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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414375/biological-responses-of-two-marine-organisms-of-ecological-relevance-to-on-going-ocean-acidification-and-global-warming
#1
A Gomiero, R G J Bellerby, M Manca Zeichen, L Babbini, A Viarengo
Recently, there has been a growing concern that climate change may rapidly and extensively alter global ecosystems with unknown consequences for terrestrial and aquatic life. While considerable emphasis has been placed on terrestrial ecology consequences, aquatic environments have received relatively little attention. Limited knowledge is available on the biological effects of increments of seawater temperature and pH decrements on key ecological species, i.e., primary producers and/or organisms representative of the basis of the trophic web...
February 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402664/osteopontin-may-be-a-driver-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-formation
#2
S Keisin Wang, Linden A Green, Ashley R Gutwein, Alok K Gupta, Clifford M Babbey, Raghu L Motaganahalli, Andres Fajardo, Michael P Murphy
OBJECTIVE: Previous in vitro and animal studies have suggested that osteopontin (OPN), an inflammatory extracellular matrix protein, is involved in the formation and growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, the mechanism by which this occurs continues to be nebulous. The relationship between OPN and inflammation-suppressing lymphocytes present in the human AAA condition was investigated and presented herein. METHODS: Serum OPN concentrations were measured in healthy, risk factor-matched non-AAA and AAA patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369775/intestinal-ifn-%C3%AE-producing-tr1-cells-co-express-ccr5-and-pd-1-and-down-regulate-il-10-in-the-inflamed-gut-of-ibd-patients
#3
Johanna Sophie Alfen, Paola Larghi, Federica Facciotti, Nicola Gagliani, Roberto Bosotti, Moira Paroni, Stefano Maglie, Paola Gruarin, Chiara Maria Vasco, Valeria Ranzani, Cristina Frusteri, Andrea Iseppon, Monica Moro, Maria Cristina Crosti, Stefano Gatti, Massimiliano Pagani, Flavio Caprioli, Sergio Abrignani, Richard A Flavell, Jens Geginat
BACKGROUND: IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that is required for intestinal immune homeostasis. It mediates suppression of T-cell responses by type-1 regulatory (Tr1-) cells, but is also produced by CD25+ Tregs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify and characterize human intestinal Tr1-cells, and to investigate if they are a relevant cellular source of IL-10 in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). METHODS: CD4+T-cells isolated from the intestinal lamina propria of humans and mice were analyzed for phenotype, cytokine production and suppressive capacities...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324739/mansonella-perstans-microfilaremic-individuals-are-characterized-by-enhanced-type-2-helper-t-and-regulatory-t-and-b-cell-subsets-and-dampened-systemic-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#4
Manuel Ritter, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Nora Nganyewo Nghochuzie, Lucy Cho Nchang, Dizzle Bita Tayong, Kathrin Arndts, Norman Nausch, Marc Jacobsen, Samuel Wanji, Laura E Layland, Achim Hoerauf
The filarial nematode Mansonella perstans is endemic throughout Africa, northern South America and the Caribbean. Interestingly, M. perstans-infected individuals present no distinct clinical picture associated with certain pathology. Due to its relatively silent nature, research on this tropical disease has been neglected, especially M. perstans-driven immune responses. A hindrance in obtaining data on M. perstans-specific responses has been the inability to obtain adult worms since their habitats in serous cavities are difficult to access...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275836/a-cellular-and-molecular-view-of-t-helper-17%C3%A2-cell-plasticity-in-autoimmunity
#5
REVIEW
Ralph Stadhouders, Erik Lubberts, Rudi W Hendriks
Since the original identification of the T helper 17 (Th17) subset in 2005, it has become evident that these cells do not only contribute to host defence against pathogens, such as bacteria and fungi, but that they are also critically involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. In contrast to the classic Th1 and Th2 cells, which represent rather stably polarized subsets, Th17 cells display remarkable heterogeneity and plasticity. This has been attributed to the characteristics of the key transcription factor that guides Th17 differentiation, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma (RORγ)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274372/single-grading-vs-double-grading-with-adjudication-in-the-telemedicine-approaches-to-evaluating-acute-phase-retinopathy-of-prematurity-e-rop-study
#6
Ebenezer Daniel, Wei Pan, Graham E Quinn, Eli Smith, Agnieshka Baumritter, Gui-Shuang Ying
PURPOSE: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of single, independent, nonphysician trained reader (TR) gradings in the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) study. METHODS: Secondary analyses of image grading results from 1,235 infants of birth weights <1251 g. Two of three TRs independently graded image sets; discrepancies were adjudicated by the reading center director (an ophthalmologist) to reach final grading...
