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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340414/intersection-crash-prediction-modeling-with-macro-level-data-from-various-geographic-units
#1
Jaeyoung Lee, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Qing Cai
There have been great efforts to develop traffic crash prediction models for various types of facilities. The crash models have played a key role to identify crash hotspots and evaluate safety countermeasures. In recent, many macro-level crash prediction models have been developed to incorporate highway safety considerations in the long-term transportation planning process. Although the numerous macro-level studies have found that a variety of demographic and socioeconomic zonal characteristics have substantial effects on traffic safety, few studies have attempted to coalesce micro-level with macro-level data from existing geographic units for estimating crash models...
March 21, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340083/evaluating-the-patterns-of-aging-related-tau-astrogliopathy-unravels-novel-insights-into-brain-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
Gabor G Kovacs, John L Robinson, Sharon X Xie, Edward B Lee, Murray Grossman, David A Wolk, David J Irwin, Dan Weintraub, Christopher F Kim, Theresa Schuck, Ahmed Yousef, Stephanie T Wagner, Eunran Suh, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski
The term "aging-related tau astrogliopathy" (ARTAG) describes pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes. We evaluated the correlates of ARTAG types (i.e., subpial, subependymal, white and gray matter, and perivascular) in different neuroanatomical regions. Clinical, neuropathological, and genetic (eg, APOE ε4 allele, MAPT H1/H2 haplotype) data from 628 postmortem brains from subjects were investigated; most of the patients had been longitudinally followed at the University of Pennsylvania...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339459/functional-classification-of-dna-variants-by-hybrid-minigenes-identification-of-30-spliceogenic-variants-of-brca2-exons-17-and-18
#3
Eugenia Fraile-Bethencourt, Beatriz Díez-Gómez, Valeria Velásquez-Zapata, Alberto Acedo, David J Sanz, Eladio A Velasco
Mutation screening of the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 identifies a large fraction of variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS) whose functional and clinical interpretations pose a challenge for genomic medicine. Likewise, an increasing amount of evidence indicates that genetic variants can have deleterious effects on pre-mRNA splicing. Our goal was to investigate the impact on splicing of a set of reported variants of BRCA2 exons 17 and 18 to assess their role in hereditary breast cancer and to identify critical regulatory elements that may constitute hotspots for spliceogenic variants...
March 24, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334873/alternative-dna-structure-formation-in-the-mutagenic-human-c-myc-promoter
#4
Imee Marie A Del Mundo, Maha Zewail-Foote, Sean M Kerwin, Karen M Vasquez
Mutation 'hotspot' regions in the genome are susceptible to genetic instability, implicating them in diseases. These hotspots are not random and often co-localize with DNA sequences potentially capable of adopting alternative DNA structures (non-B DNA, e.g. H-DNA and G4-DNA), which have been identified as endogenous sources of genomic instability. There are regions that contain overlapping sequences that may form more than one non-B DNA structure. The extent to which one structure impacts the formation/stability of another, within the sequence, is not fully understood...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334755/tracking-fluctuation-hotspots-on-the-yeast-ribosome-through-the-elongation-cycle
#5
Suna P Gulay, Sujal Bista, Amitabh Varshney, Serdal Kirmizialtin, Karissa Y Sanbonmatsu, Jonathan D Dinman
Chemical modification was used to quantitatively determine the flexibility of nearly the entire rRNA component of the yeast ribosome through 8 discrete stages of translational elongation, revealing novel observations at the gross and fine-scales. These include (i) the bulk transfer of energy through the intersubunit bridges from the large to the small subunit after peptidyltransfer, (ii) differences in the interaction of the sarcin ricin loop with the two elongation factors and (iii) networked information exchange pathways that may functionally facilitate intra- and intersubunit coordination, including the 5...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334265/evaluation-of-malaise-and-yellow-pan-trap-performance-to-assess-velvet-ant-hymenoptera-mutillidae-diversity-in-a-neotropical-savanna
#6
C R Vieira, C Waichert, K A Williams, J P Pitts
Given the global biodiversity crisis, it is crucial to identify methods best suited for conducting inventories. We evaluated the relative merits of Malaise traps (MT) and ground-level yellow pan traps (YPT) to sample male velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) in a Neotropical savanna biodiversity hotspot. We compared richness, number of captures, evenness, composition, and body size of male velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) sampled with both methods in four sites at Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros, central Brazil, during 19 d...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334104/endemism-hotspots-are-linked-to-stable-climatic-refugia
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333395/small-molecules-belowground-the-role-of-specialized-metabolites-in-the-rhizosphere
#8
Hassan Massalha, Elisa Korenblum, Dorothea Tholl, Asaph Aharoni
Soil communities are diverse taxonomically and functionally. This ecosystem experiences highly complex networks of interactions, but may also present functionally independent entities. Plant roots, a metabolically active hotspot in the soil, take an essential part in belowground interactions. While plants are known to release an extremely high portion of the fixated carbon to the soil, less is known about the composition and role of C-containing compounds in the rhizosphere, in particular those involved in chemical communication...
