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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351012/extreme-climate-induced-life-history-plasticity-in-an-amphibian
#1
François S Becker, Krystal A Tolley, G John Measey, Res Altwegg
Age-specific survival and reproduction are closely linked to fitness and therefore subject to strong selection that typically limits their variability within species. Furthermore, adult survival rate in vertebrate populations is typically less variable over time than other life-history traits, such as fecundity or recruitment. Hence, adult survival is often conserved within a population over time, compared to the variation in survival found across taxa. In stark contrast to this general pattern, we report evidence of extreme short-term variation of adult survival in Rose's mountain toadlet (Capensibufo rosei), which is apparently climate induced...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350759/extreme-rainfall-affects-assembly-of-the-root-associated-fungal-community
#2
Christopher J Barnes, Christopher J van der Gast, Niall P McNamara, Rebecca Rowe, Gary D Bending
Global warming is resulting in increased frequency of weather extremes. Root-associated fungi play important roles in terrestrial biogeochemical cycling processes, but the way in which they are affected by extreme weather is unclear. Here, we performed long-term field monitoring of the root-associated fungus community of a short rotation coppice willow plantation, and compared community dynamics before and after a once in 100 yr rainfall event that occurred in the UK in 2012. Monitoring of the root-associated fungi was performed over a 3-yr period by metabarcoding the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region...
January 19, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350475/water-deficit-disrupts-male-gametophyte-development-in-quercus-ilex
#3
Olga Bykova, Jean-Marc Limousin, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Isabelle Chuine
Tree species distribution, and hence forest biodiversity, rely on the reproductive capacity of trees which is currently affected by climate change. Drought-induced pollen sterility could increase as a consequence of more intense and more frequent droughts projected for temperate and Mediterranean regions and threaten the sexual regeneration of trees in these regions. To evaluate this possibility, we examined the effect of long-term partial rainfall exclusion (-27% of precipitation) on male reproductive development in holm oak, Quercus ilex, one of the most important and widespread tree species of the Mediterranean region...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350150/role-of-environmental-factors-in-shaping-spatial-distribution-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-fiji
#4
Ruklanthi de Alwis, Conall Watson, Birgit Nikolay, John H Lowry, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Tan Trinh Van, Dung Tran Thi Ngoc, Kitione Rawalai, Mere Taufa, Jerimaia Coriakula, Colleen L Lau, Eric J Nilles, W John Edmunds, Mike Kama, Stephen Baker, Jorge Cano
Fiji recently experienced a sharp increase in reported typhoid fever cases. To investigate geographic distribution and environmental risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection, we conducted a cross-sectional cluster survey with associated serologic testing for Vi capsular antigen-specific antibodies (a marker for exposure to Salmonella Typhi in Fiji in 2013. Hotspots with high seroprevalence of Vi-specific antibodies were identified in northeastern mainland Fiji. Risk for Vi seropositivity increased with increased annual rainfall (odds ratio [OR] 1...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349743/chemically-and-size-resolved-particulate-matter-dry-deposition-on-stone-and-surrogate-surfaces-inside-and-outside-the-low-emission-zone-of-milan-application-of-a-newly-developed-deposition-box
#5
Luca Ferrero, Marco Casati, Lara Nobili, Luca D'Angelo, Grazia Rovelli, Giorgia Sangiorgi, Cristiana Rizzi, Maria Grazia Perrone, Antonio Sansonetti, Claudia Conti, Ezio Bolzacchini, Elena Bernardi, Ivano Vassura
The collection of atmospheric particles on not-filtering substrates via dry deposition, and the subsequent study of the particle-induced material decay, is trivial due to the high number of variables simultaneously acting on the investigated surface. This work reports seasonally resolved data of chemical composition and size distribution of particulate matter deposed on stone and surrogate surfaces obtained using a new method, especially developed at this purpose. A "Deposition Box" was designed allowing the particulate matter dry deposition to occur selectively removing, at the same time, variables that can mask the effect of airborne particles on material decay...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348059/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-a-superabsorbent-fertilizer-composite-for-maximizing-the-nutrient-and-water-use-efficiency-in-forestry-plantations
#6
E Tubert, V A Vitali, M S Alvarez, F A Tubert, I Baroli, G Amodeo
Reducing fertilizer use is a priority in the quest for sustainable forestry systems. In short rotation Eucalyptus plantations, NPK pellets are routinely added to the seedling's top soil layer at planting, potentially leading to increased seedling mortality, nutrient loss and environmental degradation. To address this triple challenge, the development of efficient fertilization practices is essential. In the present work, we synthesized a crosslinked acrylic-cellulosic superabsorbent composite (SAPH-BAL) containing small amounts of specific nutrients integrated in the polymer matrix...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346383/seasonally-timed-treatment-programs-for-ascaris-lumbricoides-to-increase-impact-an-investigation-using-mathematical-models
#7
Emma L Davis, Leon Danon, Joaquín M Prada, Sharmini A Gunawardena, James E Truscott, Johnny Vlaminck, Roy M Anderson, Bruno Levecke, Eric R Morgan, T Deirdre Hollingsworth
There is clear empirical evidence that environmental conditions can influence Ascaris spp. free-living stage development and host reinfection, but the impact of these differences on human infections, and interventions to control them, is variable. A new model framework reflecting four key stages of the A. lumbricoides life cycle, incorporating the effects of rainfall and temperature, is used to describe the level of infection in the human population alongside the environmental egg dynamics. Using data from South Korea and Nigeria, we conclude that settings with extreme fluctuations in rainfall or temperature could exhibit strong seasonal transmission patterns that may be partially masked by the longevity of A...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345034/precipitation-frequency-alters-peatland-ecosystem-structure-and-co2-exchange-contrasting-effects-on-moss-sedge-and-shrub-communities
#8
Danielle D Radu, Tim P Duval
Climate projections forecast a redistribution of seasonal precipitation for much of the globe into fewer, larger events spaced between longer dry periods, with negligible changes in seasonal rainfall totals. This intensification of the rainfall regime is expected to alter near-surface water availability, which will affect plant performance and carbon uptake. This could be especially important in peatland systems, where large stores of carbon are tightly coupled to water surpluses limiting decomposition. Here, we examined the role of precipitation frequency on vegetation growth and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) balances for communities dominated by a Sphagnum moss, a sedge, and an ericaceous shrub in a cool temperate poor fen...
