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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545202/memantine-inhibits-degradation-of-the-articular-cartilage-extracellular-matrix-induced-by-advanced-glycation-end-products-ages
#1
Jijun Zhao, Yinghao Yu, Zhaofeng Wu, Ling Wang, Wei Li
The accumulation of inflammation and cartilage damage induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are important hallmarks of osteoarthritis (OA). Memantine is a clinically licensed drug used for the treatment of moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease. To date, little information has been reported regarding the effects of memantine on cartilage destruction. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of memantine on AGE-induced degradation of collagen II and aggrecans in human SW1353 chondrocytes...
May 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545084/feasibility-study-of-tspo-quantification-with-18f-feppa-using-population-based-input-function
#2
Rostom Mabrouk, Antonio P Strafella, Dunja Knezevic, Christine Ghadery, Romina Mizrahi, Avideh Gharehgazlou, Yuko Koshimori, Sylvain Houle, Pablo Rusjan
PURPOSE: The input function (IF) is a core element in the quantification of Translocator protein 18 kDa with positron emission tomography (PET), as no suitable reference region with negligible binding has been identified. Arterial blood sampling is indeed needed to create the IF (ASIF). In the present manuscript we study individualization of a population based input function (PBIF) with a single arterial manual sample to estimate total distribution volume (VT) for [18F]FEPPA and to replicate previously published clinical studies in which the ASIF was used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544981/synthesis-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-evaluation-of-new-fluorinated-quinoline-derivatives-with-high-affinity-for-pde5-towards-the-development-of-new-pet-neuroimaging-probes
#3
Jianrong Liu, Aurélie Maisonial-Besset, Barbara Wenzel, Damien Canitrot, Ariane Baufond, Jean-Michel Chezal, Peter Brust, Emmanuel Moreau
The increasing incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) worldwide is a major public health problem. Current treatments provide only palliative solutions with significant side effects. Therefore, new efficient treatment options and novel early diagnosis tools are urgently needed. Recently, strong pre-clinical evidences suggested that phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) may be clinically relevant both as biomarker and drug-target in AD. In this study, we intended to develop a new radiofluorinated tracer for the visualisation of PDE5 in brain using PET imaging...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544405/trends-of-mortality-from-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-european-union-1994-2013
#4
H Niu, I Alvarez-Alvarez, F Guillen-Grima, M J Al-Rahamneh, I Aguinaga-Ontoso
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In many countries, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has gradually become a common disease in elderly populations. The aim of this study was to analyse trends of mortality caused by AD in the 28 member countries in the European Union (EU) over the last two decades. METHODS: We extracted data for AD deaths for the period 1994-2013 in the EU from the Eurostat and World Health Organization database. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 were computed...
June 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544198/jaboticaba-berry-peel-intake-prevents-insulin-resistance-induced-tau-phosphorylation-in-mice
#5
Ângela G Batista, Edilene S Soares, Monique C P Mendonça, Juliana K da Silva, Ana Paula Dionísio, Cesar R Sartori, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling, Mário R Maróstica Júnior
The hyperphosphorylation of tau in the hippocampus can be caused by central and peripheral insulin resistance and these alterations are related to the development of tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used a high-fat diet to induce obesity and insulin resistance in adult Swiss mice and checked whether supplementation with Myrciaria jaboticaba berry peel for 10 weeks could improve insulin sensitivity, learning/memory performance and prevent tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Furthermore, adipocytokines, inflammatory markers, and oxidative stress were assessed...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544138/inhibition-of-the-aggregation-and-toxicity-of-the-minimal-amyloidogenic-fragment-of-tau-by-its-pro-substituted-analogs
#6
Marina Chemerovski-Glikman, Moran Frenkel-Pinter, Amjaad Abu-Mokh, Ragad Mdah, Ehud Gazit, Daniel Segal
Inhibiting the toxic aggregation of amyloid-β and the tau protein, the key pathological agents involved in Alzheimer's, is a leading approach in modulating disease progression. Using an aggregative tau-derived model peptide, Ac-PHF6-NH2, we show that substitution of its amino acids with Proline, a known efficient β-breaker, reduces its self-assembly. This effect is attributed to the steric hindrance created by the Proline substitution, which results in disruption of the β-sheet formation process. Moreover, several of the Proline-substituted peptides inhibit the aggregation of Ac-PHF6-NH2 amyloidogenic peptide...