March 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333372/characterisation-and-functional-mapping-of-surface-potentials-in-the-rat-dorsal-column-nuclei
#9
Alastair J Loutit, Ted Maddess, Stephen J Redmond, John W Morley, Greg J Stuart, Jason R Potas
The brainstem dorsal column nuclei (DCN) play a role in early processing of somatosensory information arising from a variety of functionally distinct peripheral structures, before being transmitted to the cortex via the thalamus. To improve our understanding of how sensory information is represented by the DCN, we characterised and mapped low- (<200 Hz) and high-frequency (550-3300 Hz) components of nerve-evoked DCN surface potentials. DCN surface potentials were evoked by electrical stimulation of the left and right nerves innervating cutaneous (sural nerve), or a mix of cutaneous and deep structures (peroneal nerve), in 8 week-old urethane anaesthetised male Wistar rats...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333080/a-review-epigenetic-mechanism-in-ochratoxin-a-toxicity-studies
#10
REVIEW
Liye Zhu, Boyang Zhang, Yaqi Dai, Hongyu Li, Wentao Xu
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a natural contaminant that has displayed nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in mammals. It contaminates a great variety of foodstuffs and threatens people's lives. The molecular mechanism of OTA-induced toxicity has been studied since 1965. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms are also studied in OTA-induced toxicity. Additionally, the mode of OTA epigenetic research has been advanced in research hotspots. However, there is still no epigenetic study of OTA-induced toxicity. In this review, we discuss the relationship between these epigenetic mechanisms and OTA-induced toxicity...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332274/time-course-expression-qtl-atlas-of-the-global-transcriptional-response-of-wheat-to-fusarium-graminearum
#11
Mina Samad-Zamini, Wolfgang Schweiger, Thomas Nussbaumer, Klaus F X Mayer, Hermann Buerstmayr
Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease of small grain cereals such as bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). The pathogen switches from a biotrophic to a nectrotrophic lifestyle in course of disease development forcing its host to adapt its defence strategies. Using a genetical genomics approach we illustrate genome-wide reconfigurations of genetic control over transcript abundances between two decisive time points after inoculation with the causative pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Whole transcriptome measurements have been recorded for 163 lines of a wheat doubled haploid population segregating for several resistance genes yielding 15 552 at 30 hours and 15 888 eQTL at 50 hours after inoculation...
March 23, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331089/diversity-distribution-and-evolution-of-tomato-viruses-in-china-uncovered-by-small-rna-sequencing
#12
Chenxi Xu, Xuepeng Sun, Angela Taylor, Chen Jiao, Yimin Xu, Xiaofeng Cai, Xiaoli Wang, Chenhui Ge, Guanghui Pan, Quanxi Wang, Zhangjun Fei, Quanhua Wang
Tomato is a major vegetable crop that has tremendous popularity. However, viral disease is still a major factor limiting tomato production. Here we report the tomato virome identified through sequencing small RNAs of 170 field-grown samples collected in China. A total of 22 viruses were identified including both well-documented and newly detected viruses. The tomato viral community is dominated by a few species, and they exhibit polymorphisms and recombination in the genomes with coldspots and hotspots. Most samples were co-infected by multiple viruses and the majority of identified viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331003/phase-i-dose-escalation-study-of-taselisib-gdc-0032-an-oral-pi3k-inhibitor-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#13
Dejan Juric, Ian Krop, Ramesh K Ramanathan, Timothy R Wilson, Joseph A Ware, Sandra Sanabria Bohorquez, Heidi Savage, Deepak Sampath, Laurent Salphati, Ray Lin, Huan Jin, Hema Parmar, Jerry Y Hsu, Daniel D Von Hoff, José Baselga
Taselisib is a potent and selective tumor growth inhibitor through PI3K pathway suppression. Thirty-four patients with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors were treated (phase I study, modified 3+3 dose escalation; 5 cohorts; 3-16 mg taselisib once daily capsule). Taselisib pharmacokinetics were dose-proportional; mean half-life was 40 hours. Frequent dose-dependent, treatment-related adverse events included diarrhea, hyperglycemia, decreased appetite, nausea, rash, stomatitis, and vomiting. At 12 and 16 mg dose levels, dose limiting toxicities (DLT) were observed, with an accumulation of higher-grade adverse events after the cycle 1 DLT assessment window...
