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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265263/genome-sequence-of-desulfurella-amilsii-strain-tr1-and-comparative-genomics-of-desulfurellaceae-family
#1
Anna P Florentino, Alfons J M Stams, Irene Sánchez-Andrea
The acidotolerant sulfur reducer Desulfurella amilsii was isolated from sediments of Tinto River, an extremely acidic environment. Its ability to grow in a broad range of pH and to tolerate certain heavy metals offers potential for metal recovery processes. Here we report its high-quality draft genome sequence and compare it to the available genome sequences of other members of Desulfurellaceae family: D. acetivorans. D. multipotens, Hippea maritima. H. alviniae, H. medeae, and H. jasoniae. For most species, pairwise comparisons for average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) revealed ANI values from 67...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251482/analysis-of-the-interactions-between-thioredoxin-and-20-selenoproteins-in-chicken
#2
Qi Liu, Jie Yang, Jingzeng Cai, Yilin Luan, Hamid Sattar, Man Liu, Shiwen Xu, Ziwei Zhang
Thioredoxin (Trx) is a small molecular protein with complicated functions in a number of processes, including inflammation, apoptosis, embryogenesis, cardiovascular disease, and redox regulation. Some selenoproteins, such as glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio), and thioredoxin reductase (TR), are involved in redox regulation. However, whether there are interactions between Trx and selenoproteins is still not known. In the present paper, we used a Modeller, Hex 8.0.0, and the KFC2 Server to predict the interactions between Trx and selenoproteins...
March 2, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222739/generation-of-donor-specific-tr1-cells-to-be-used-after-kidney-transplantation-and-definition-of-the-timing-of-their-in-vivo-infusion-in-the-presence-of-immunosuppression
#3
Bechara Mfarrej, Eleonora Tresoldi, Angela Stabilini, Alessia Paganelli, Rossana Caldara, Antonio Secchi, Manuela Battaglia
BACKGROUND: Operational tolerance is an alternative to lifelong immunosuppression after transplantation. One strategy to achieve tolerance is by T regulatory cells. Safety and feasibility of a T regulatory type 1 (Tr1)-cell-based therapy to prevent graft versus host disease in patients with hematological malignancies has been already proven. We are now planning to perform a Tr1-cell-based therapy after kidney transplantation. METHODS: Upon tailoring the lab-grade protocol to patients on dialysis, aims of the current work were to develop a clinical-grade compatible protocol to generate a donor-specific Tr1-cell-enriched medicinal product (named T10 cells) and to test the Tr1-cell sensitivity to standard immunosuppression in vivo to define the best timing of cell infusion...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166218/critical-role-of-irf1-and-batf-in-forming-chromatin-landscape-during-type-1-regulatory-cell-differentiation
#4
Katarzyna Karwacz, Emily R Miraldi, Maria Pokrovskii, Asaf Madi, Nir Yosef, Ivo Wortman, Xi Chen, Aaron Watters, Nicholas Carriero, Amit Awasthi, Aviv Regev, Richard Bonneau, Dan Littman, Vijay K Kuchroo
Type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1 cells) are induced by interleukin-27 (IL-27) and have critical roles in the control of autoimmunity and resolution of inflammation. We found that the transcription factors IRF1 and BATF were induced early on after treatment with IL-27 and were required for the differentiation and function of Tr1 cells in vitro and in vivo. Epigenetic and transcriptional analyses revealed that both transcription factors influenced chromatin accessibility and expression of the genes required for Tr1 cell function...
