stages, oscillatory slowing and loss of functional connectivity are ubiquitous. Recent evidence suggests that neuronal dynamics have a prominent role in AD pathophysiology, making it a potentially interesting therapeutic target. However, although neuronal activity can be manipulated by various (non-)pharmacological means, intervening in a highly integrated system that depends on complex dynamics can produce counterintuitive and adverse effects...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937953/the-biological-basis-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-following-blast-injury-a-literature-review
#8
Matt Aldag, Regina C Armstrong, Faris Bandak, Patrick S F Bellgowan, Timothy Bentley, Sean Biggerstaff, Katrina Caravelli, Joan Cmarik, Alicia Crowder, Thomas J DeGraba, Travis A Dittmer, Richard G Ellenbogen, Colin Greene, Raj K Gupta, Ramona Hicks, Stuart Hoffman, Robert C Latta, Michael J Leggieri, Donald Marion, Robert Mazzoli, Michael McCrea, John O'Donnell, Mark Packer, James B Petro, Todd E Rasmussen, Wendy Sammons-Jackson, Richard Shoge, Victoria Tepe, Ladd A Tremaine, James Zheng
The United States Department of Defense Blast Injury Research Program Coordinating Office organized the 2015 International State-of-the-Science meeting to explore links between blast-related head injury and the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Before the meeting, the planning committee examined articles published between 2005 and October 2015 and prepared this literature review, which summarized broadly CTE research and addressed questions about the pathophysiological basis of CTE and its relationship to blast- and nonblast-related head injury...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937600/the-gut-microbial-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-is-present-in-human-cerebrospinal-fluid
#9
Daniele Del Rio, Francesca Zimetti, Paolo Caffarra, Michele Tassotti, Franco Bernini, Furio Brighenti, Andrea Zini, Ilaria Zanotti
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a small organic molecule, derived from the intestinal and hepatic metabolism of dietary choline and carnitine. Although the involvement of TMAO in the framework of many chronic diseases has been recently described, no evidence on its putative role in the central nervous system has been provided. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TMAO is present at detectable levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF was collected for diagnostic purposes from 58 subjects by lumbar puncture and TMAO was quantified by using liquid chromatography coupled with multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry...
September 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937243/relation-of-plasma-selenium-and-lipid-peroxidation-end-products-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Z Chmatalova, M Vyhnalek, J Laczo, J Hort, R Pospisilova, M Pechova, A Skoumalova
Increased oxidative stress in the brain during the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to an imbalance of antioxidants and formation of free radical reaction end-products which may be detected in blood as fluorescent lipofuscin-like pigments (LFPs). The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare LFPs with plasma selenium concentrations representing an integral part of the antioxidant system. Plasma samples from subjects with AD dementia (ADD; n=11), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=17) and controls (n=12), were collected...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937157/mutual-interference-of-cu-and-zn-ions-in-alzheimer-s-disease-perspectives-at-the-molecular-level
#11
Elena Atrián-Blasco, Amandine Conte-Daban, Christelle Hureau
While metal ions such as copper and zinc are essential in biology, they are also linked to several amyloid-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Zinc and copper can indeed modify the aggregation pathways of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, the key component encountered in AD. In addition, the redox active copper ions do produce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) when bound to the Aβ peptide. While Cu(i) or Cu(ii) or Zn(ii) coordination to the Aβ has been extensively studied in the last ten years, characterization of hetero-bimetallic Aβ complexes is still scarce...
