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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091560/spatio-temporal-analysis-of-malaria-incidence-in-the-peruvian-amazon-region-between-2002-and-2013
#1
Veronica Soto-Calle, Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Emmanuel Abatih, Redgi DeDeken, Hugo Rodriguez, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Dionicia Gamboa, Umberto D Alessandro, Annette Erhart, Niko Speybroeck
Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Peruvian Amazon where the persistence of high-risk transmission areas (hotspots) challenges the current malaria control strategies. This study aimed at identifying significant space-time clusters of malaria incidence in Loreto region 2002-2013 and to determine significant changes across years in relation to the control measures applied. Poisson regression and purely temporal, spatial, and space-time analyses were conducted. Three significantly different periods in terms of annual incidence rates (AIR) were identified, overlapping respectively with the pre-, during, and post- implementation control activities supported by PAMAFRO project...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090075/virus-host-interactions-and-their-roles-in-coral-reef-health-and-disease
#2
Rebecca Vega Thurber, Jérôme P Payet, Andrew R Thurber, Adrienne M S Correa
Coral reefs occur in nutrient-poor shallow waters, constitute biodiversity and productivity hotspots, and are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance. This Review provides an introduction to coral reef virology and emphasizes the links between viruses, coral mortality and reef ecosystem decline. We describe the distinctive benthic-associated and water-column- associated viromes that are unique to coral reefs, which have received less attention than viruses in open-ocean systems. We hypothesize that viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes dynamically interact with their hosts in the water column and with scleractinian (stony) corals to influence microbial community dynamics, coral bleaching and disease, and reef biogeochemical cycling...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089534/in-situ-measurements-of-light-absorbing-impurities-in-snow-of-glacier-on-mt-yulong-and-implications-for-radiative-forcing-estimates
#3
Hewen Niu, Shichang Kang, Xiaofei Shi, Rukumesh Paudyal, Yuanqing He, Gang Li, Shijin Wang, Tao Pu, Xiaoyi Shi
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) or the third polar cryosphere borders geographical hotspots for discharges of black carbon (BC). BC and dust play important roles in climate system and Earth's energy budget, particularly after they are deposited on snow and glacial surfaces. BC and dust are two kinds of main light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) in snow and glaciers. Estimating concentrations and distribution of LAIs in snow and glacier ice in the TP is of great interest because this region is a global hotspot in geophysical research...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089447/networks-of-dynamic-allostery-regulate-enzyme-function
#4
Michael Joseph Holliday, Carlo Camilloni, Geoffrey Stuart Armstrong, Michele Vendruscolo, Elan Zohar Eisenmesser
Many protein systems rely on coupled dynamic networks to allosterically regulate function. However, the broad conformational space sampled by non-coherently dynamic systems has precluded detailed analysis of their communication mechanisms. Here, we have developed a methodology that combines the high sensitivity afforded by nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation techniques and single-site multiple mutations, termed RASSMM, to identify two allosterically coupled dynamic networks within the non-coherently dynamic enzyme cyclophilin A...
December 27, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089356/insertions-and-deletions-target-lineage-defining-genes-in-human-cancers
#5
Marcin Imielinski, Guangwu Guo, Matthew Meyerson
Certain cell types function as factories, secreting large quantities of one or more proteins that are central to the physiology of the respective organ. Examples include surfactant proteins in lung alveoli, albumin in liver parenchyma, and lipase in the stomach lining. Whole-genome sequencing analysis of lung adenocarcinomas revealed noncoding somatic mutational hotspots near VMP1/MIR21 and indel hotspots in surfactant protein genes (SFTPA1, SFTPB, and SFTPC). Extrapolation to other solid cancers demonstrated highly recurrent and tumor-type-specific indel hotspots targeting the noncoding regions of highly expressed genes defining certain secretory cellular lineages: albumin (ALB) in liver carcinoma, gastric lipase (LIPF) in stomach carcinoma, and thyroglobulin (TG) in thyroid carcinoma...
January 11, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088242/differences-in-spatial-distributions-of-iron-supplementation-use-among-pregnant-women-and-associated-factors-in-ethiopia-evidence-from-the-2011-national-population-based-survey
#6
Demewoz Haile, Lianna Tabar, Yihunie Lakew
BACKGROUND: Iron supplementation during pregnancy prevents against low birth weight, incidence of prematurity and postpartum hemorrhage. However, the coverage of iron supplementation is still low in Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate the spatial variations and associated factors of iron supplementation during pregnancy using the 2011 national demographic and health survey data. METHODS: This study used secondary data from the 2011 Ethiopian demographic and health survey...
