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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531796/spatially-explicit-modeling-of-multi-scale-drivers-of-aboveground-forest-biomass-and-water-yield-in-watersheds-of-the-southeastern-united-states
#1
Mukhtar Ahmed Ajaz Ahmed, Amr Abd-Elrahman, Francisco J Escobedo, Wendell P Cropper, Timothy A Martin, Nilesh Timilsina
Understanding ecosystem processes and the influence of regional scale drivers can provide useful information for managing forest ecosystems. Examining more local scale drivers of forest biomass and water yield can also provide insights for identifying and better understanding the effects of climate change and management on forests. We used diverse multi-scale datasets, functional models and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to model ecosystem processes at the watershed scale and to interpret the influence of ecological drivers across the Southeastern United States (SE US)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527737/the-rain-watered-lawn-informing-effective-lawn-watering-behavior
#2
Felicia D Survis, Tara L Root
Water restrictions are a common municipal water conservation strategy to manage outdoor water demand, which generally represents more than 50% of total urban-suburban water use. Although water restrictions are designed to limit the frequency of lawn watering, they do not always result in actual water savings. The project described here tested a weather-based add-on water conservation strategy in a South Florida suburban community to determine if it promoted more effective lawn watering behavior than mandatory water restrictions alone...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527380/measurement-differences-between-turbidity-instruments-and-their-implications-for-suspended-sediment-concentration-and-load-calculations-a-sensor-inter-comparison-study
#3
A Rymszewicz, J J O'Sullivan, M Bruen, J N Turner, D M Lawler, E Conroy, M Kelly-Quinn
The use of turbidity for indicating environmentally detrimental levels of suspended and colloidal matter in freshwater systems, and for defining acceptable water quality standards in national and European drinking water regulations, is well established. Turbidity is therefore frequently adopted as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), or as a relative and objective measure of water clarity in monitoring programmes. Through systematic, controlled experimentation, we tested the response of 12 commercially available turbidity sensors, of various designs, to gauge their measurement consistency when benchmarked against pre-prepared sediment suspensions of known SSC...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521938/current-findings-on-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-anhydrobiosis-in-polypedilum-vanderplanki
#4
REVIEW
Yoichiro Sogame, Takahiro Kikawada
Water is an essential molecule for living organisms. However, some organisms can survive in environments which receive no rainfall for months and in which ordinary life cannot survive. How do they endure the extended dry season? The sleeping chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki, which inhabits sub-Saharan Africa, exhibits extreme tolerance to complete desiccation, a process termed anhydrobiosis. During anhydrobiosis these organisms dry up and entirely shut down their metabolism. However, when the dried larvae are immersed in water, their metabolism is resumed...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521935/rainfall-contributes-30-of-the-dissolved-inorganic-nitrogen-exported-from-a-southern-great-barrier-reef-river-basin
#5
Robert Packett
A study was conducted to estimate how much of the annual load of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from Great Barrier Reef (GBR) river basins could come from rainfall. Results suggest rainfall contributed ~37% of the average annual DIN load from the Fitzroy Basin over three wet seasons. Rainfall DIN contribution at plot to sub-catchment scale ranged from 5 to >100% for study sites in the Fitzroy and Pioneer Basins. An estimate using measured and modelled data indicates ~28% of the longer-term average annual DIN load from the entire GBR catchment may originate from rainfall...
May 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521741/the-rainfall-plot-its-motivation-characteristics-and-pitfalls
#6
Diana Domanska, Daniel Vodák, Christin Lund-Andersen, Stefania Salvatore, Eivind Hovig, Geir Kjetil Sandve
BACKGROUND: A visualization referred to as rainfall plot has recently gained popularity in genome data analysis. The plot is mostly used for illustrating the distribution of somatic cancer mutations along a reference genome, typically aiming to identify mutation hotspots. In general terms, the rainfall plot can be seen as a scatter plot showing the location of events on the x-axis versus the distance between consecutive events on the y-axis. Despite its frequent use, the motivation for applying this particular visualization and the appropriateness of its usage have never been critically addressed in detail...