December 20, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180490/identity-and-diversity-of-human-peripheral-th-and-t-regulatory-cells-defined-by-single-cell-mass-cytometry
#7
Matthew A Kunicki, Laura C Amaya Hernandez, Kara L Davis, Rosa Bacchetta, Maria-Grazia Roncarolo
Human CD3+CD4+ Th cells, FOXP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells, and T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells are essential for ensuring peripheral immune response and tolerance, but the diversity of Th, Treg, and Tr1 cell subsets has not been fully characterized. Independent functional characterization of human Th1, Th2, Th17, T follicular helper (Tfh), Treg, and Tr1 cells has helped to define unique surface molecules, transcription factors, and signaling profiles for each subset. However, the adequacy of these markers to recapitulate the whole CD3+CD4+ T cell compartment remains questionable...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163504/butyrate-conditions-human-dendritic-cells-to-prime-type-1-regulatory-t-cells-via-both-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-and-g-protein-coupled-receptor-109a-signaling
#8
Maria M M Kaisar, Leonard R Pelgrom, Alwin J van der Ham, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Bart Everts
Recently, it has become clear that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and in particular butyrate, have anti-inflammatory properties. Murine studies have shown that butyrate can promote regulatory T cells via the induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs). However, the effects of SCFAs on human DCs and how they affect their capacity to prime and polarize T-cell responses have not been addressed. Here, we report that butyrate suppresses LPS-induced maturation and metabolic reprogramming of human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) and conditions them to polarize naive CD4+ T cells toward IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163480/differentiation-of-il-17-producing-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-requires-expression-of-the-transcription-factor-c-maf
#9
Jhang-Sian Yu, Michito Hamada, Shigeo Ohtsuka, Keigyou Yoh, Satoru Takahashi, Shi-Chuen Miaw
c-Maf belongs to the large Maf family of transcription factors and plays a key role in the regulation of cytokine production and differentiation of TH2, TH17, TFH, and Tr1 cells. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells can rapidly produce large quantity of TH-related cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A upon stimulation by glycolipid antigens, such as α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). However, the role of c-Maf in iNKT cells and iNKT cells-mediated diseases remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that α-GalCer-stimulated iNKT cells express c-Maf transcript and protein...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158953/retention-of-movement-technique-implications-for-primary-prevention-of-acl-injuries
#10
Wouter Welling, Anne Benjaminse, Alli Gokeler, Bert Otten
Background: Retention of movement technique is crucial in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs. It is unknown if specific instructions or video instructions result in changes in kinematic and kinetic measures during a relatively short training session, and in a retention test one week later. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to determine the effects of verbal external focus (EF), verbal internal focus (IF) and video instructions (VI) on landing technique (i...
November 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155454/harnessing-the-power-of-regulatory-t-cells-to-control-autoimmune-diabetes-overview-and-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Hua Yu, Ricardo Paiva, Richard A Flavell
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease resulting in islet β-cell destruction, hypoinsulinemia, and severely altered glucose homeostasis. Although the mechanisms that initiate T1D still remain elusive, a breakdown of immune tolerance between effector T cells (Teff) and regulatory T cells (Treg) is considered to be the crucial component leading to autoimmunity. As such, strategies have been developed to boost the number and/or function of Treg in the hope of specifically hampering the pathogenic Teff activity...
November 20, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151021/regulatory-t-cells-induced-by-b-cells-a-novel-subpopulation-of-regulatory-t-cells
#12
REVIEW
Chien-Hui Chien, Bor-Luen Chiang
Regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the homeostasis of the immune response. In addition to CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, several subsets of Foxp3- regulatory T cells, such as T helper 3 (Th3) cells and type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, have been described in mice and human. Accumulating evidence shows that naïve B cells contribute to tolerance and are able to promote regulatory T cell differentiation. Naïve B cells can convert CD4+CD25- T cells into CD25+Foxp3- regulatory T cells, named Treg-of-B cells by our group...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134510/drug-design-for-alk-positive-nsclc-an-integrated-pharmacophore-based-3d-qsar-and-virtual-screening-strategy
#13
Nivya James, V Shanthi, K Ramanathan
The increasing death rates related to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive lung cancer culminated in a significant interest in the discovery of novel inhibitors for ALK. In the present research work, pharmacophore-based 3D QSAR modeling and virtual screening strategy have been carried out to address these issues. Initially, a five-point pharmacophore model was developed using the biological data of 50 compounds which includes an FDA-approved ALK inhibitor, crizotinib. Using the generated pharmacophore, a 3D QSAR model was developed and used as a query to screen the DrugBank database...
