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Muhammad Shafique, Reeho Kim, Kwon Kyung-Ho
This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Qinjian Jin, Chien Wang
The trends of both rainfall and circulation strength of the Indian summer monsoon has been reviving since 2002. Here, using observational data, we demonstrate a statistically significant greening over the Northwest Indian Subcontinent and a consequent decline in dust abundance due to the monsoon revival. The enhanced monsoonal rainfall causes an increase in soil moisture, which results in a significant greening in the Northwest Indian Subcontinent. These increases in rainfall, soil moisture, and vegetation together lead to a substantial reduction of the dust abundance in this region, especially the Thar Desert, as shown by a negative trend in satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew Best, Jason M Kamilar
Sweating is an unusual thermoregulatory strategy for most mammals, yet is critical for humans. This trait is commonly hypothesized to result from human ancestors moving from a forest to a warmer and drier open environment. As soft tissue traits do not typically fossilize, this idea has been difficult to test. Therefore, we used a comparative approach to examine 15 eccrine gland traits from 35 primate species. For each trait we measured phylogenetic signal, tested three evolutionary models to explain trait variation, and used phylogenetic models to examine how traits varied in response to climate variables...
April 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Arran Hamlet, Kévin Jean, William Perea, Sergio Yactayo, Joseph Biey, Maria Van Kerkhove, Neil Ferguson, Tini Garske
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a vector-borne flavivirus endemic to Africa and Latin America. Ninety per cent of the global burden occurs in Africa where it is primarily transmitted by Aedes spp, with Aedes aegypti the main vector for urban yellow fever (YF). Mosquito life cycle and viral replication in the mosquito are heavily dependent on climate, particularly temperature and rainfall. We aimed to assess whether seasonal variations in climatic factors are associated with the seasonality of YF reports...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ying Dai, Lei Chen, Xiaoshu Hou, Zhenyao Shen
Detailed urban drainage data are important for urban nonpoint source (NPS) pollution prediction. However, the difficulties in collecting complete pipeline data usually interfere with urban NPS pollution studies, especially in large-scale study areas. In this study, NPS pollution models were constructed for a typical urban catchment using the SWMM, based on five drainage datasets with different resolution levels. The influence of the data resolution on the simulation results was examined. The calibration and validation results of the higher-resolution (HR) model indicated a satisfactory model performance with relatively detailed drainage data...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
C A Santana, K K Tondato, Y R Súarez
Population and reproductive aspects allow the knowledge and understanding of population dynamics and the influence of environmental factors, in addition to ensure the success of a species continuity. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze population and reproductive traits of the species Hyphessobrycon eques in southern Pantanal, Brazil. Monthly samplings were conducted from February/2009 to January/2011, with 617 individuals analyzed, being 365 females and 262 males. A similar form of distribution in length and weight between the sexes was observed...
March 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Jade M S Delevaux, Robert Whittier, Kostantinos A Stamoulis, Leah L Bremer, Stacy Jupiter, Alan M Friedlander, Matthew Poti, Greg Guannel, Natalie Kurashima, Kawika B Winter, Robert Toonen, Eric Conklin, Chad Wiggins, Anders Knudby, Whitney Goodell, Kimberly Burnett, Susan Yee, Hla Htun, Kirsten L L Oleson, Tracy Wiegner, Tamara Ticktin
Declining natural resources have led to a cultural renaissance across the Pacific that seeks to revive customary ridge-to-reef management approaches to protect freshwater and restore abundant coral reef fisheries. Effective ridge-to-reef management requires improved understanding of land-sea linkages and decision-support tools to simultaneously evaluate the effects of terrestrial and marine drivers on coral reefs, mediated by anthropogenic activities. Although a few applications have linked the effects of land cover to coral reefs, these are too coarse in resolution to inform watershed-scale management for Pacific Islands...
