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Public health AND community engagement

Elizabeth Marino, Christopher Wolsko, Susan G Keys, Laura Pennavaria
Suicide is a critical public health problem worldwide. In the United States (US), firearm ownership is common, and firearms account for the majority of deaths by suicide. While suicide prevention strategies may include limiting access to firearms, the contentious nature of gun regulations in the US, particularly among members of rural communities, often gives rise to constitutional concerns and political polarization that could inhibit suicidal persons from seeking the help they need. We examine potential outcomes of public health strategies in the US that encourage limiting access to firearms for populations who both value firearm ownership and are vulnerable to suicide...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Frances M Cowan, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Eduard J Sanders, Nelly R Mugo, Fernand A Guedou, Michel Alary, Luc Behanzin, Owen Mugurungi, Linda-Gail Bekker
INTRODUCTION: Of the two million new HIV infections in adults in 2014, 70% occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Several African countries have already approved guidelines for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for individuals at substantial risk of HIV as part of combination HIV prevention but key questions remain about how to identify and deliver PrEP to those at greatest need. Throughout the continent, individuals in sero-discordant relationships, and members of key populations (sex workers, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women and injection drug users) are likely to benefit from the availability of PrEP...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
U Walter, K Volkenand
Municipalities have an overarching structure in health promotion. Due to the right to self-government, municipalities are in charge of both voluntary and obligatory tasks. Some of the original and fundamental tasks can be summarized as "services to the public". Current common definitions do not include the term "health promotion". In the present study, a sub-target of a joint project, legal acts, requirements and recommendations were researched and analyzed. The results show substantive cornerstones of health promotion in various regulations of different disciplines...
October 18, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Jonathan Howland, Nicole J Treadway, Alyssa A Taylor, Elizabeth W Peterson
BACKGROUND: The Massachusetts (MA) Department of Public Health engaged the Injury Prevention Center at Boston Medical Center to develop a statewide baseline (2012) inventory of evidence-based (EB) community falls prevention programs for community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: A web-based survey of organizations (n = 825) serving older adults was deployed in two parts. The Directors' survey determined if a falls prevention program had been offered in 2012, the salience (rating of importance) of falls prevention for the organization, and intention to offer future falls prevention programming...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Sheryl Scott, Joanne D'Silva, Carol Hernandez, Nicole Toves Villaluz, Jaime Martinez, Chris Matter
While the reduction in the overall U.S. smoking prevalence has been declared one of the top 10 public health achievements of the past century, the growing disparity in smoking between American Indians and the general population is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Minnesota in particular has very high smoking rates among American Indians (59%). Tribal Nations in Minnesota share a past of attempted cultural genocide and a present of restoring the strength of their cultural teachings, including the prominence of traditional tobacco as a sacred "first medicine...
October 14, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
Dennis E Reidy, Joanne P Smith-Darden, Poco D Kernsmith
INTRODUCTION: Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Yves Bergevin, Bettina Habib, Keesa Elicksen-Jensen, Stephen Samis, Jean Rochon, Jean-Louis Denis, Denis Roy
A study on the impact of regionalization on the Triple Aim of Better Health, Better Care and Better Value across Canada in 2015 identified major findings including: (a) with regard to the Triple Aim, the Canadian situation is better than before but variable and partial, and Canada continues to underperform compared with other industrialized countries, especially in primary healthcare where it matters most; (b) provinces are converging toward a two-level health system (provincial/regional); (c) optimal size of regions is probably around 350,000-500,000 population; d) citizen and physician engagement remains weak...
2016: HealthcarePapers
Fidelis G Jaravani, Peter D Massey, Jenni Judd, Jason Allan, Natalie Allan
A crucial objective of the Australian Government's Closing the Gap program is to improve Aboriginal health, and to achieve morbidity and mortality rates similar to those for non-Indigenous Australians. Reducing public health risks due to drinking water of unknown quality will help to close the gap. Factors such as hardness, taste, colour and odour of water may influence perceptions of risk and quality. Increased contact and familiarity with a hazard is associated with individuals becoming desensitised and habituated to its presence, so that their risk judgements may reflect their behavioural experiences...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Shoaib Fahad Hussain, Peter Boyle, Preeti Patel, Richard Sullivan
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988 the global incidence of poliomyelitis has fallen by nearly 99 %. From a situation where wild type poliovirus was endemic in 125 countries across five continents, transmission is now limited to regions of just three countries - Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria. A sharp increase in Pakistan's poliomyelitis cases in 2014 prompted the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee to declare the situation a 'public health emergency of international concern'...
October 12, 2016: Globalization and Health
Christine L Gray, Brian W Pence, Lynne C Messer, Jan Ostermann, Rachel A Whetten, Nathan M Thielman, Karen O'Donnell, Kathryn Whetten
BACKGROUND: Communities and nations seeking to foster social responsibility in their youth are interested in understanding factors that predict and promote youth involvement in public activities. Orphans and separated children (OSC) are a vulnerable population whose numbers are increasing, particularly in resource-poor settings. Understanding whether and how OSC are engaged in civic activities is important for community and world leaders who need to provide care for OSC and ensure their involvement in sustainable development...