January 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343796/integrated-climate-chemical-indicators-of-diffuse-pollution-from-land-to-water
#9
Per-Erik Mellander, Phil Jordan, Marianne Bechmann, Ophélie Fovet, Mairead M Shore, Noeleen T McDonald, Chantal Gascuel-Odoux
Management of agricultural diffuse pollution to water remains a challenge and is influenced by the complex interactions of rainfall-runoff pathways, soil and nutrient management, agricultural landscape heterogeneity and biogeochemical cycling in receiving water bodies. Amplified cycles of weather can also influence nutrient loss to water although they are less considered in policy reviews. Here, we present the development of climate-chemical indicators of diffuse pollution in highly monitored catchments in Western Europe...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339487/uncovering-the-role-of-the-east-asian-jet-stream-and-heterogeneities-in-atmospheric-rivers-affecting-the-western-united-states
#10
Wei Zhang, Gabriele Villarini
Atmospheric rivers (ARs) exert major socioeconomic repercussions along the US West Coast by inducing heavy rainfall, flooding, strong winds, and storm surge. Despite the significant societal and economic repercussions of these storms, our understanding of the physical drivers responsible for their interannual variability is limited, with different climate modes identified as possible mechanisms. Here we show that the Pacific-Japan (PJ) teleconnections/patterns and the East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ) exhibit a strong linkage with the total frequency of ARs making landfall over the western United States, much stronger than the other potential climate modes previously considered...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338001/modelling-the-large-scale-yellow-fever-outbreak-in-luanda-angola-and-the-impact-of-vaccination
#11
Shi Zhao, Lewi Stone, Daozhou Gao, Daihai He
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever (YF), transmitted via bites of infected mosquitoes, is a life-threatening viral disease endemic to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. YF has largely been controlled by widespread national vaccination campaigns. Nevertheless, between December 2015 and August 2016, YF resurged in Angola, quickly spread and becoming the largest YF outbreak for the last 30 years. Recently, YF resurged again in Brazil (December 2016). Thus, there is an urgent need to gain better understanding of the transmission pattern of YF...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337681/dissipation-dynamics-of-terbuthylazine-in-soil-during-the-maize-growing-season
#12
Sanja Stipičević, Gordana Mendaš, Marija Dvoršćak, Sanja Fingler, Natalija Galzina, Klara Barić
Ever since terbuthylazine (TBA) replaced atrazine in herbicide crop treatment, its much greater persistence has raised considerable environmental concern. The aim of our field experiment was to establish the dissipation dynamics of TBA and its degradation product desethylterbuthylazine (DET) in soil over five months of maize growth. We applied TBA as part of pre-emergent treatment in the regular and double-the-regular amounts. Soil samples were collected periodically at the following depths: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 30-50 cm...
December 20, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336133/effects-of-tinnitus-retraining-therapy-with-different-colours-of-sound
#13
Stefania Barozzi, Umberto Ambrosetti, Susanna Løve Callaway, Thomas Behrens, Silvia Passoni, Luca Del Bo
BACKGROUND: In Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) sound stimulation is conventionally performed with low-level broadband sound generators; since the patient has to receive it for many hours in a day, it is important that the sound is tolerable and agreeable to the patient. A clinical trial was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different colour sound generators on tinnitus. The colour of a sound refers to the power spectrum of the signal. The sound generators used in this study provide the option to choose the preferred or most acceptable sound among white, red and pink noise...
