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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655629/intramuscular-vaccination-of-guinea-pigs-with-the-live-attenuated-human-herpes-simplex-vaccine-vc2-stimulates-a-transcriptional-profile-of-vaginal-th17-and-regulatory-tr1-responses
#1
Brent A Stanfield, Paul J F Rider, John Caskey, Fabio Del Piero, Konstantin G Kousoulas
Herpes simplex virus is a common causative agent of oral and genital diseases. Novel vaccines and therapeutics are needed to combat herpes infections especially after the failure of subunit vaccines in human clinical trials. We have shown that the live-attenuated HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain is unable to establish latency in vaccinated animals and produces a robust immune response capable of completely protecting mice against lethal vaginal HSV-1 or HSV-2 infections. The guinea pig represents the best small animal model of genital HSV-2 disease...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625086/tr1-responses-are-elevated-in-asymptomatic-h-pylori-infected-individuals-and-are-functionally-impaired-in-h-pylori-gastric-cancer-patients
#2
Zongchang Song, Tongxia Zhang, Guang Li, Ying Tang, Yan Luo, Genhua Yu
Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. Chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection can induce an inflammatory response that promotes atrophic gastritis, a preceding event to cancer development. The type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells have recently emerged as a critical participant in maintaining self-tolerance. In this study, we examined Tr1 cells in H. pylori infection and gastric cancer development. While H. pylori-uninfected (uninfected) subjects presented low Tr1 frequency in the peripheral blood, H...
April 3, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558300/thyroid-imaging-reporting-and-data-system-ti-rads-a-user-s-guide
#3
Franklin N Tessler, William D Middleton, Edward G Grant
In 2017, the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) Committee of the American College of Radiology (ACR) published a white paper that presented a new risk-stratification system for classifying thyroid nodules on the basis of their appearance at ultrasonography (US). In ACR TI-RADS, points in five feature categories are summed to determine a risk level from TR1 to TR5. Recommendations for biopsy or US follow-up are based on the nodule's ACR TI-RADS level and its maximum diameter. The purpose of this article is to offer practical guidance on how to implement and apply ACR TI-RADS based on the authors' experience with the system...
April 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554285/effects-of-various-radiation-doses-on-induced-t-helper-cell-differentiation-and-related-cytokine-secretion
#4
Hui Gao, Zhuo Dong, Xinkou Gong, Juancong Dong, Yuyu Zhang, Wei Wei, Rui Wang, Shunzi Jin
Exposure to ionizing radiation often induces T helper (Th) cell differentiation, resulting in an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cellular subtypes, which can affect the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyze differential expression of Th1, Th2 and Th3/Type 1 regulatory T cell (Tr1) subtype-related genes and cytokines in mouse thymocytes after high- and low-dose systemic radiation, using functional classification gene arrays and Elisa assays, and to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation's immune effects and their relationship with Th1/Th2 immunity...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541991/rapid-reconstitution-of-nk1-cells-after-allogeneic-transplantation-is-associated-with-a-reduced-incidence-of-graft-versus-host-disease
#5
Xingxing Yu, Lingling Xu, Yingjun Chang, Xiaojun Huang, Xiangyu Zhao
The balance between immunostimulation and immunoregulation in T cell immunity is achieved by maintaining specific ratios of Th1, Th2, Th3 and Tr1 cells. Here, we investigate levels of type 1 (IFN-gamma; NK1), type 2 (IL-13; NK2), type 3 (TGF-beta; NK3) and regulatory (IL-10; NKr) cytokines in peripheral blood to assess the cytokine profiles of natural killer (NK) cells following human allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). NK2 and NK3 cell expansion was observed after allo-HSCT; levels of NKr cells reached donor levels at day 15, though levels of NK1 cells were consistently lower than donor levels until day 60 after allo-HSCT...
March 9, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535721/early-growth-response-gene-2-expressing-cd4-lag3-regulatory-t-cells-the-therapeutic-potential-for-treating-autoimmune-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Tomohisa Okamura, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Keishi Fujio
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are necessary for the maintenance of immune tolerance. Tregs are divided into two major populations: one is thymus derived and the other develops in the periphery. Among these Tregs, CD4+ CD25+ Tregs, which mainly originate in the thymus, have been extensively studied. Transcription factor Foxp3 is well known as a master regulatory gene for the development and function of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs. On the other hand, peripheral Tregs consist of distinct cell subsets including Foxp3-dependent extrathymically developed Tregs and interleukin (IL)-10-producing type I regulatory T (Tr1) cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497421/engineered-t-regulatory-type-1-cells-for-clinical-application
#7
REVIEW
Silvia Gregori, Maria Grazia Roncarolo
T regulatory cells, a specialized subset of T cells, are key players in modulating antigen (Ag)-specific immune responses in vivo . Inducible T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells are characterized by the co-expression of CD49b and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3) and the ability to secrete IL-10, TGF-β, and granzyme (Gz) B, in the absence of IL-4 and IL-17. The chief mechanisms by which Tr1 cells control immune responses are secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β and killing of myeloid cells via GzB. Tr1 cells, first described in peripheral blood of patients who developed tolerance after HLA-mismatched fetal liver hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, have been proven to modulate inflammatory and effector T cell responses in several immune-mediated diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494957/polysaccharide-isolated-from-aloe-vera-gel-suppresses-ovalbumin-induced-food-allergy-through-inhibition-of-th2-immunity-in-mice
#8
Dajeong Lee, Hyuk Soon Kim, Eunju Shin, Seon-Gil Do, Chong-Kil Lee, Young Mi Kim, Min Bum Lee, Keun Young Min, Jimo Koo, Su Jeong Kim, Seung Taek Nam, Hyun Woo Kim, Young Hwan Park, Wahn Soo Choi
An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system overreacts to harmless substance called allergen that gains access to the body. Food allergy is a hypersensitive immune reaction to food proteins and the number of patients with food allergy has recently increased. Aloe Vera is used for wellness and medicinal purposes. In particular, Aloe vera has been reported to enhance immunity. However, the effect of Aloe vera on food allergy is not yet known. In this study, we investigated the effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) containing low molecular weight Aloe polysaccharide (AP) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy in mice...