March 22, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328134/somatic-pik3ca-mutations-in-seven-patients-with-pik3ca-related-overgrowth-spectrum
#14
Kit San Yeung, Janice Jing Kun Ip, Chin Pang Chow, Evelyn Yue Ling Kuong, Paul Kwong-Hang Tam, Godfrey Chi-Fung Chan, Brian Hon-Yin Chung
Somatic mutations in PIK3CA cause many overgrowth syndromes that have been recently coined the "PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum." Here, we present seven molecularly confirmed patients with PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum, including patients with Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, Epidermal Nevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and Spinal syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, lymphatic malformation and two with atypical phenotypes that cannot be classified into existing disease categories. The literature on PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum, suggests that PIK3CA c...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327541/impacts-from-land-use-pattern-on-spatial-distribution-of-cultivated-soil-heavy-metal-pollution-in-typical-rural-urban-fringe-of-northeast-china
#15
Wenbo Li, Dongyan Wang, Qing Wang, Shuhan Liu, Yuanli Zhu, Wenjun Wu
Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study's aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323430/dual-scattering-near-field-microscope-for-correlative-nanoimaging-of-sers-and-electromagnetic-hotspots
#16
Patryk Kusch, Stefan Mastel, Niclas Sven Mueller, Nieves Morquillas, Sebastian Heeg, Roman Gorbachev, Fredrik Schedin, Uwe Huebner, Jose Ignacio Pascual, Stephanie Reich, Rainer Hillenbrand
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) enables sensitive chemical studies and materials identification, relying on electromagnetic (EM) and chemical-enhancement mechanisms. Here we introduce a tool for the correlative nanoimaging of EM and SERS hotspots - areas of strongly enhanced EM fields and Raman scattering, respectively. To that end, we implemented a grating spectrometer into a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) for mapping of both the elastically and inelastically (Raman) scattered light from the near-field probe - a sharp silicon tip...
March 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320953/species-richness-alone-does-not-predict-cultural-ecosystem-service-value
#17
Rose A Graves, Scott M Pearson, Monica G Turner
Many biodiversity-ecosystem services studies omit cultural ecosystem services (CES) or use species richness as a proxy and assume that more species confer greater CES value. We studied wildflower viewing, a key biodiversity-based CES in amenity-based landscapes, in Southern Appalachian Mountain forests and asked (i) How do aesthetic preferences for wildflower communities vary with components of biodiversity, including species richness?; (ii) How do aesthetic preferences for wildflower communities vary across psychographic groups?; and (iii) How well does species richness perform as an indicator of CES value compared with revealed social preferences for wildflower communities? Public forest visitors (n = 293) were surveyed during the summer of 2015 and asked to choose among images of wildflower communities in which flower species richness, flower abundance, species evenness, color diversity, and presence of charismatic species had been digitally manipulated...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320908/reaction-and-relaxation-at-surface-hotspots-using-molecular-dynamics-and-the-energy-grained-master-equation-to-describe-diamond-etching
#18
David R Glowacki, W J Rodgers, Robin Shannon, Struan H Robertson, Jeremy N Harvey
The extent to which vibrational energy transfer dynamics can impact reaction outcomes beyond the gas phase remains an active research question. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are the method of choice for investigating such questions; however, they can be extremely expensive, and therefore it is worth developing cheaper models that are capable of furnishing reasonable results. This paper has two primary aims. First, we investigate the competition between energy relaxation and reaction at 'hotspots' that form on the surface of diamond during the chemical vapour deposition process...
April 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320455/a-systematic-review-of-taeniasis-cysticercosis-and-trichinellosis-in-vietnam
#19
REVIEW
Dinh Ng-Nguyen, Mark A Stevenson, Rebecca J Traub
Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and T. solium cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Vietnam utilizing Bayesian models; in addition, to report the incidence and the distribution of trichinellosis...
March 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320321/evolution-of-group-i-introns-in-porifera-new-evidence-for-intron-mobility-and-implications-for-dna-barcoding
#20
Astrid Schuster, Jose V Lopez, Leontine E Becking, Michelle Kelly, Shirley A Pomponi, Gert Wörheide, Dirk Erpenbeck, Paco Cárdenas
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial introns intermit coding regions of genes and feature characteristic secondary structures and splicing mechanisms. In metazoans, mitochondrial introns have only been detected in sponges, cnidarians, placozoans and one annelid species. Within demosponges, group I and group II introns are present in six families. Based on different insertion sites within the cox1 gene and secondary structures, four types of group I and two types of group II introns are known, which can harbor up to three encoding homing endonuclease genes (HEG) of the LAGLIDADG family (group I) and/or reverse transcriptase (group II)...
March 20, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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