January 14, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088083/specificity-and-stability-of-transient-protein-protein-interactions
#7
REVIEW
Sneha Vishwanath, Anshul Sukhwal, Ramanathan Sowdhamini, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan
Remarkable features that are achieved in a protein-protein complex to precise levels are stability and specificity. Deviation from the normal levels of specificity and stability, which is often caused by mutations, could result in disease conditions. Chemical nature, 3-D arrangement and dynamics of interface residues code for both specificity and stability. This article reviews roles of interfacial residues in transient protein-protein complexes. It is proposed that aside from hotspot residues conferring stability to the complex, a small set of 'rigid' residues at the interface that maintain conformation between complexed and uncomplexed forms, play a major role in conferring specificity...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087349/combination-of-multiple-ligation-dependent-probe-amplification-and-illumina-miseq-amplicon-sequencing-for-tsc1-tsc2-gene-analyses-in-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#8
Nur Farrah Dila Ismail, Abdul Qawee Rani, Nik Mohd Ariff Nik Abdul Malik, Chia Boon Hock, Siti Nabilahuda Mohd Azlan, Salmi Abdul Razak, Wee Teik Keng, Lock Hock Ngu, Abdul Rashid Silawati, Nor AzniYahya, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Teguh Haryo Sasongko, Zabidi Azhar Mohd Hussin
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder characterized by tumor growth in multiple organs and caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Because of their relatively large genomic sizes, absence of hotspots, and common type of mutations, mutation detection in TSC1 and TSC2 genes has been challenging. We devised a combination of multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and amplicon sequencing (AS) to simplify the detection strategy, yet we come up with reasonably high detection rate...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081131/-i-wasted-3-years-thinking-it-s-not-a-problem-patient-and-health-system-delays-in-diagnosis-of-leprosy-in-india-a-mixed-methods-study
#9
Thirumugam Muthuvel, Srinivas Govindarajulu, Petros Isaakidis, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Vasudev Rokade, Rajbir Singh, Sanjeev Kamble
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, leprosy is one of the major causes of preventable disability. India contributes to 60% of global leprosy burden. With increasing numbers of leprosy with grade 2 disability (visible disability) at diagnosis, we aimed to determine risk factors associated with grade 2 disability among new cases and explore patients and providers' perspectives into reasons for late presentation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was an explanatory mixed-methods study where the quantitative component, a matched case-control design, was followed by a qualitative component...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078112/molecular-spectrum-of-kras-nras-braf-pik3ca-tp53-and-apc-somatic-gene-mutations-in-arab-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-determination-of-frequency-and-distribution-pattern
#10
Humaid O Al-Shamsi, Jeremy Jones, Yazan Fahmawi, Ibrahim Dahbour, Aziz Tabash, Reham Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed O S Abousamra, Kenna R Shaw, Lianchun Xiao, Manal M Hassan, Benjamin R Kipp, Scott Kopetz, Amr S Soliman, Robert R McWilliams, Robert A Wolff
BACKGROUND: The frequency rates of mutations such as KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA in colorectal cancer (CRC) differ among populations. The aim of this study was to assess mutation frequencies in the Arab population and determine their correlations with certain clinicopathological features. METHODS: Arab patients from the Arab Gulf region and a population of age- and sex-matched Western patients with CRC whose tumors were evaluated with next-generation sequencing (NGS) were identified and retrospectively reviewed...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077633/surveillance-of-bat-coronaviruses-in-kenya-identifies-relatives-of-human-coronaviruses-nl63-and-229e-and-their-recombination-history
#11
Ying Tao, Mang Shi, Christina Chommanard, Krista Queen, Jing Zhang, Wanda Markotter, Ivan V Kuzmin, Edward C Holmes, Suxiang Tong
: Bats harbor a large diversity of coronaviruses (CoVs), several of which are related to zoonotic pathogens that cause severe disease in humans. Our screening of bat samples collected in Kenya during 2007-2010 not only detected RNA from several novel CoVs but, more significantly, identified sequences that were closely related to human CoVs NL63 and 229E, suggesting that these two human viruses originate from bats. We also demonstrated that human CoV NL63 is a recombinant between NL63-like viruses circulating in Triaenops bats and 229E-like viruses circulating in Hipposideros bats, with the break-point located near 5' and 3' end of the spike (S) protein gene...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076412/significant-local-scale-plant-insect-species-richness-relationship-independent-of-abiotic-effects-in-the-temperate-cape-floristic-region-biodiversity-hotspot
#12
Jurene E Kemp, Allan G Ellis
Globally plant species richness is a significant predictor of insect richness. Whether this is the result of insect diversity responding directly to plant diversity, or both groups responding in similar ways to extrinsic factors, has been much debated. Here we assess this relationship in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), a biodiversity hotspot. The CFR has higher plant diversity than expected from latitude (i.e., abiotic conditions), but very little is known about the diversity of insects residing in this region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075479/different-contributions-of-local-and-distant-regulatory-changes-to-transcriptome-divergence-between-stickleback-ecotypes
#13
Asano Ishikawa, Makoto Kusakabe, Kohta Yoshida, Mark Ravinet, Takashi Makino, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Jun Kitano
Differential gene expression can play an important role in phenotypic evolution and divergent adaptation. Although differential gene expression can be caused by both local- and distant-regulatory changes, we know little about their relative contribution to transcriptome evolution in natural populations. Here, we conducted expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis to investigate the genetic architecture underlying transcriptome divergence between marine and stream ecotypes of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)...