May 18, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520625/the-relationship-between-weather-and-objectively-measured-physical-activity-among-individuals-with-copd
#7
Shea M Balish, Gail Dechman, Paul Hernandez, John C Spence, Ryan E Rhodes, Kerry McGannon, Chris Blanchard
PURPOSE: Although daily variation in weather impacts physical activity (PA) levels among relatively healthy individuals, it is largely unknown whether this relationship occurs for those living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to examine how daily variation in temperature, rain, and snow is related to objectively measured PA among patients with COPD, and whether demographic or clinical characteristics moderate these relationships. METHODS: Patients with COPD completed a questionnaire and wore a pedometer for 7 days at baseline, end of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), and 3 and 9 months after completing PR (28 days in total)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515887/bottom-up-and-top-down-effects-of-tree-species-diversity-on-leaf-insect-herbivory
#8
Bastien Castagneyrol, Damien Bonal, Maxime Damien, Hervé Jactel, Céline Meredieu, Evalyne W Muiruri, Luc Barbaro
The diversity of plant neighbors commonly results in direct, bottom-up effects on herbivore ability to locate their host, and in indirect effects on herbivores involving changes in plant traits and a top-down control by their enemies. Yet, the relative contribution of bottom-up and top-down forces remains poorly understood. We also lack knowledge on the effect of abiotic constraints such as summer drought on the strength and direction of these effects. We measured leaf damage on pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), alone or associated with birch, pine or both in a long-term tree diversity experiment (ORPHEE), where half of the plots were irrigated while the other half remained without irrigation and received only rainfall...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515880/resistance-and-resilience-of-root-fungal-communities-to-water-limitation-in-a-temperate-agroecosystem
#9
Jessie R Furze, Adam R Martin, Joshua Nasielski, Naresh V Thevathasan, Andrew M Gordon, Marney E Isaac
Understanding crop resilience to environmental stress is critical in predicting the consequences of global climate change for agricultural systems worldwide, but to date studies addressing crop resiliency have focused primarily on plant physiological and molecular responses. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form mutualisms with many crop species, and these relationships are key in mitigating the effects of abiotic stress in many agricultural systems. However, to date there is little research examining whether (1) fungal community structure in agroecosystems is resistant to changing environmental conditions, specifically water limitation and (2) resilience of fungal community structure is moderated by agricultural management systems, namely the integration of trees into cropping systems...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514052/shift-in-community-structure-in-an-early-successional-mediterranean-shrubland-driven-by-long-term-experimental-warming-and-drought-and-natural-extreme-droughts
#10
Daijun Liu, Marc Estiarte, Romà Ogaya, Xiaohong Yang, Josep Peñuelas
Global warming and recurring drought are expected to accelerate water limitation for plant communities in semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems and produce directional shifts in structure and composition that are not easily detected, and supporting evidence is scarce. We conducted a long-term (17 years) nocturnal-warming (+0.6 °C) and drought (-40% rainfall) experiment in an early-successional Mediterranean shrubland to study the changes in community structure and composition, contrasting functional groups and dominant species, and the superimposed effects of natural extreme drought...
May 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513920/moisture-induced-greening-of-the-south-asia-over-the-past-three-decades
#11
Xiaoyi Wang, Tao Wang, Dan Liu, Hui Guo, Huabing Huang, Yutong Zhao
South Asia experienced a weakening of summer monsoon circulation in the past several decades, resulting in rainfall decline in wet regions. In comparison to other tropical ecosystems, quantitative assessments of the extent and triggers of vegetation change are lacking in assessing climate-change impacts over South Asia dominated by crops. Here we use satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to quantify spatial-temporal changes in vegetation greenness, and find a widespread annual greening trend that stands in contrast to the weakening of summer monsoon circulation particularly over the last decade...
May 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512463/allometric-models-for-predicting-aboveground-biomass-and-carbon-stock-of-tropical-perennial-c4-grasses-in-hawaii
#12
Adel H Youkhana, Richard M Ogoshi, James R Kiniry, Manyowa N Meki, Mae H Nakahata, Susan E Crow
Biomass is a promising renewable energy option that provides a more environmentally sustainable alternative to fossil resources by reducing the net flux of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. Yet, allometric models that allow the prediction of aboveground biomass (AGB), biomass carbon (C) stock non-destructively have not yet been developed for tropical perennial C4 grasses currently under consideration as potential bioenergy feedstock in Hawaii and other subtropical and tropical locations. The objectives of this study were to develop optimal allometric relationships and site-specific models to predict AGB, biomass C stock of napiergrass, energycane, and sugarcane under cultivation practices for renewable energy and validate these site-specific models against independent data sets generated from sites with widely different environments...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511357/establishing-and-testing-a-catchment-water-footprint-framework-to-inform-sustainable-irrigation-water-use-for-an-aquifer-under-stress
#13
Betsie le Roux, Michael van der Laan, Teunis Vahrmeijer, Keith L Bristow, John G Annandale