November 13, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076963/mechanical-and-metabolic-responses-to-traditional-and-cluster-set-configurations-in-the-bench-press-exercise
#14
Amador García-Ramos, Jorge M González-Hernández, Ezequiel Baños-Pelegrín, Adrián Castaño-Zambudio, Fernando Capelo-Ramírez, Daniel Boullosa, Guy G Haff, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes
García-Ramos, A, González-Hernández, JM, Baños-Pelegrín, E, Castaño-Zambudio, A, Capelo-Ramírez, F, Boullosa, D, Haff, GG, and Jiménez-Reyes, P. Mechanical and metabolic responses to traditional and cluster set configurations in the bench press exercise. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-This study aimed to compare mechanical and metabolic responses between traditional (TR) and cluster (CL) set configurations in the bench press exercise. In a counterbalanced randomized order, 10 men were tested with the following protocols (sets × repetitions [inter-repetition rest]): TR1: 3 × 10 (0-second), TR2: 6 × 5 (0-second), CL5: 3 × 10 (5-second), CL10: 3 × 10 (10-second), and CL15: 3 × 10 (15-second)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075269/galectin-1-impairs-the-generation-of-anti-parasitic-th1-cell-responses-in-the-liver-during-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis
#15
Patrick T Bunn, Marcela Montes de Oca, Fabian de Labastida Rivera, Rajiv Kumar, Chelsea L Edwards, Rebecca J Faleiro, Susanna S Ng, Meru Sheel, Yulin Wang, Fiona H Amante, Ashraful Haque, Christian R Engwerda
Many infectious diseases are characterized by the development of immunoregulatory pathways that contribute to pathogen persistence and associated disease symptoms. In diseases caused by intracellular parasites, such as visceral leishmaniasis (VL), various immune modulators have the capacity to negatively impact protective CD4(+) T cell functions. Galectin-1 is widely expressed on immune cells and has previously been shown to suppress inflammatory responses and promote the development of CD4(+) T cells with immunoregulatory characteristics...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066539/tcr-stimulated-changes-in-cell-surface-cd46-expression-generate-type-1-regulatory-t-cells
#16
Siobhan Ni Choileain, Joanne Hay, Joelle Thomas, Anna Williams, Matthieu M Vermeren, Cecile Benezech, Mario Gomez-Salazar, Owen R Hugues, Sonja Vermeren, Sarah E M Howie, Ian Dransfield, Anne L Astier
A lack of regulatory T cell function is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Ligation of the complement regulatory protein CD46 facilitates the differentiation of T helper 1 (TH1) effector cells into interleukin-10 (IL-10)-secreting type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1 cells), and this pathway is defective in MS patients. Cleavage of the ectodomain of CD46, which contains three N-glycosylation sites and multiple O-glycosylation sites, enables CD46 to activate T cells...
October 24, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063971/novel-microbial-sources-of-tropane-alkaloids-first-report-of-production-by-endophytic-fungi-isolated-from-datura-metel-l
#17
Tanushree Naik, Shanadrahalli Chandrashekaraiah Vanitha, Pradumn Kumar Rajvanshi, Manjegowda Chandrika, Subban Kamalraj, Chelliah Jayabaskaran
Eighteen endophytic fungi were isolated from various tissues of Datura metel and genes encoding for putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT), tropinone reductase 1 (TR1) and hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H) were used as molecular markers for PCR-based screening approach for tropane alkaloids (TAs) producing endophytic fungi. These fungi were identified taxonomically by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and also based on morphological characteristics of the fungal spore as Colletotrichum boninense, Phomopsis sp...
October 24, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040756/tcdd-ficz-and-other-high-affinity-ahr-ligands-dose-dependently-determine-the-fate-of-cd4-t-cell-differentiation
#18
Allison K Ehrlich, Jamie M Pennington, William H Bisson, Siva K Kolluri, Nancy I Kerkvliet
FICZ and TCDD, two high affinity AhR ligands, are reported to have opposite effects on T cell differentiation with TCDD inducing regulatory T cells and FICZ inducing Th17 cells. This dichotomy has been attributed to ligand-intrinsic differences in AhR activation, although differences in sensitivity to metabolism complicates the issue. TCDD is resistant to AhR-induced metabolism and produces sustained AhR activation following a single dose in the μg/kg range while FICZ is rapidly metabolized and AhR activation is transient...
October 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033934/ebi3-prevents-trypanosoma-cruzi-induced-myocarditis-by-dampening-ifn-%C3%AE-driven-inflammation
#19
Tiago Silva Medina, Gabriela Gonçalves Oliveira, Maria Cláudia Silva, Bruna Araújo David, Grace Kelly Silva, Denise Morais Fonseca, Renata Sesti-Costa, Amanda Farage Frade, Monique Andrade Baron, Barbara Ianni, Alexandre Costa Pereira, Christophe Chevillard, Edécio Cunha-Neto, José Antonio Marin-Neto, João Santana Silva
The identification of anti-inflammatory mediators can reveal important targetable molecules capable of counterbalancing Trypanosoma cruzi-induced myocarditis. Composed of Ebi3 and IL-27p28 subunits, IL-27 is produced by myeloid cells and is able to suppress inflammation by inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells, thus emerging as a potential candidate to ameliorate cardiac inflammation induced by T. cruzi. Although IL-27 has been extensively characterized as a suppressive cytokine that prevents liver immunopathogenesis after T...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033913/biochemical-function-molecular-structure-and-evolution-of-an-atypical-thioredoxin-reductase-from-desulfovibrio-vulgaris
#20
Odile Valette, Tam T T Tran, Christine Cavazza, Elodie Caudeville, Gaël Brasseur, Alain Dolla, Emmanuel Talla, Laetitia Pieulle
Thioredoxin reductase (TR) regulates the intracellular redox environment by reducing thioredoxin (Trx). In anaerobes, recent findings indicate that the Trx redox network is implicated in the global redox regulation of metabolism but also actively participates in protecting cells against O2. In the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH), there is an intriguing redundancy of the Trx system which includes a classical system using NADPH as electron source, a non-canonical system using NADH and an isolated TR (DvTRi)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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