May 23, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543807/aromatic-interaction-mediated-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-assembly-structures-and-cytotoxicity
#7
Hanyi Xie, Jiaxi Peng, Changliang Liu, Xiaocui Fang, Hongyang Duan, Yimin Zou, Yanlian Yang, Chen Wang
Abnormal aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide plays an important role in the onset and progress of Alzheimer's disease (AD); hence, targeting Aβ aggregation is considered as an effective therapeutic strategy. Here, we studied the aromatic-interaction-mediated inhibitory effect of oligomeric polypeptides (K8Y8, K4Y8, K8W8) on Aβ42 fibrillization process. The polypeptides containing lysine as well as representative aromatic amino acids of tryptophan or tyrosine were found to greatly suppress the aggregation as evaluated by thioflavin T assay...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543731/neuroimaging-biomarkers-and-impaired-olfaction-in-cognitively-normal-individuals
#8
Maria Vassilaki, Teresa J Christianson, Michelle M Mielke, Yonas E Geda, Walter K Kremers, Mary M Machulda, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Rosebud O Roberts
OBJECTIVE: There is a need for inexpensive non-invasive tests to identify older healthy persons at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) for enrollment in AD prevention trials. Our objective was to examine whether abnormalities in neuroimaging measures of amyloid and neurodegeneration are correlated with odor identification (OI) in the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA). METHODS: Cognitively normal (CN) participants had olfactory function assessed using the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT), underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n=829) to assess a composite Alzheimer's disease (AD) signature cortical thickness and hippocampal volume (HVa), and, (11) C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11) C-PiB; n=306) and (18) fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG; n=305) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to assess amyloid accumulation and brain hypometabolism, respectively...
May 22, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543689/mild-cognitive-impairment-and-structural-brain-abnormalities-in-a-sexagenarian-with-a-history-of-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
John Darrell Van Horn, Andrei Irimia, Carinna M Torgerson, Avnish Bhattrai, Zachary Jacokes, Paul M Vespa
In this report, we present a case study involving an older, female patient with a history of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging volumes were acquired from the volunteer in question, her brain volumetrics and morphometrics were extracted, and these were then systematically compared against corresponding metrics obtained from a large sample of older healthy control (HC) subjects as well as from subjects in various stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD)...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542742/exercise-or-social-intervention-for-nursing-home-residents-with-dementia-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Philipe de Souto Barreto, Matteo Cesari, Philippe Denormandie, Didier Armaingaud, Bruno Vellas, Yves Rolland
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of exercise with those of a structured nonphysical intervention on ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and physical and cognitive function of persons with dementia (PWDs) living in nursing homes (NH). DESIGN: Cluster-randomized pilot-controlled trial. SETTING: Seven French NHs. PARTICIPANTS: PWDs living in NHs. MEASUREMENTS: NHs were randomized to an exercise group (4 NHs, n = 47) or structured social activity group (3 NHs, n = 50) for a 24-week intervention performed twice per week for 60 minutes per session...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542505/alzhcpi-a-knowledge-base-for-predicting-chemical-protein-interactions-towards-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Jiansong Fang, Ling Wang, Yecheng Li, Wenwen Lian, Xiaocong Pang, Hong Wang, Dongsheng Yuan, Qi Wang, Ai-Lin Liu, Guan-Hua Du
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complicated progressive neurodegeneration disorder. To confront AD, scientists are searching for multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs) to delay disease progression. The in silico prediction of chemical-protein interactions (CPI) can accelerate target identification and drug discovery. Previously, we developed 100 binary classifiers to predict the CPI for 25 key targets against AD using the multi-target quantitative structure-activity relationship (mt-QSAR) method. In this investigation, we aimed to apply the mt-QSAR method to enlarge the model library to predict CPI towards AD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542392/acute-exercise-does-not-modify-brain-activity-and-memory-performance-in-app-ps1-mice
#12
Angelica Miki Stein, Victor Munive, Ana M Fernandez, Angel Nuñez, Ignacio Torres Aleman
Age is the main risk factor for Alzheimer´s disease (AD). With an increasingly aging population, development of affordable screening techniques to determine cognitive status will help identify population-at-risk for further follow-up. Because physical exercise is known to modulate cognitive performance, we used it as a functional test of cognitive health. Mice were submitted to treadmill running at moderate speed for 30 min, and their brain activity was monitored before and after exercise using electrocorticogram (ECG) recordings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542120/deaths-from-alzheimer-s-disease-united-states-1999-2014
#13
Christopher A Taylor, Sujay F Greenlund, Lisa C McGuire, Hua Lu, Janet B Croft
Alzheimer's disease (Alzheimer's), an ultimately fatal form of dementia, is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for 3.6% of all deaths in 2014 (1,2). Alzheimer's deaths can be an indicator of paid and unpaid caregiver burden because nearly everyone in the final stages of Alzheimer's needs constant care, regardless of the setting, as the result of functional and cognitive declines (2). To examine deaths with Alzheimer's as the underlying cause, state-level and county-level death certificate data from the National Vital Statistics System for the period 1999-2014 were analyzed...
May 26, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542068/reduced-cortical-excitatory-synapse-number-in-apoe4-mice-is-associated-with-increased-calcineurin-activity
#14
Aidan L Neustadtl, Charisse N Winston, Maia Parsadanian, Bevan S Main, Sonia Villapol, Mark P Burns
Synaptic loss is a symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that is associated with the onset of cognitive decline and the loss of executive function. The strongest genetic risk factor for AD is the APOE4 allele, which results in both a greater risk of developing AD as well as an earlier age of onset of AD. Dendritic spines, the anatomical substrate of the excitatory synapse, are reduced in the cortex of humanized APOE4 mice but the reason for this synaptic decline is unknown. Calcineurin, a calcium/calmodulin dependent phosphatase, is a mediator of dendritic spine retraction...