April 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158245/protein-kinase-c-theta-is-required-for-efficient-induction-of-il-10-secreting-t-cells
#5
Graham J Britton, Ruth E Mitchell, Bronwen R Burton, David C Wraith
Secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) by CD4+ T cells is an essential immunoregulatory mechanism. The work presented here assesses the role of the signaling molecule protein kinase C theta (PKCθ) in the induction of IL-10 expression in CD4+ T cells. Using wildtype and PKCθ-deficient Tg4 T cell receptor transgenic mice, we implemented a well-described protocol of repeated doses of myelin basic protein (MBP)Ac1-9[4Y] antigen to induce Tr1-like IL-10+ T cells. We find that PKCθ is required for the efficient induction of IL-10 following antigen administration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130449/il-27-alleviates-bone-loss-in-estrogen-deficient-conditions-by-induction-of-early-growth-response-2-gene
#6
Priyanka Shukla, Mohd Nizam Mansoori, Manisha Kakaji, Manoj Shukla, Sushil Kumar Gupta, Divya Singh
Growing understanding of the bone remodeling process suggests that inflammation significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. T cells and various cytokines contribute majorly to the estrogen deficiency induced bone loss. Recent studies have identified IL-12 cytokine family comprising of pro-inflammatory IL-12 and IL-23 and the anti-inflammatory IL-27 and IL-35 cytokines. IL-27 exerts protective effects in autoimmune diseases like experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis however; its role in pathogenesis of osteoporosis remains to be determined...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130148/broad-spectrum-antibiotic-enrofloxacin-modulates-contact-sensitivity-through-gut-microbiota-in-a-murine-model
#7
Anna Strzępa, Monika Majewska-Szczepanik, Francis M Lobo, Li Wen, Marian Szczepanik
BACKGROUND: Medical advances in the field of infection therapy has led to an increasing use of antibiotics, which, apart from eliminating pathogens, also partially eliminate naturally existing commensal bacteria. It has become increasingly clear that less exposure to microbiota early in life may contribute to the observed rise in "immune-mediated" diseases including autoimmunity and allergy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to test whether the change of gut microbiota with the broad spectrum antibiotic enrofloxacin will modulate contact sensitivity (CS) in mice...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094200/type-i-interferon-in-malaria-a-balancing-act
#8
Jason Paul Mooney, Samuel Crocodile Wassmer, Julius Clemence Hafalla
Type I interferons (IFN-Is) can now be considered as the wedge that balances clinical protection to malaria. New studies recently highlighted a central role for IFN-Is in orchestrating an immunoregulatory network leading to the dampening of proinflammatory responses, expansion of type 1 regulatory (Tr1) cells, and restriction of humoral immunity during malaria blood stage infection. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) were identified as the major source of IFN-Is. Here, we integrate the findings and provide a model for the mechanisms involved...
January 13, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062696/prostaglandin-e2-inhibition-of-il-27-production-in-murine-dendritic-cells-a-novel-mechanism-that-involves-irf1
#9
Kirsten M Hooper, Jui-Hung Yen, Weimin Kong, Kate M Rahbari, Ping-Chang Kuo, Ana M Gamero, Doina Ganea
IL-27, a multifunctional cytokine produced by APCs, antagonizes inflammation by affecting conventional dendritic cells (cDC), inducing IL-10, and promoting development of regulatory Tr1 cells. Although the mechanisms involved in IL-27 induction are well studied, much less is known about the factors that negatively impact IL-27 expression. PGE2, a major immunomodulatory prostanoid, acts as a proinflammatory agent in several models of inflammatory/autoimmune disease, promoting primarily Th17 development and function...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003377/il-10-receptor-signaling-is-essential-for-tr1-cell-function-in-vivo
#10
Leonie Brockmann, Nicola Gagliani, Babett Steglich, Anastasios D Giannou, Jan Kempski, Penelope Pelczar, Maria Geffken, Bechara Mfarrej, Francis Huber, Johannes Herkel, Yisong Y Wan, Enric Esplugues, Manuela Battaglia, Christian F Krebs, Richard A Flavell, Samuel Huber
IL-10 is essential to maintain intestinal homeostasis. CD4(+) T regulatory type 1 (TR1) cells produce large amounts of this cytokine and are therefore currently being examined in clinical trials as T cell therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. However, factors and molecular signals sustaining TR1 cell regulatory activity still need to be identified to optimize the efficiency and ensure the safety of these trials. We investigated the role of IL-10 signaling in mature TR1 cells in vivo. Double IL-10(eGFP) Foxp3(mRFP) reporter mice and transgenic mice with impairment in IL-10 receptor signaling were used to test the activity of TR1 cells in a murine inflammatory bowel disease model, a model that resembles the trials performed in humans...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977935/emergence-of-novel-pathogenic-streptomyces-species-by-site-specific-accretion-and-cis-mobilization-of-pathogenicity-islands
#11
Yucheng Zhang, Rosemary Loria
The main pathogenicity factor of Streptomyces species associated with the potato common scab disease is a nitrated diketopiperazine called thaxtomin A (ThxA). In Streptomyces scabiei (syn. S. scabies), which is thought to be the most ancient pathogenic Streptomyces species, the ThxA biosynthetic cluster is located within a mobile genomic island called the toxicogenic region (TR). Three attachment (att) sites further separate TR into two subregions (TR1 and TR2). TR1 contains the ThxA biosynthetic cluster and is conserved among several pathogenic Streptomyces species...