Future water scarcities in the face of an increasing population, climate change and the unsustainable use of aquifers will present major challenges to global food production. The ability of water footprints (WFs) to inform water resource management at catchment-scale was investigated on the Steenkoppies Aquifer, South Africa. Yields based on cropping areas were multiplied with season-specific WFs for each crop to determine blue and green water consumption by agriculture. Precipitation and evapotranspiration of natural vegetation and other uses of blue water were included with the agricultural WFs to compare water availability and consumption in a catchment sustainability assessment...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506060/remobilization-dynamics-of-caffeine-ciprofloxacin-and-propranolol-following-evaporation-induced-immobilization-in-porous-media
#14
Hayley J Normile, Charalambos Papelis, Tohren C G Kibbey
Changing weather conditions can cause cycles of wetting and drying in the unsaturated zone. When porewater evaporates, any nonvolatile solutes present in the pores will be driven to adsorb and ultimately precipitate on solid surfaces. When media are subsequently resaturated through rainfall infiltration, the remobilization of solutes likely depends on both the hydraulics of resaturation, and the dynamics of dissolution processes. The focus of this work was to study the dynamics of remobilization of three different emerging contaminants (caffeine, ciprofloxacin and propranolol) and two model compounds (fluorescein, sulforhodamine B) from porous media following evaporation of porewater...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505265/the-influence-of-the-topography-of-the-ailao-mountains-on-congregated-landings-of-airborne-sogatella-furcifera-hemiptera-delphacidae-populations
#15
Yan Wu, Xi-Jie Li, Xiao Chen, Gao Hu, Yan-Yue Hu, Kai Xiong, Guo Zhang, Jian Zhu, Shao-Lei Chen, Ming-Hong Lu, Ai-Dong Chen, Bao-Ping Zhai
The Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is an important migrating rice pest whose outbreak may be caused by large-scale congregated landings. Hitherto, the meteorological factors that influence congregated landings were thought to be rainfall and downdraft. However, for migratory insects on a plateau, low temperature may be another key factor leading to congregated landings. However, no reports have been published. Therefore, this paper evaluates the reason for a large-scale congregated landing in the mountainous area in Yuanjiang via light trap monitoring...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504453/reduced-productivity-of-culex-pipiens-and-cx-restuans-diptera-culicidae-mosquitoes-in-parking-area-catch-basins-in-the-northeast-chicago-metropolitan-area
#16
Justin E Harbison, Bridget Hulsebosch, Jennifer Buczek, Amy Runde, Roger Nasci
From June to September, 2016, 100 catch basins in eight parking areas were monitored weekly for the presence of mosquito pupae in the operational area of the North Shore Mosquito Abatement District (NSMAD) located just north of Chicago, IL, U.S.A. Weekly results from these basins were compared to weekly samples taken from residential street catch basins, the most common type of catch basin treated seasonally by the NSMAD with larvicides. Over the 17 study weeks, residential street basins had a mean rate of productivity (pupae per basin-visit) 12 times that of parking area catch basins...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504344/following-rapoport-s-rule-the-geographic-range-and-genome-size-of-bacterial-taxa-decline-at-warmer-latitudes
#17
Gavin Lear, Kelvin Lau, Anne-Marie Perchec, Hannah L Buckley, Bradley S Case, Martin Neale, Noah Fierer, Jonathan W Leff, Kim M Handley, Gillian Lewis
We sought to test whether stream bacterial communities conform to Rapoport's Rule, a pattern commonly observed for plants and animals whereby taxa exhibit decreased latitudinal range sizes closer to the equator. Using a DNA sequencing approach, we explored the biogeography of biofilm bacterial communities in 204 streams across a ∼1,000km latitudinal gradient. The range sizes of bacterial taxa were strongly correlated with latitude, decreasing closer to the equator, which coincided with a greater than five-fold increase in bacterial taxonomic richness...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500229/isolation-by-distance-and-isolation-by-environment-contribute-to-population-differentiation-in-protea-repens-proteaceae-l-a-widespread-south-african-species
#18
Rachel Prunier, Melis Akman, Colin T Kremer, Nicola Aitken, Aaron Chuah, Justin Borevitz, Kent E Holsinger
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa is renowned for its botanical diversity, but the evolutionary origins of this diversity remain controversial. Both neutral and adaptive processes have been implicated in driving diversification, but population-level studies of plants in the CFR are rare. Here, we investigate the limits to gene flow and potential environmental drivers of selection in Protea repens L. (Proteaceae L.), a widespread CFR species. METHODS: We sampled 19 populations across the range of P...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496140/the-impact-of-a-severe-drought-on-dust-lifting-in-california-s-owens-lake-area
#19
Cauê S Borlina, Nilton O Rennó
Mineral dust aerosols are responsible for some of the largest sources of uncertainties in our current understanding of climate change. Here we show that a severe drought is having a significant impact in one of largest sources of mineral dust aerosols of the U.S., the Owens Lake area in California's southwest. Measurements of aerosol concentration (PM2.5 particle matter) in the Owens Lake salty playa show that the annual mean concentration of PM2.5 aerosol has been increasing steadily since the beginning of the current drought, with periods of high aerosol concentration increasing from 4 months in 2013 to 9 months in 2015...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495052/geographic-variation-in-factors-that-influence-timing-of-moult-and-breeding-in-waterfowl
#20
Mduduzi Ndlovu, Philip A R Hockey, Graeme S Cumming
Waterfowl flight-feather moult is expected to occur when energy is not needed for breeding and when a suitable safe habitat is available. Flight-feather regrowth is an energetically costly stage in the annual cycle of waterfowls. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that moult will coincide with the time of year when food and aquatic habitats are most abundant. We investigated how the timing of rainfall relates to the timing of breeding and flight-feather moult in five common southern African waterfowl at two sites in South Africa with opposite rainfall regimes (one summer, one winter)...
April 23, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
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