2018: PloS One
Mohammad Hajigholizadeh, Assefa M Melesse, Hector R Fuentes
The erosion and sediment transport processes in shallow waters, which are discussed in this paper, begin when water droplets hit the soil surface. The transport mechanism caused by the consequent rainfall-runoff process determines the amount of generated sediment that can be transferred downslope. Many significant studies and models are performed to investigate these processes, which differ in terms of their effecting factors, approaches, inputs and outputs, model structure and the manner that these processes represent...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
John T Van Stan, Dennis A Gordon
Stemflow, a precipitation and solute supply to soils near tree stems, can play a wide array of roles in ecosystem functioning. However, stemflow's ecohydrological functions have been primarily studied in forests with voluminous stemflow because resource subsidy is currently considered stemflow's only impact on near-stem soils. This common assumption ignores controls that stemflow generation may exert via resource limitation (when stemflow < open rainfall and near-stem throughfall is negligible). We reviewed selected literature across numerous forests to evaluate the predominance of stemflow as a potential resource limitation to near-stem soils and characterized the concentrated, but meager, solute flux from low stemflow generators...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marco A Molina-Montenegro, Ian S Acuña-Rodríguez, Tomás S M Flores, Rasme Hereme, Alejandra Lafon, Cristian Atala, Cristian Torres-Díaz
It has been widely suggested that invasion success along broad environmental gradients may be partially due to phenotypic plasticity, but rapid evolution could also be a relevant factor for invasions. Seed and fruit traits can be relevant for plant invasiveness since they are related to dispersal, germination, and fitness. Some seed traits vary along environmental gradients and can be heritable, with the potential to evolve by means of natural selection. Utilizing cross-latitude and reciprocal-transplant experiments, we evaluated the adaptive value of seed thickness as assessed by survival and biomass accumulation in Taraxacum officinale plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Greg Keir, Nevenka Bulovic, Neil McIntyre
Setting limits on groundwater extractions is important to ensure sustainable groundwater management. Lack of extraction data can affect interpretations of historical pressure changes, predictions of future impacts, accuracy of groundwater model calibration, and identification of sustainable management options. Yet, many groundwater extractions are unmetered. Therefore, there is a need for models that estimate extraction rates and quantify model outputs uncertainties arising due to a lack of data. This paper develops such a model within the Generalised Linear Modelling (GLM) framework, using a case study of stock and domestic extractions in the Surat Cumulative Management Area, a predominantly cattle farming region in eastern Australia...
March 13, 2018: Ground Water
Mohd Firdaus Mohd Radi, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Mohd Hasni Jaafar, Rozita Hod, Norfazilah Ahmad, Azmawati Binti Mohammed Nawi, Gul Muhammad Baloch, Rohaida Ismail, Nur Izzah Farakhin Ayub
Severe floods increase the risk of leptospirosis outbreaks in endemic areas. This study determines the spatial-temporal distribution of leptospirosis in relation to environmental factors after a major flooding event in Kelantan, Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving incident leptospirosis cases, from the 3 months before, during, and three months after flood, in reference to the severe 2014 Kelantan flooding event. Geographical information system was used to determine the spatial distribution while climatic factors that influenced the cases were also analyzed...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
M Polačik, M Reichard, M Vrtílek
Extreme asynchrony in embryo development, a typical feature of annual killifish living in temporary pools, represents a bet-hedging strategy to cope with unpredictable rainfall. African annual killifish are distributed across a large precipitation gradient, raising the potential for local adaptation in the degree of developmental asynchrony (e.g. higher in arid areas, lower in humid areas). Eight populations of two sister species, Nothobranchius furzeri and Nothobranchius kadleci, from sites along the rainfall gradient were tested and compared for asynchrony and duration of embryo development...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Yama Dixit, David A Hodell, Alena Giesche, Sampat K Tandon, Fernando Gázquez, Hari S Saini, Luke C Skinner, Syed A I Mujtaba, Vikas Pawar, Ravindra N Singh, Cameron A Petrie