January 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974866/cd4-t-cell-fate-in-glomerulonephritis-a-tale-of-th1-th17-and-novel-treg-subtypes
#12
REVIEW
Christan F Krebs, Oliver M Steinmetz
Multiple studies have identified CD4(+) T cells as central players of glomerulonephritis (GN). Cells of the Th1 and Th17 responses cause renal tissue damage, while Tregs mediate protection. Recently, a high degree of plasticity among these T cell lineages was proposed. During inflammation, Th17 cells were shown to have the potential of transdifferentiation into Th1, Th2, or alternatively anti-inflammatory Tr1 cells. Currently available data from studies in GN, however, do not indicate relevant Th17 to Th1 or Th2 conversion, leaving the Th17 cell fate enigmatic...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957666/decreased-expression-of-selenoproteins-as-a-poor-prognosticator-of-gastric-cancer-in-humans
#13
Xiuwen Lan, Jun Xing, Hongyu Gao, Sen Li, Lina Quan, Yang Jiang, Shaohua Ding, Yingwei Xue
The aim of the present study was to analyze the selenoprotein expression levels in gastric cancer patients. We enrolled 40 patients (29 males, 11 females) who were recently diagnosed with gastric cancer and 50 healthy people (30 males, 20 females) as controls. The expression of 25 selenoprotein genes (Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, Gpx1, Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4, Gpx6, SelH, SelI, SelK, SelM, SelN, SelO, SelP, SelS, SelT, SelV, SelW, SelX, Sel15, Sps2, TR1, TR2, and TR3) in human gastric cancer tissues, para-carcinoma tissues, adjacent normal gastric tissues, erythrocytes, and lymphocytes in the gastric cancer group and healthy control group was analyzed by qRT-PCR...
December 13, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936058/modeling-the-role-of-lanthionine-synthetase-c-like-2-lancl2-in-the-modulation-of-immune-responses-to-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#14
Andrew Leber, Josep Bassaganya-Riera, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Monica Viladomiu, Vida Abedi, Pinyi Lu, Raquel Hontecillas
Immune responses to Helicobacter pylori are orchestrated through complex balances of host-bacterial interactions, including inflammatory and regulatory immune responses across scales that can lead to the development of the gastric disease or the promotion of beneficial systemic effects. While inflammation in response to the bacterium has been reasonably characterized, the regulatory pathways that contribute to preventing inflammatory events during H. pylori infection are incompletely understood. To aid in this effort, we have generated a computational model incorporating recent developments in the understanding of H...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864477/is-visceral-flow-during-intra-aortic-balloon-pumping-size-or-volume-dependent
#15
Sandro Gelsomino, Pieter W J Lozekoot, Monique M J de Jong, Fabiana Lucà, Orlando Parise, Francesco Matteucci, Mario Romano, Abdullrazak Hossien, Mark La Meir, Niccolò Marchionni, Jos G Maessen, Roberto Lorusso
AIM: We evaluated the influence of intra-aortic balloon size and volume on mesenteric and renal flows. METHODS: Thirty healthy swine underwent 120-minute ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 6 hours of reperfusion. Then, they were randomly assigned to the following five groups of animals, with six animals in each group: no intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), a short 35-mL IABP, a short 40-mL IABP, a long 35-mL IABP and a long 40-mL IABP...