May 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541924/characterizing-highly-benefited-patients-in-randomized-clinical-trials
#15
Vivek Charu, Paul B Rosenberg, Lon S Schneider, Lea T Drye, Lisa Rein, David Shade, Constantine G Lyketsos, Constantine E Frangakis
Physicians and patients may choose a certain treatment only if it is predicted to have a large effect for the profile of that patient. We consider randomized controlled trials in which the clinical goal is to identify as many patients as possible that can highly benefit from the treatment. This is challenging with large numbers of covariate profiles, first, because the theoretical, exact method is not feasible, and, second, because usual model-based methods typically give incorrect results. Better, more recent methods use a two-stage approach, where a first stage estimates a working model to produce a scalar predictor of the treatment effect for each covariate profile; and a second stage estimates empirically a high-benefit group based on the first-stage predictor...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541903/alzheimer-s-disease-classification-based-on-individual-hierarchical-networks-constructed-with-3d-texture-features
#16
Jin Liu, Jianxin Wang, Bin Hu, Fang-Xiang Wu, Yi Pan
Brain network plays an important role in representing abnormalities in Alzheimers disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which includes MCIc (MCI converted to AD) and MCInc (MCI not converted to AD). In our previous study, we proposed an AD classification approach based on individual hierarchical networks constructed with 3D texture features of brain images. However, we only used edge features of the networks without node features of the networks. In this study, we propose a framework of the combination of multiple kernels to combine edge features and node features for AD classification...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541558/drinking-water-contamination-from-perfluoroalkyl-substances-pfas-an-ecological-mortality-study-in-the-veneto-region-italy
#17
Marina Mastrantonio, Edoardo Bai, Raffaella Uccelli, Vincenzo Cordiano, Augusto Screpanti, Paolo Crosignani
: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a heterogeneous group of highly stable man-made chemicals, have been widely used since 1960s and can be detected almost ubiquitously in all environmental matrices. In Italy, on January 2014, drinking water contamination in an area of the Veneto Region was detected mainly due to the drain of fluorinated chemicals by a manufacturing company operating since 1964. : The present ecological mortality study was aimed at comparing mortality for some causes of death selected on the basis of previous reported associations, during the period 1980-2013, in municipalities with PFAS contaminated and uncontaminated drinking water on the basis of the levels indicated by the Italian National Health Institute (ISS)...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541543/validation-of-the%C3%A2-d%C3%A3-pistage-cognitif-de-qu%C3%A3-bec-a-new-cognitive-screening-tool-for-atypical-dementias
#18
Robert Laforce, Leila Sellami, David Bergeron, Audrey Paradis, Louis Verret, Marie-Pierre Fortin, Michèle Houde, Martin Roy, Stéphane Poulin, Joël Macoir, Carol Hudon, Rémi W Bouchard
Objective: This study aimed to validate and provide normative data for the Dépistage Cognitif de Québec (DCQ; www.dcqtest.org), a new cognitive screening tool for atypical dementias. Method: The DCQ was developed by expert behavioral neurologists and clinical neuropsychologists based on updated criteria for Alzheimer's disease, primary progressive aphasia, and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. It targets five relevant domains: Memory, Visuospatial, Executive, Language, and Behavior...
May 25, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541444/blood-brain-barrier-pericyte-importance-in-malignant-gliomas-what-we-can-learn-from-stroke-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Sadhana Jackson, Ayman ElAli, Daniela Virgintino, Mark R Gilbert
The pericyte, a constitutive component of the central nervous system, is a poorly understood cell type that envelops the endothelial cell with the intended purpose of regulating vascular flow and endothelial cell permeability. Previous studies of pericyte function have been limited to a small number of disease processes such as ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Recently, publications have postulated a link between glioma stem cell differentiation and pericyte function. These studies suggest that there may be an important interaction of pericytes with tumor cells and other components of the tumor microenvironment in malignant primary glial neoplasms, most notably glioblastoma...
May 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540926/entorhinal-cortical-deep-brain-stimulation-rescues-memory-deficits-in-both-young-and-old-mice-genetically-engineered-to-model-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Frances Xia, Adelaide Yiu, Scellig Sd Stone, Soojin Oh, Andres M Lozano, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive decline. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat a variety of brain disorders and shows promise in alleviating cognitive symptoms in some AD patients (Laxton et al., 2010). We previously showed that DBS of the entorhinal cortex (EC) enhances spatial memory formation in normal (wild-type) mice (Stone et al., 2011). Here we tested the effects of EC-DBS on the progressive cognitive deficits in a genetically-based mouse model of AD...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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