October 11, 2016: Globalization and Health
Chuncheng Liu, Jessica Mao, Terrence Wong, Weiming Tang, Lai Sze Tso, Songyuan Tang, Ye Zhang, Wei Zhang, Yilu Qin, Zihuang Chen, Wei Ma, Dianming Kang, Haochu Li, Meizhen Liao, Katie Mollan, Michael Hudgens, Barry Bayus, Shujie Huang, Bin Yang, Chongyi Wei, Joseph D Tucker
INTRODUCTION: Crowdsourcing has been used to spur innovation and increase community engagement in public health programmes. Crowdsourcing is the process of giving individual tasks to a large group, often involving open contests and enabled through multisectoral partnerships. Here we describe one crowdsourced video intervention in which a video promoting condom use is produced through an open contest. The aim of this study is to determine whether a crowdsourced intervention is as effective as a social marketing intervention in promoting condom use among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender male-to-female (TG) in China...
October 3, 2016: BMJ Open
Jonathan Wistow, Sarah Curtis, Angie Bone
BACKGROUND: Extreme weather events (EWEs) can significantly impact on mortality and morbidity in the UK. How EWE guidance is disseminated and applied across health and social care systems, at the local, operational level, is not well understood. METHODS: This exploratory study develops tools and resources to assist local stakeholders to cascade national 'all weather' EWE guidance across local systems. These resources are also used to evaluate the local interpretation and implementation of this advice and guidance within three local authority areas...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Keith A Mays
Community-based dental education (CBDE) enhances students' clinical expertise, improves their cultural competence, increases access to care, and fosters community engagement. As emphasis on CBDE has increased over the last decades, the aim of this survey study was to determine how CBDE is currently being implemented in U.S. dental schools. The study used a 20-item, author-designed survey emailed in April to August 2015 to 60 of the 65 U.S. dental schools, excluding those that had been recently established. Of the 60 schools, representatives of 33 responded, resulting in a 55% response rate: 70% public and 30% private...
October 2016: Journal of Dental Education
Payam Sheikhattari, Jummai Apata, Farin Kamangar, Christine Schutzman, Anne O'Keefe, Jane Buccheri, Fernando A Wagner
Tobacco use remains a major public health problem in the U.S. disproportionately affecting underserved communities. The Communities Engaged and Advocating for a Smoke-free Environment (CEASE) initiative is an intervention to address the problem using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach. This study compares quit rates in a peer-led community-based intervention with those achieved in a clinical setting. The intervention consisted of three Phases. Phase I (n = 404) was a clinic-based trial comparing two types of counseling...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Community Health
Catrin Schulte-Hillen, Nelly Staderini, Jean-François Saint-Sauveur
MSF responds to needs for the termination of pregnancy, including on request (TPR); it is part of the organization's work aimed at reducing maternal mortality and suffering; and preventing unsafe abortions in the countries where we work. Following the publication of "Why don't humanitarian organizations provide safe abortion care?" we offer an insight into MSF's experience over the past few years. The article looks at the legal concerns and proposes that the importance of addressing maternal mortality should replace them and the operational set-up and action organized in a way that mitigates risks...
2016: Conflict and Health
Janice C Probst, Judith C Barker, Alexandra Enders, Paula Gardiner
PURPOSE: Children's health is influenced by the context in which they live. We provide a descriptive essay on the status of children in rural America to highlight features of the rural environment that may affect health. DESCRIPTION: We compiled information concerning components of the rural environment that may contribute to health outcomes. Areas addressed include the economic characteristics, provider availability, uniquely rural health risks, health services use, and health outcomes among rural children...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Rural Health
Anne MacFarlane, Rose Galvin, Madeleine O'Sullivan, Chris McInerney, Eoghan Meagher, Daniel Burke, Joseph W LeMaster
BACKGROUND: There are increasing imperatives for patients and members of the public to engage as partners in identifying health research priorities. The use of participatory methods to engage stakeholders in health care in research prioritization is not commonly reported. OBJECTIVE: This article analyses the use of World Cafés as a participatory method for research prioritization with marginalized communities in Ireland and the USA. METHODS: The principles of purposeful and snowball sampling were followed in both settings and a diverse range of community and health care stakeholders participated (n = 63 Ireland and n = 55 USA)...
September 27, 2016: Family Practice
Caitlin G Allen, Colleen M McBride, Hector G Balcazar, Kim A Kaphingst
Poor understanding of gene-environment contributors to health conditions can lead the public to misinterpretations that overemphasize genetics as determinants of health. The present commentary calls for engaging the national community health worker (CHW) workforce to use community elicitation methods such as mental models approaches as a means to enhance the public's literacy regarding genetic and environmental or genomic contributions to health. We discuss three needs related to genomic literacy and suggest how CHWs are uniquely positioned to address these needs among diverse target audiences...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
Mark Gilbert, Devon Haag, Travis Salway Hottes, Mark Bondyra, Elizabeth Elliot, Cathy Chabot, Janine Farrell, Amanda Bonnell, Shannon Kopp, John Andruschak, Jean Shoveller, Gina Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Testing for sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBI) is an effective public health strategy that can promote personal control of one's health and prevent the spread of these infections. Multiple barriers deter access to testing including fear of stigmatization, inaccurate health care provider perceptions of risk, and reduced availability of clinic services and infrastructure. Concurrent increases in sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates and demands on existing clinical services make this an even more pressing concern...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Elvina Viennet, Scott A Ritchie, Craig R Williams, Helen M Faddy, David Harley
Dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. Despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. A better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and Zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. The purpose of this review was to assess the relative burden of dengue in four high-income countries and to appraise the similarities and differences in dengue transmission...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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