January 11, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075357/correlations-between-endomyocardial-biopsies-and-cardiac-manifestations-in-taiwanese-patients-with-the-chinese-hotspot-ivs4-919g-a-mutation-data-from-the-fabry-outcome-survey
#14
Ting-Rong Hsu, Fu-Pang Chang, Tzu-Hung Chu, Shih-Hsien Sung, Svetlana Bizjajeva, Wen-Chung Yu, Dau-Ming Niu
We retrospectively evaluated correlations between cardiac manifestations and globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) accumulation in cardiomyocytes from Taiwanese patients with Fabry disease and the IVS4+919G>A (IVS4) mutation who underwent endomyocardial biopsy (Shire; Fabry Outcome Survey data; extracted January 2015). Of 24 males and six females (median age [Q1; Q3] at biopsy 60.4 [57.4; 64.1] and 61.3 [60.4; 65.1] years, respectively), 13 males (54.2%) and five females (83.3%) received agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) before biopsy...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074614/mutation-analysis-and-gene-expression-profiling-of-ocular-melanomas-in-cats
#15
J G Rushton, R Ertl, D Klein, B Nell
Feline ocular melanomas show a high malignant behaviour, but adjunctive therapies are non-existent. The aim of this pilot study was to determine, whether feline ocular melanomas harbour mutations comparable to mutations in human melanomas and to evaluate the gene expression status of genes known to be involved in initiation and progression of human melanomas. Mutation hotspot regions of several genes of feline ocular melanomas were analysed by DNA sequencing and RNA expression levels of the respective genes and others were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074500/level-of-environmental-threat-posed-by-horticultural-trade-in-cactaceae
#16
Ana Novoa, Johannes J Le Roux, David M Richardson, John R U Wilson
Ornamental horticulture has been identified as an important threat to plant biodiversity and the major pathway for plant invasions worldwide. In this context, the family Cactaceae is particularly interesting and challenging for three main reasons-it is considered the fifth most threatened major taxonomic group in the world; several cactus species are amongst the most widespread and damaging invasive species; and Cactaceae is one of the most popular horticultural plant groups. Based on CITES trade data and the eleven main auction sites selling cacti on the internet we document a substantial global trade from and to almost all continents...
January 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073771/out-of-borneo-biogeography-phylogeny-and-divergence-date-estimates-of-artocarpus-moraceae
#17
Evelyn W Williams, Elliot M Gardner, Robert Harris, Arunrat Chaveerach, Joan T Pereira, Nyree J C Zerega
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The breadfruit genus (Artocarpus, Moraceae) includes valuable underutilized fruit tree crops with a centre of diversity in Southeast Asia. It belongs to the monophyletic tribe Artocarpeae, whose only other members include two small neotropical genera. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogeny, estimate divergence dates and infer ancestral ranges of Artocarpeae, especially Artocarpus, to better understand spatial and temporal evolutionary relationships and dispersal patterns in a geologically complex region...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073420/-report-of-the-eighth-symposium-on-the-hotspots-and-challenges-in-research-of-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-chronic-hepatitis-c
#18
H M Zhu, S Jin, Y H Sun, Z Peng, D Z Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073402/deep-sequencing-analysis-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-from-questing-ticks-at-natural-foci-reveals-similarities-between-quasispecies-pools-of-the-virus
#19
Naveed Asghar, John H-O Pettersson, Patrik Dinnetz, Åshild Andreassen, Magnus Johansson
Every year, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe central nervous system infection in 10,000 to 15,000 people in Europe and Asia. TBEV is maintained in the environment by an enzootic cycle that requires a tick vector and a vertebrate host, and the adaptation of TBEV to vertebrate and invertebrate environments is essential for TBEV persistence in nature. This adaptation is facilitated by the error-prone nature of the virus' RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that generates genetically distinct virus variants called quasispecies...
January 10, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072954/-clinical-and-immunological-analysis-of-patients-with-activated-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-%C3%AE-syndrome-resulting-from-pik3cd-mutation
#20
W J Tang, W Wang, Y Luo, Y P Wang, L Li, Y F An, L J Gou, M S Ma, T Y He, J Yang, X D Zhao, H M Song
Objective: To explore the clinical and immunological features, gene mutations, treatment and prognosis in patients with activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS) caused by PIK3CD gene heterozygous germline mutation. Method: The data of clinical, immunological phenotype, treatment, and prognosis of 15 patients with APDS, who visited Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, and Shenzhen Children's Hospital from June 2014 to November 2016, were collected and analyzed...
January 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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