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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636915/probing-the-structural-dynamics-of-the-nmda-receptor-activation-by-coarse-grained-modeling
#1
Wenjun Zheng, Han Wen, Gary J Iacobucci, Gabriela K Popescu
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are glutamate-gated excitatory channels that play essential roles in brain functions. High-resolution structures have been solved for an allosterically inhibited and agonist-bound form of a functional NMDA receptor; however, other key functional states (particularly the active open-channel state) were only resolved at moderate resolutions by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). To decrypt the mechanism of the NMDA receptor activation, structural modeling is essential to provide presently missing information about structural dynamics...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636615/family-living-sets-the-stage-for-cooperative-breeding-and-ecological-resilience-in-birds
#2
Michael Griesser, Szymon M Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A Botero
Cooperative breeding is an extreme form of cooperation that evolved in a range of lineages, including arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. Although cooperative breeding in birds is widespread and well-studied, the conditions that favored its evolution are still unclear. Based on phylogenetic comparative analyses on 3,005 bird species, we demonstrate here that family living acted as an essential stepping stone in the evolution of cooperative breeding in the vast majority of species. First, families formed by prolonging parent-offspring associations beyond nutritional independency, and second, retained offspring began helping at the nest...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636589/identifying-specificity-groups-in-the-t-cell-receptor-repertoire
#3
Jacob Glanville, Huang Huang, Allison Nau, Olivia Hatton, Lisa E Wagar, Florian Rubelt, Xuhuai Ji, Arnold Han, Sheri M Krams, Christina Pettus, Nikhil Haas, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette, Scott D Boyd, Thomas J Scriba, Olivia M Martinez, Mark M Davis
T cell receptor (TCR) sequences are very diverse, with many more possible sequence combinations than T cells in any one individual. Here we define the minimal requirements for TCR antigen specificity, through an analysis of TCR sequences using a panel of peptide and major histocompatibility complex (pMHC)-tetramer-sorted cells and structural data. From this analysis we developed an algorithm that we term GLIPH (grouping of lymphocyte interactions by paratope hotspots) to cluster TCRs with a high probability of sharing specificity owing to both conserved motifs and global similarity of complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635953/rare-rnf213-variants-in-the-c-terminal-region-encompassing-the-ring-finger-domain-are-associated-with-moyamoya-angiopathy-in-caucasians
#4
Stéphanie Guey, Markus Kraemer, Dominique Hervé, Thomas Ludwig, Manoëlle Kossorotoff, Françoise Bergametti, Jan Claudius Schwitalla, Simone Choi, Lucile Broseus, Isabelle Callebaut, Emmanuelle Genin, Elisabeth Tournier-Lasserve
Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) is a cerebral angiopathy affecting the terminal part of internal carotid arteries. Its prevalence is 10 times higher in Japan and Korea than in Europe. In East Asian countries, moyamoya is strongly associated to the R4810K variant in the RNF213 gene that encodes for a protein containing a RING-finger and two AAA+ domains. This variant has never been detected in Caucasian MMA patients, but several rare RNF213 variants have been reported in Caucasian cases. Using a collapsing test based on exome data from 68 European MMA probands and 573 ethnically matched controls, we showed a significant association between rare missense RNF213 variants and MMA in European patients (odds ratio (OR)=2...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631558/the-overexpression-and-prognostic-role-of-dcaf13-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Jianzhong Cao, Pengjiao Hou, Jiemin Chen, Penghui Wang, Wenqin Wang, Wei Liu, Changzheng Liu, Xiaodong He
DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 13 (DCAF13) is a protein coding gene located on chromosome 8q22.3, which is a hotspot amplified in various cancers. DCAF13 has been reported to be frequently amplified in breast cancer patients. However, the genetic alteration and potential role of DCAF13 in other cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma, have not been investigated yet. In this study, we found that DCAF13 was amplified in 14.7% of the cases and its expression was upregulated (p < 0.001) in hepatocellular carcinoma samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631324/recent-origin-and-rapid-speciation-of-neotropical-orchids-in-the-world-s-richest-plant-biodiversity-hotspot
#6
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Guillaume Chomicki, Fabien L Condamine, Adam P Karremans, Diego Bogarín, Nicholas J Matzke, Daniele Silvestro, Alexandre Antonelli
The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630802/effects-of-a-wind-farm-installation-on-the-understory-bat-community-of-a-highly-biodiverse-tropical-region-in-mexico
#7
Miguel Briones-Salas, Mario C Lavariega, Claudia E Moreno
Wind energy has rapidly become an important alternative among renewable energies, and it is generally considered clean. However, little is known about its impact at the level of ecological communities, especially in biodiversity hotspots. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is a highly biodiverse region in Mesoamerica, and has the highest potential for generating wind energy in Mexico. To assess the effects of installing a wind farm on the understory bat community in a landscape of fragmented habitat, we assessed its diversity and composition over four stages of installation (site preparation, construction, and two stages of operation)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628865/urban-emissions-hotspots-quantifying-vehicle-congestion-and-air-pollution-using-mobile-phone-gps-data
#8
Conor K Gately, Lucy R Hutyra, Scott Peterson, Ian Sue Wing
On-road emissions vary widely on time scales as short as minutes and length scales as short as tens of meters. Detailed data on emissions at these scales are a prerequisite to accurately quantifying ambient pollution concentrations and identifying hotspots of human exposure within urban areas. We construct a highly resolved inventory of hourly fluxes of CO, NO2, NOx, PM2.5 and CO2 from road vehicles on 280,000 road segments in eastern Massachusetts for the year 2012. Our inventory integrates a large database of hourly vehicle speeds derived from mobile phone and vehicle GPS data with multiple regional datasets of vehicle flows, fleet characteristics, and local meteorology...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628619/south-african-ebola-diagnostic-response-in-sierra-leone-a-modular-high-biosafety-field-laboratory
#9
Janusz T Paweska, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Gunther H Meier, Chantel le Roux, Ousman S Conteh, Alan Kemp, Cardia Fourie, Prabha Naidoo, Serisha Naicker, Phumza Ohaebosim, Nadia Storm, Orienka Hellferscee, Lisa K Ming Sun, Busisiwe Mogodi, Nishi Prabdial-Sing, Desiree du Plessis, Deidre Greyling, Shayne Loubser, Mark Goosen, Stewart D McCulloch, Terence P Scott, Alexandra Moerdyk, Wesley Dlamini, Kelfala Konneh, Idrissa L Kamara, Dauda Sowa, Samuel Sorie, Brima Kargbo, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628366/culex-flavivirus-during-west-nile-virus-epidemic-and-interepidemic-years-in-chicago-united-states
#10
Christina M Newman, Bethany L Krebs, Tavis K Anderson, Gabriel L Hamer, Marilyn O Ruiz, Jeffrey D Brawn, William M Brown, Uriel D Kitron, Tony L Goldberg
Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus infecting Culex mosquitoes, which are important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). CxFV and WNV cocirculate in nature and coinfect Culex mosquitoes, including in a WNV "hotspot" in suburban Chicago. We previously identified a positive association between CxFV and WNV in mosquito pools collected from suburban Chicago in 2006. To further investigate this phenomenon, we compared the spatial and temporal distribution of CxFV during an interepidemic year (2011) and an epidemic year (2012) for WNV...