November 1, 2016: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821578/regulatory-b-cells-induce-formation-of-il-10-expressing-t-cells-in-mice-with-autoimmune-neuroinflammation
#16
Andrea Pennati, Spencer Ng, Yuanqiang Wu, Jordan R Murphy, Jiusheng Deng, Srikant Rangaraju, Seneshaw Asress, Jennifer L Blanchfield, Brian Evavold, Jacques Galipeau
Although B cells are traditionally known for their role in propagating proinflammatory immune responses, their immunosuppressive effects have only recently begun to be appreciated. How these regulatory B cells (Bregs) suppress the immune response remains to be worked out in detail. In this article, we show that Bregs can induce the formation of conventional FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), as well as a more recently described CD49b(+)CD223(+) regulatory T-cell subset, known as type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1s)...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787789/basic-aspects-of-t-helper-cell-differentiation
#17
Nicola Gagliani, Samuel Huber
CD4+ T helper cells orchestrate the immune response and play a pivotal role during infection, chronic inflammatory, autoimmune diseases, and carcinogenesis. CD4+ T helper cells can be subdivided into different subsets, which are characterized by a specific network of transcriptional regulators and unique cytokine profiles: Th17 cells express RORγt that in turn promotes the transcription of Il17a, Il17f; Th1 cells, expresses T-bet and produces IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α; Th2 cells express GATA-3 and secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734414/regulation-and-immune-function-of-il-27
#18
Qinghong Wang, Jianguo Liu
IL-27 is a pleiotropic cytokine that has diverse immune regulatory activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. IL-27 enhances the functions of Th1 and CD8(+) T cells, promotes the development of Tfh and Tr1, and suppresses the functions of Th2, Treg, Th9, and Th17 cells. IL-27 is also involved in regulation of immune responses of B cells, NK, DCs, and macrophages. IL-27 production is strictly regulated at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Given its broad effects on immune regulation, IL-27 has been implicated in the pathogeneses of autoimmune and infectious diseases as well as cancers...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708643/differential-regulation-of-self-reactive-cd4-t-cells-in-cervical-lymph-nodes-and-central-nervous-system-during-viral-encephalomyelitis
#19
Carine Savarin, Cornelia C Bergmann, David R Hinton, Stephen A Stohlman
Viral infections have long been implicated as triggers of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disorder. Epitope spreading, molecular mimicry, cryptic antigen, and bystander activation have been implicated as mechanisms responsible for activating self-reactive (SR) immune cells, ultimately leading to organ-specific autoimmune disease. Taking advantage of coronavirus JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV)-induced demyelination, this study demonstrates that the host also mounts counteractive measures to specifically limit expansion of endogenous SR T cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705789/type-i-interferons-regulate-immune-responses-in-humans-with-blood-stage-plasmodium-falciparum-infection
#20
Marcela Montes de Oca, Rajiv Kumar, Fabian de Labastida Rivera, Fiona H Amante, Meru Sheel, Rebecca J Faleiro, Patrick T Bunn, Shannon E Best, Lynette Beattie, Susanna S Ng, Chelsea L Edwards, Glen M Boyle, Ric N Price, Nicholas M Anstey, Jessica R Loughland, Julie Burel, Denise L Doolan, Ashraful Haque, James S McCarthy, Christian R Engwerda
The development of immunoregulatory networks is important to prevent disease. However, these same networks allow pathogens to persist and reduce vaccine efficacy. Here, we identify type I interferons (IFNs) as important regulators in developing anti-parasitic immunity in healthy volunteers infected for the first time with Plasmodium falciparum. Type I IFNs suppressed innate immune cell function and parasitic-specific CD4(+) T cell IFNγ production, and they promoted the development of parasitic-specific IL-10-producing Th1 (Tr1) cells...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
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