December 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334635/the-effect-of-altitude-and-climate-on-the-suicide-rates-in-turkey
#14
Mahmut Asirdizer, Erhan Kartal, Yasin Etli, Ertugrul Tatlisumak, Orhan Gumus, Yavuz Hekimoglu, Sıddık Keskin
Suicide is one of the most important public health problems. There was an association between suicide and several factors such as psychiatric diseases and psychological characteristics, somatic illness, cultural, socioeconomic, familial, occupational and individual risk factors. Also, high altitude and climatic factors including high temperature, cloudiness, more sunshine and low rainfalls were defined as some of these risk factors in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate correlation between suicide rates and altitudes of all cities in Turkey and between suicide rates and climatic factors including Rainfall Activity Index, Winter Mean Temperatures, Summer Mean Temperatures and Temperature Difference between January and July previously defined by several authors in the broad series in Turkey...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333347/beyond-harm-s-reach-submersion-of-river-turtle-nesting-areas-and-implications-for-restoration-actions-after-amazon-hydropower-development
#15
Darren Norris, Fernanda Michalski, James P Gibbs
The global expansion of energy demands combined with abundant rainfall, large water volumes and high flow in tropical rivers have led to an unprecedented expansion of dam constructions in the Amazon. This expansion generates an urgent need for refined approaches to river management; specifically a move away from decision-making governed by overly generalized guidelines. For the first time we quantify direct impacts of hydropower reservoir establishment on an Amazon fresh water turtle. We conducted surveys along 150 km of rivers upstream of a new dam construction during the low water months that correspond to the nesting season of Podocnemis unifilis in the study area...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332951/soil-seal-development-under-simulated-rainfall-structural-physical-and-hydrological-dynamics
#16
Elena Armenise, Robert W Simmons, Sujung Ahn, Amin Garbout, Stefan H Doerr, Sacha J Mooney, Craig J Sturrock, Karl Ritz
This study delivers new insights into rainfall-induced seal formation through a novel approach in the use of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). Up to now seal and crust thickness have been directly quantified mainly through visual examination of sealed/crusted surfaces, and there has been no quantitative method to estimate this important property. X-ray CT images were quantitatively analysed to derive formal measures of seal and crust thickness. A factorial experiment was established in the laboratory using open-topped microcosms packed with soil...
January 2018: Journal of Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332946/optimal-groundwater-extraction-under-uncertainty-and-a-spatial-stock-externality
#17
Nathaniel H Merrill, Todd Guilfoos
We introduce a model that incorporates two important elements to estimating welfare gains from groundwater management: stochasticity and a spatial stock externality. We estimate welfare gains resulting from optimal management under uncertainty as well as a gradual stock externality that produces the dynamics of a large aquifer being slowly exhausted. This groundwater model imposes an important aspect of a depletable natural resource without the extreme assumption of complete exhaustion that is necessary in a traditional single cell (bathtub) model of groundwater extraction...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Agricultural Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331062/benefits-of-increasing-transpiration-efficiency-in-wheat-under-elevated-co2-for-rainfed-regions
#18
Brendan Christy, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Michael Tausz, Richard Richards, Greg Rebetzke, Anthony Condon, Terry Mclean, Glenn Fitzgerald, Maryse Bourgault, Garry O'Leary
Higher transpiration efficiency (TE) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase crop yields in dry environments where water availability usually limits yield. The application of a coupled radiation and transpiration efficiency simulation model shows wheat yield advantage of a high TE cultivar (cv. Drysdale) over its almost identical low TE parent line (Hartog), from about -7 to 558 kg ha-1 (mean 187 kg ha-1 ) over the rainfed cropping region in Australia (221 to 1351 mm annual rainfall), under the present-day climate...
January 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330677/evaluating-efficacy-of-landsat-derived-environmental-covariates-for-predicting-malaria-distribution-in-rural-villages-of-vhembe-district-south-africa
#19
Oupa E Malahlela, Jane M Olwoch, Clement Adjorlolo
Malaria in South Africa is still a problem despite existing efforts to eradicate the disease. In the Vhembe District Municipality, malaria prevalence is still high, with a mean incidence rate of 328.2 per 100,0000 persons/year. This study aimed at evaluating environmental covariates, such as vegetation moisture and vegetation greenness, associated with malaria vector distribution for better predictability towards rapid and efficient disease management and control. The 2005 malaria incidence data combined with Landsat 5 ETM were used in this study...
January 12, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326981/adaptation-required-to-preserve-future-high-end-river-flood-risk-at-present-levels
#20
Sven N Willner, Anders Levermann, Fang Zhao, Katja Frieler
Earth's surface temperature will continue to rise for another 20 to 30 years even with the strongest carbon emission reduction currently considered. The associated changes in rainfall patterns can result in an increased flood risk worldwide. We compute the required increase in flood protection to keep high-end fluvial flood risk at present levels. The analysis is carried out worldwide for subnational administrative units. Most of the United States, Central Europe, and Northeast and West Africa, as well as large parts of India and Indonesia, require the strongest adaptation effort...
January 2018: Science Advances
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