June 19, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628317/controllability-of-polymer-crystal-orientation-using-heterogeneous-nucleation-of-deformed-polymer-loops-grafted-on-two-dimensional-nanofiller
#11
Yijing Nie, Zhouzhou Gu, Qiang Zhou, Ya Wei, Tongfan Hao, Yong Liu, Rongjuan Liu, Zhiping Zhou
Nowadays, it is a research hotspot to realize the controllability of polymer crystal structure in polymer nanocomposites. However, polymer crystals induced by two-dimensional filler always exhibit random orientation, which somewhat limit the improvement of physical properties of polymer materials. In the current paper, dynamic Monte Carlo simulations were performed to explore the methods preparing crystals with uniform orientation. Heterogeneous nucleation of deformed polymer loops grafted on two-dimensional filler can induce the appearance of a special nanohybrid shish-kebab (NHSK) structure, in which the two-dimensional filler acts as "shish" and induces the formation of crystals with uniform orientation...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628100/hotspots-of-missense-mutation-identify-neurodevelopmental-disorder-genes-and-functional-domains
#12
Madeleine R Geisheker, Gabriel Heymann, Tianyun Wang, Bradley P Coe, Tychele N Turner, Holly A F Stessman, Kendra Hoekzema, Malin Kvarnung, Marie Shaw, Kathryn Friend, Jan Liebelt, Christopher Barnett, Elizabeth M Thompson, Eric Haan, Hui Guo, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Ann Nordgren, Anna Lindstrand, Geert Vandeweyer, Antonino Alberti, Emanuela Avola, Mirella Vinci, Stefania Giusto, Tiziano Pramparo, Karen Pierce, Srinivasa Nalabolu, Jacob J Michaelson, Zdenek Sedlacek, Gijs W E Santen, Hilde Peeters, Hakon Hakonarson, Eric Courchesne, Corrado Romano, R Frank Kooy, Raphael A Bernier, Magnus Nordenskjöld, Jozef Gecz, Kun Xia, Larry S Zweifel, Evan E Eichler
Although de novo missense mutations have been predicted to account for more cases of autism than gene-truncating mutations, most research has focused on the latter. We identified the properties of de novo missense mutations in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and highlight 35 genes with excess missense mutations. Additionally, 40 amino acid sites were recurrently mutated in 36 genes, and targeted sequencing of 20 sites in 17,688 patients with NDD identified 21 new patients with identical missense mutations...
June 19, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627760/reproductive-phenology-of-melastomataceae-species-with-contrasting-reproductive-systems-contemporary-and-historical-drivers
#13
Vinícius L G Brito, Fabiano Rodrigo da Maia, Fernando A O Silveira, Carla Magioni Fracasso, José Pires Lemos-Filho, G Wilson Fernandes, Renato Goldenberg, Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato, Marlies Sazima, Vanessa G Staggemeier
Flowering and fruiting are key events in the life history of plants, and both are critical to their reproductive success. Besides the role of evolutionary history, plant reproductive phenology is regulated by abiotic factors and shaped by biotic interactions with pollinators and seed dispersers. In Melastomataceae, a dominant Neotropical clade, the reproductive systems vary from allogamous with biotic pollination to apomitic, and seed dispersal varies from dry (self-dispersed) to fleshy fruits (animal-dispersed)...