May 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494848/bacterially-activated-b-cells-drive-t-cell-differentiation-towards-tr1-through-pd-1-pd-l1-expression
#9
Sawsan Sudqi Said, Guliz Tuba Barut, Nesteren Mansur, Asli Korkmaz, Ayca Sayi-Yazgan
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) play a crucial role in immunological tolerance primarily through the production of IL-10 in many diseases including autoimmune disorders, allergy, infectious diseases, and cancer. To date, various Breg subsets with overlapping phenotypes have been identified. However, the roles of Bregs in Helicobacter infection are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigate the phenotype and function of Helicobacter -stimulated B cells. Our results demonstrate that Helicobacter felis -stimulated IL-10- producing B cells (Hfstim - IL-10+ B) are composed of B10 and Transitional 2 Marginal Zone Precursor (T2-MZP) cells with expression of CD9, Tim-1, and programmed death 1 (PD-1)...
April 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484182/regulatory-t-cells-in-renal-disease
#10
REVIEW
Maliha A Alikhan, Megan Huynh, A Richard Kitching, Joshua D Ooi
The kidney is vulnerable to injury, both acute and chronic from a variety of immune and metabolic insults, all of which at least to some degree involve inflammation. Regulatory T cells modulate systemic autoimmune and allogenic responses in glomerulonephritis and transplantation. Intrarenal regulatory T cells (Tregs), including those recruited to the kidney, have suppressive effects on both adaptive and innate immune cells, and probably also intrinsic kidney cells. Evidence from autoimmune glomerulonephritis implicates antigen-specific Tregs in HLA-mediated dominant protection, while in several human renal diseases Tregs are abnormal in number or phenotype...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414375/biological-responses-of-two-marine-organisms-of-ecological-relevance-to-on-going-ocean-acidification-and-global-warming
#11
A Gomiero, R G J Bellerby, M Manca Zeichen, L Babbini, A Viarengo
Recently, there has been a growing concern that climate change may rapidly and extensively alter global ecosystems with unknown consequences for terrestrial and aquatic life. While considerable emphasis has been placed on terrestrial ecology consequences, aquatic environments have received relatively little attention. Limited knowledge is available on the biological effects of increments of seawater temperature and pH decrements on key ecological species, i.e., primary producers and/or organisms representative of the basis of the trophic web...
February 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402664/osteopontin-may-be-a-driver-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-formation
#12
S Keisin Wang, Linden A Green, Ashley R Gutwein, Alok K Gupta, Clifford M Babbey, Raghu L Motaganahalli, Andres Fajardo, Michael P Murphy
OBJECTIVE: Previous in vitro and animal studies have suggested that osteopontin (OPN), an inflammatory extracellular matrix protein, is involved in the formation and growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, the mechanism by which this occurs continues to be nebulous. The relationship between OPN and inflammation-suppressing lymphocytes present in the human AAA condition was investigated and presented herein. METHODS: Serum OPN concentrations were measured in healthy, risk factor-matched non-AAA and AAA patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369775/intestinal-ifn-%C3%AE-producing-type-1-regulatory-t-cells-coexpress-ccr5-and-programmed-cell-death-protein-1-and-downregulate-il-10-in-the-inflamed-guts-of-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
Johanna Sophie Alfen, Paola Larghi, Federica Facciotti, Nicola Gagliani, Roberto Bosotti, Moira Paroni, Stefano Maglie, Paola Gruarin, Chiara Maria Vasco, Valeria Ranzani, Cristina Frusteri, Andrea Iseppon, Monica Moro, Maria Cristina Crosti, Stefano Gatti, Massimiliano Pagani, Flavio Caprioli, Sergio Abrignani, Richard A Flavell, Jens Geginat
BACKGROUND: IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine required for intestinal immune homeostasis. It mediates suppression of T-cell responses by type 1 regulatory T (TR 1) cells but is also produced by CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify and characterize human intestinal TR 1 cells and to investigate whether they are a relevant cellular source of IL-10 in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). METHODS: CD4+ T cells isolated from the intestinal lamina propria of human subjects and mice were analyzed for phenotype, cytokine production, and suppressive capacities...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324739/mansonella-perstans-microfilaremic-individuals-are-characterized-by-enhanced-type-2-helper-t-and-regulatory-t-and-b-cell-subsets-and-dampened-systemic-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#14
Manuel Ritter, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Nora Nganyewo Nghochuzie, Lucy Cho Nchang, Dizzle Bita Tayong, Kathrin Arndts, Norman Nausch, Marc Jacobsen, Samuel Wanji, Laura E Layland, Achim Hoerauf