Today the desert margins of northwest India are dry and unable to support large populations, but were densely occupied by the populations of the Indus Civilization during the middle to late Holocene. The hydroclimatic conditions under which Indus urbanization took place, which was marked by a period of expanded settlement into the Thar Desert margins, remains poorly understood. We measured the isotopic values (δ18 O and δD) of gypsum hydration water in paleolake Karsandi sediments in northern Rajasthan to infer past changes in lake hydrology, which is sensitive to changing amounts of precipitation and evaporation...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nicholas Dusek, Austin J Hewitt, Kaycie N Schmidt, Peter W Bergholz
E. coli are deposited into soil with feces and exhibit subsequent population decline with concomitant environmental selection. Environmentally persistent strains exhibit longer survival times during this selection process and some strains have adapted to soil and sediments. A georeferenced collection of E. coli isolates was developed comprising 3,329 isolates from 1,428 soil samples that were collected from a landscape spanning the transition from the grasslands to the eastern deciduous forest biomes. The isolate collection and sample database were analyzed together to discover how land cover, site characteristics and soil chemistry influence the prevalence of cultivable E...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Evelyn Fletcher, Kelly T Morgan, Jawwad A Qureshi, Jorge A Leiva, Peter Nkedi-Kizza
Imidacloprid (IM) is used to control the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP) and citrus leafminer (CLM), which are related to the spread of huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) and citrus canker diseases, respectively. In Florida citrus, imidacloprid is mainly soil-drenched around the trees for proper root uptake and translocation into plant canopy to impact ACP and CLM. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of imidacloprid rate, and irrigate amount on concentration of imidacloprid in the soil following drench application to citrus trees in three age classes...
2018: PloS One
Fábio M DaMatta, Rodrigo Avila, Amanda Cardoso, Samuel Martins, José C Ramalho
Coffee is one of the most important global crops and provides a livelihood to millions of people living in developing countries. Coffee species have been described as being highly sensitive to climate change, as largely deduced from modelling studies based on predictions of rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. Here, we discuss the physiological responses of the coffee tree in the context of present and ongoing climate changes, including drought, heat and light stresses, and interactions between these factors...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Lei Wu, Shanshan Qiao, Mengling Peng, Xiaoyi Ma
Soil and nutrient loss is a common natural phenomenon but it exhibits unclear understanding especially on bare loess soil with variable rainfall intensity and slope gradient, which makes it difficult to design control measures for agricultural diffuse pollution. We employ 30 artificial simulated rainfalls (six rainfall intensities and five slope gradients) to quantify the coupling loss correlation of runoff-sediment-adsorbed and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus on bare loess slope. Here, we show that effects of rainfall intensity on runoff yield was stronger than slope gradient with prolongation of rainfall duration, and the effect of slope gradient on runoff yield reduced gradually with increased rainfall intensity...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sarah Guindre-Parker, Dustin R Rubenstein
Although cooperatively breeding vertebrates occur disproportionately in unpredictable environments, the underlying mechanism shaping this biogeographic pattern remains unclear. Cooperative breeding may buffer against harsh conditions (hard life hypothesis), or additionally allow for sustained breeding under benign conditions (temporal variability hypothesis). To distinguish between the hard life and temporal variability hypotheses, we investigated whether the number of alloparents at a nest increased reproductive success or load-lightening in superb starlings ( Lamprotornis superbus ), and whether these two types of benefits varied in harsh and benign years...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Camila Viana Vieira Farhate, Zigomar Menezes de Souza, Stanley Robson de Medeiros Oliveira, Rose Luiza Moraes Tavares, João Luís Nunes Carvalho
Soil CO2 emissions are regarded as one of the largest flows of the global carbon cycle and small changes in their magnitude can have a large effect on the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Thus, a better understanding of this attribute would enable the identification of promoters and the development of strategies to mitigate the risks of climate change. Therefore, our study aimed at using data mining techniques to predict the soil CO2 emission induced by crop management in sugarcane areas in Brazil. To do so, we used different variable selection methods (correlation, chi-square, wrapper) and classification (Decision tree, Bayesian models, neural networks, support vector machine, bagging with logistic regression), and finally we tested the efficiency of different approaches through the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve...
2018: PloS One
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