June 19, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625995/novel-antibiotic-resistance-determinants-from-agricultural-soil-exposed-to-antibiotics-widely-used-in-human-medicine-and-animal-farming
#14
Calvin Ho-Fung Lau, Kalene van Engelen, Stephen Gordon, Justin Renaud, Edward Topp
Antibiotic resistance has emerged globally as one of the biggest threats to human and animal health. Although the excessive use of antibiotics is recognized for accelerating the selection for resistance, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that natural environments are "hotspots" for the development of both ancient and contemporary resistance mechanisms. Given that pharmaceuticals can be entrained onto agricultural land through anthropogenic activities, this could be a potential driver for the emergence and dissemination of resistance in soil bacteria...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625982/the-novel-stress-survival-islet-2-ssi-2-predominantly-present-in-listeria-monocytogenes-strains-of-st121-is-involved-in-alkaline-and-oxidative-stress-response
#15
Eva Harter, Eva Maria Wagner, Andreas Zaiser, Sabrina Halecker, Martin Wagner, Kathrin Rychli
The food-borne pathogen Listeria (L) monocytogenes is able to survive a variety of stress conditions leading to the colonization of different niches like the food processing environment. This study focuses on the hypervariable genetic hotspot lmo0443-lmo0449 haboring three inserts: the stress survival islet 1 (SSI-1), the single-gene insert LMOf2365_0481 and two homologous genes of the non-pathogenic species L. innocua: lin0464, a putative transcriptional regulator and lin0465, an intracellular PfpI protease...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623926/perennial-transmission-of-malaria-in-the-low-altitude-areas-of-baringo-county-kenya
#16
Collince J Omondi, Daniel Onguru, Lucy Kamau, Mark Nanyingi, George Ong'amo, Benson Estambale
BACKGROUND: Malaria causes the greatest public health burden in sub-Saharan Africa where high mortality occurs mainly in children under 5 years of age. Traditionally, malaria has been reported mainly in the lowlands endemic regions of western Kenya, while the highlands of the Rift Valley have been relatively free except for the sporadic epidemics in some areas. Baringo County is located in the Kenyan highlands. The county generally experiences seasonal transmission of malaria. A few hotspots which experience continuous malaria transmission in the county do however exist...
June 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623123/screening-mutations-in-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-in-yunnan-china
#17
Daoqun Li, Yuzhu Song, Cheng-Lin Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Xueshan Xia, A-Mei Zhang
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB), especially multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), is a serious medical and societal problem in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutation characteristics of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates in Yunnan, China. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed in 523 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. Six drug resistance genes (katG, inhA, rpoB, rpsL, embB, and pncA) were selected to screen for mutations. In total, 54 clinical M...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622767/praziquantel-decreases-fecundity-in-schistosoma-mansoni-adult-worms-that-survive-treatment-evidence-from-a-laboratory-life-history-trade-offs-selection-study
#18
Poppy H L Lamberton, Christina L Faust, Joanne P Webster
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration of praziquantel is the World Health Organization's endorsed control strategy for schistosomiasis. A decade of annual treatments across sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in significant reductions of infection prevalence and intensity levels, although 'hotspots' remain. Repeated drug treatments place strong selective pressures on parasites, which may affect life-history traits that impact transmission dynamics. Understanding drug treatment responses and the evolution of such traits can help inform on how to minimise the risk of drug resistance developing, maximise sustainable control programme success, and improve diagnostic protocols...
June 16, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621926/mimicking-the-active-sites-of-organophosphorus-hydrolase-on-the-backbone-of-graphene-oxide-to-destroy-nerve-agent-simulants
#19
Xuejuan Ma, Lin Zhang, Mengfan Xia, Shuangqin Li, Xiaohong Zhang, Yaodong Zhang
Recent global military events, such as the conflict in Syria, have emphasized the need to find effective strategies to rapidly destroy organophosphorus-based nerve agents. In this work, we designed active site-engineered graphene oxide (GO) via polymerization (polymer bead-GOs) as organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) mimetic hotspots for the rapid degradation of nerve agents. This hybrid catalyst has a high total turnover frequency value of 0.65 s(-1) and good stability (94.8% activity maintained after 5 cycles)...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621230/lncrna-crnde-triggers-inflammation-through-the-tlr3-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-cytokine-signaling-pathway
#20
Haowen Li, Qi Li, Tao Guo, Wenyan He, Chengya Dong, Yajie Wang
Colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed (CRNDE), an oncogene, is highly expressed in many tumor cells and affects cellular proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis. Its function and mechanism of action is a research hotspot. In this study, microarray analysis was performed to discover the differentially expressed genes in CRNDE over-expression cells. RT² Profiler PCR Array was used to study the expression of genes related to the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway. We found that over-expression of CRNDE in astrocytes increased the expression of key factors in the toll-like receptor signaling pathway, especially toll-like receptor-3-mediated MyD88-independent pathway...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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