The filarial nematode Mansonella perstans is endemic throughout Africa, northern South America and the Caribbean. Interestingly, M. perstans-infected individuals present no distinct clinical picture associated with certain pathology. Due to its relatively silent nature, research on this tropical disease has been neglected, especially M. perstans-driven immune responses. A hindrance in obtaining data on M. perstans-specific responses has been the inability to obtain adult worms since their habitats in serous cavities are difficult to access...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275836/a-cellular-and-molecular-view-of-t-helper-17-cell-plasticity-in-autoimmunity
#15
REVIEW
Ralph Stadhouders, Erik Lubberts, Rudi W Hendriks
Since the original identification of the T helper 17 (Th17) subset in 2005, it has become evident that these cells do not only contribute to host defence against pathogens, such as bacteria and fungi, but that they are also critically involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. In contrast to the classic Th1 and Th2 cells, which represent rather stably polarized subsets, Th17 cells display remarkable heterogeneity and plasticity. This has been attributed to the characteristics of the key transcription factor that guides Th17 differentiation, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma (RORγ)...
February 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274372/single-grading-vs-double-grading-with-adjudication-in-the-telemedicine-approaches-to-evaluating-acute-phase-retinopathy-of-prematurity-e-rop-study
#16
Ebenezer Daniel, Wei Pan, Graham E Quinn, Eli Smith, Agnieshka Baumritter, Gui-Shuang Ying
PURPOSE: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of single, independent, nonphysician trained reader (TR) gradings in the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) study. METHODS: Secondary analyses of image grading results from 1,235 infants of birth weights <1251 g. Two of three TRs independently graded image sets; discrepancies were adjudicated by the reading center director (an ophthalmologist) to reach final grading...
February 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180490/identity-and-diversity-of-human-peripheral-th-and-t-regulatory-cells-defined-by-single-cell-mass-cytometry
#17
Matthew A Kunicki, Laura C Amaya Hernandez, Kara L Davis, Rosa Bacchetta, Maria-Grazia Roncarolo
Human CD3+ CD4+ Th cells, FOXP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells, and T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells are essential for ensuring peripheral immune response and tolerance, but the diversity of Th, Treg, and Tr1 cell subsets has not been fully characterized. Independent functional characterization of human Th1, Th2, Th17, T follicular helper (Tfh), Treg, and Tr1 cells has helped to define unique surface molecules, transcription factors, and signaling profiles for each subset. However, the adequacy of these markers to recapitulate the whole CD3+ CD4+ T cell compartment remains questionable...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163504/butyrate-conditions-human-dendritic-cells-to-prime-type-1-regulatory-t-cells-via-both-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-and-g-protein-coupled-receptor-109a-signaling
#18
Maria M M Kaisar, Leonard R Pelgrom, Alwin J van der Ham, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Bart Everts
Recently, it has become clear that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and in particular butyrate, have anti-inflammatory properties. Murine studies have shown that butyrate can promote regulatory T cells via the induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs). However, the effects of SCFAs on human DCs and how they affect their capacity to prime and polarize T-cell responses have not been addressed. Here, we report that butyrate suppresses LPS-induced maturation and metabolic reprogramming of human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) and conditions them to polarize naive CD4+ T cells toward IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163480/differentiation-of-il-17-producing-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-requires-expression-of-the-transcription-factor-c-maf
#19
Jhang-Sian Yu, Michito Hamada, Shigeo Ohtsuka, Keigyou Yoh, Satoru Takahashi, Shi-Chuen Miaw
c-Maf belongs to the large Maf family of transcription factors and plays a key role in the regulation of cytokine production and differentiation of TH 2, TH 17, TFH , and Tr1 cells. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells can rapidly produce large quantity of TH -related cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A upon stimulation by glycolipid antigens, such as α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). However, the role of c-Maf in iNKT cells and iNKT cells-mediated diseases remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that α-GalCer-stimulated iNKT cells express c-Maf transcript and protein...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158953/retention-of-movement-technique-implications-for-primary-prevention-of-acl-injuries
#20
Wouter Welling, Anne Benjaminse, Alli Gokeler, Bert Otten
Background: Retention of movement technique is crucial in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs. It is unknown if specific instructions or video instructions result in changes in kinematic and kinetic measures during a relatively short training session, and in a retention test one week later. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to determine the effects of verbal external focus (EF), verbal internal focus (IF) and video instructions (VI) on landing technique (i...
November 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
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