September 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936941/-diagnostics-in-memory-loss-for-whom-what-and-when
#12
E Richard, E P Moll van Charante
With the advancement of diagnostic tests, the call for an ever-earlier diagnosis of people with memory problems is becoming louder. Diagnostic tests for people with mild cognitive impairment are in fact prognostic tests, complicating the application and interpretation of test results. There is currently insufficient evidence on the incremental diagnostic (or prognostic) value of specific diagnostic tests including MRI, CSF and PET scanning in representative memory clinic populations. Labelling large groups of people who may never develop dementia as having prodromal Alzheimer's disease may be more harmful than a postponed nosological diagnosis in those with mild cognitive impairment...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936940/-doctor-is-my-mother-suffering-from-dementia
#13
P Scheltens, F Gillissen, F H Bouwman, W M van der Flier
- The Netherlands health service features a stepwise diagnostic course in primary, secondary and tertiary care. In the diagnostic process for dementia the patient can go to the general practitioner, then to one of the 100 memory clinics and finally to one of the 4 academic Alzheimer centres.- The diagnostic process for dementia is described in the care practice guideline 'Dementia', the NHG (Dutch College of General Practitioners) practice guideline 'Dementia' and the multidisciplinary guideline 'Dementia diagnostics'...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936936/-treatment-of-dementia
#14
K Blom, G A H van den Elsen, H L Koek, J B Sanders, H C Kruithof, J A H R Claassen
- Treatment options for patients with dementia are limited. This article provides an overview of possible interventions, both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical, for Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and mixed dementia.- Pharmaceutical treatment options include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine and experimental medication. Cholinesterase inhibitors are only recommended for Alzheimer's disease and mixed dementia, not for vascular dementia or mild cognitive impairment. There is no proof of effectiveness for the other pharmaceutical options...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936933/-dna-diagnostics-in-dementia
#15
C M Aalfs, R Vervenne-van Spaendonk, Y A L Pijnenburg, P E Cohn-Hokke, H J Meijers, P Scheltens
- Thanks to next-generation sequencing several genes can be examined in one go. Since this method has been introduced, the possibilities for DNA diagnostics in patients with dementia have increased tremendously in recent years.- DNA diagnostics is indicated for patients with an Alzheimer's disease diagnosis before they are 60 years old, for all patients with frontotemporal dementia and for patients with a positive family history.- For 15% of the patients who visited the Alzheimer centre of the VUmc, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands DNA diagnostics indicated a clear monogenic cause...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936779/a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-transplanted-stem-cell-derived-human-neurons
#16
Yuankai Zhu, Hong Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936600/oxygen-supplementation-improves-protein-milieu-supportive-of-protein-synthesis-and-antioxidant-function-in-the-cortex-of-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice-a-quantitative-proteomic-study
#17
Hao Wang, Xiaoyu Hong, Shuiming Li, Yong Wang
Protein synthesis has been reported to be impaired in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we found that oxygen supplementation improved cognitive function and reduced mitochondrial damage in AD model mice. In the present study, we examined the effects of supplemental oxygen treatment on protein synthesis and oxidative damage. The synthesis of numerous proteins involved in mRNA splicing, transcription regulation, and translation was found to be significantly upregulated in cortex tissues of AD model mice given a supplemental oxygen treatment (OT group), relative to those of non-treated control AD model mice (Ctrl group), suggesting that impairment in protein synthesis may be alleviated by increased oxygen inhalation...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936489/landmark-based-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-using-longitudinal-structural-mr-images
#18
Jun Zhang, Mingxia Liu, Le An, Yaozong Gao, Dinggang Shen
In this paper, we propose a landmark-based feature extraction method for AD diagnosis using longitudinal structural MR images, which requires no nonlinear registration or tissue segmentation in the application stage and is robust to the inconsistency among longitudinal scans. Specifically, (1) the discriminative landmarks are first automatically discovered from the whole brain, which can be efficiently localized using a fast landmark detection method for the testing images; (2) High-level statistical spatial features and contextual longitudinal features are then extracted based on those detected landmarks...
October 2016: Bayesian and Graphical Models for Biomedical Imaging: BAMBI 2014
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936398/vitamin-d-is-associated-with-severity-and-mortality-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-us-population-based-study
#19
Hyun-Seok Kim, Laura Rotundo, Neil Kothari, Sung-Hoon Kim, Nikolaos Pyrsopoulos
Background and Aims: There has been increasing evidence that vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Since metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D and the severity and mortality of NAFLD. Methods: Data was obtained from the United States Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 1988-1994, with follow-up mortality data through 2011. NAFLD was defined by ultrasonographic detection of hepatic steatosis in the absence of other liver diseases and categorized as normal, mild, moderate or severe...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936389/disease-progression-modeling-key-concepts-and-recent-developments
#20
Sarah F Cook, Robert R Bies
Disease modeling involves the use of mathematical functions to describe quantitatively the time course of disease progression. In order to characterize the natural progression of disease, these models generally incorporate longitudinal data for some biomarker(s) of disease severity or can incorporate more direct measures of disease severity. Disease models are also often linked to pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models so that the influence of drug treatment on disease progression can be quantified and evaluated...
October 2016: Current Pharmacology Reports
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