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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239860/hypovitaminosis-a-in-extensively-grazed-beef-cattle
#1
E M Parker, C P Gardiner, A E Kessell, A J Parker
CASE REPORT: Vitamin A deficiency was diagnosed in a herd of 97 19-month-old Braford heifers in the Mitchell Grass Downs (Astrebla spp.) bioregion of Hughenden in north-western Queensland during November 2015. Two heifers died after a 48-h history of sternal recumbency and of the 19 that had neurological signs, 7 were blind. Histological changes in the optic nerves of the two necropsied cattle were consistent with vitamin A deficiency. This diagnosis was supported by vitamin A concentrations in fresh liver samples of 5 and 6 mg/kg wet tissue (reference range, 100-175 mg/kg) despite treatment of the cattle with twice the recommended dose of parenteral vitamin A 3 weeks prior to sampling...
March 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239235/quality-control-of-an-hourly-rainfall-dataset-and-climatology-of-extremes-for-the-uk
#2
Stephen Blenkinsop, Elizabeth Lewis, Steven C Chan, Hayley J Fowler
Sub-daily rainfall extremes may be associated with flash flooding, particularly in urban areas but, compared with extremes on daily timescales, have been relatively little studied in many regions. This paper describes a new, hourly rainfall dataset for the UK based on ∼1600 rain gauges from three different data sources. This includes tipping bucket rain gauge data from the UK Environment Agency (EA), which has been collected for operational purposes, principally flood forecasting. Significant problems in the use of such data for the analysis of extreme events include the recording of accumulated totals, high frequency bucket tips, rain gauge recording errors and the non-operation of gauges...
February 2017: International Journal of Climatology: a Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238575/impacts-of-climate-and-land-use-changes-on-the-water-quality-of-a-small-mediterranean-catchment-with-intensive-viticulture
#3
D Serpa, J P Nunes, J J Keizer, N Abrantes
Studies that address the potential effects of climate and land use changes on surface water quality are scarce in the Mediterranean region. In the present work, the impacts of climate and land use changes on nutrient and copper exports from a humid Mediterranean catchment (São Lourenço) were evaluated using the SWAT model. SWAT reproduced reasonably well total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus (TP) and copper (Cu) exports in São Lourenço, providing an adequate baseline scenario as well as a suitable model parameterization for assessing the impacts of climate and land use changes under the A1B and B1 emission scenarios for the end of the 21st century (2071-2100)...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238016/seasonal-pattern-of-mycobacterium-ulcerans-the-causative-agent-of-buruli-ulcer-in-the-environment-in-ghana
#4
Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Kobina Assan Ampah, Amanda Ross, Prince Asare, Isaac Darko Otchere, Janet Fyfe, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
This study aimed to contribute to the understanding of Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) ecology by analysing both clinical and environmental samples collected from ten communities along two major river basins (Offin and Densu) associated with Buruli ulcer (BU) at different seasons. We collected clinical samples from presumptive BU cases and environmental samples from ten communities. Following DNA extraction, clinical samples were confirmed by IS2404 PCR and environmental samples were confirmed by targeting MU-specific genes, IS2404, IS2606 and the ketoreductase (KR) using real-time PCR...
February 25, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237239/meteorological-conditions-and-land-cover-as-predictors-for-the-prevalence-of-bluetongue-virus-in-the-inner-mongolia-autonomous-region-of-mainland-china
#5
Xiang Gao, Hongyu Qin, Jianhua Xiao, Hongbin Wang
Bluetongue is a major disease of economic importance that affects ruminants worldwide. It is transmitted by species of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is one of the main pastoral areas for farmed sheep in Mainland China and, because of its large area, represents an ideal candidate region for the study of Bluetongue virus (BTV) distribution and prevalence characteristics. The present study conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial patterns of BTV transmission in sheep in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and assessed the inter-relationships between meteorological factors, land cover and the transmission of the virus was conducted...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231031/different-serological-profiles-to-cooccurring-pathogenic-and-nonpathogenic-caliciviruses-in-wild-european-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-across-australia
#6
Tanya E Cox, June Liu, Remy van de Ven, Tanja Strive
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was released in Australia as a biocontrol agent for wild European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) in 1995-96; however, its effects were variable across Australia with the greatest population reductions seen in lower annual rainfall areas (<400 mm). There is speculation that the reduced effectiveness observed at higher annual rainfall sites is at least partially due to the presence of a nonpathogenic calicivirus (RCV-A1). The RCV-A1 is related to RHDV and confers partial and transient protection against lethal RHDV infection in laboratory tests...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226262/an-urban-runoff-model-designed-to-inform-stormwater-management-decisions
#7
Nicole G Beck, Gary Conley, Lisa Kanner, Margaret Mathias
We present an urban runoff model designed for stormwater managers to quantify runoff reduction benefits of mitigation actions that has lower input data and user expertise requirements than most commonly used models. The stormwater tool to estimate load reductions (TELR) employs a semi-distributed approach, where landscape characteristics and process representation are spatially-lumped within urban catchments on the order of 100 acres (40 ha). Hydrologic computations use a set of metrics that describe a 30-year rainfall distribution, combined with well-tested algorithms for rainfall-runoff transformation and routing to generate average annual runoff estimates for each catchment...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224340/effects-of-land-disturbance-on-runoff-and-sediment-yield-after-natural-rainfall-events-in-southwestern-china
#8
Xiaomeng Guo, Tianyang Li, Binghui He, Xiaorong He, Yun Yao
Severe soil erosion occurs in southwestern China owing to the large expanses of urbanization and sloping land. This field monitoring study was conducted to record the rainfall events, runoff, and sediment yield in 20-, 40-, and 60-m plots under conditions of artificial disturbance or natural restoration in the purple soil area of southwestern China. The study took place during the rainy season, and the plots were situated on a 15° slope. The results showed that rainstorms and heavy rainstorms generated runoff and sediment yield...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221131/spatiotemporal-fluctuations-and-triggers-of-ebola-virus-spillover
#9
John Paul Schmidt, Andrew W Park, Andrew M Kramer, Barbara A Han, Laura W Alexander, John M Drake
Because the natural reservoir of Ebola virus remains unclear and disease outbreaks in humans have occurred only sporadically over a large region, forecasting when and where Ebola spillovers are most likely to occur constitutes a continuing and urgent public health challenge. We developed a statistical modeling approach that associates 37 human or great ape Ebola spillovers since 1982 with spatiotemporally dynamic covariates including vegetative cover, human population size, and absolute and relative rainfall over 3 decades across sub-Saharan Africa...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215793/the-water-use-of-indian-diets-and-socio-demographic-factors-related-to-dietary-blue-water-footprint
#10
Francesca Harris, Rosemary F Green, Edward J M Joy, Benjamin Kayatz, Andy Haines, Alan D Dangour
Agriculture accounts for ~90% of India's fresh water use, and there are concerns that future food production will be threatened by insufficient water supply of adequate quality. This study aimed to quantify the water required in the production of diets in India using the water footprint (WF) assessment method. The socio-demographic associations of dietary WFs were explored using mixed effects regression models with a particular focus on blue (irrigation) WF given the importance for Indian agriculture. Dietary data from ~7000 adults living in India were matched to India-specific WF data for food groups to quantify the blue and green (rainfall) WF of typical diets...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215613/examining-the-utility-of-coral-ba-ca-as-a-proxy-for-river-discharge-and-hydroclimate-variability-at-coiba-island-gulf-of-chirqu%C3%A3-panam%C3%A3
#11
Logan D Brenner, Braddock K Linsley, Robert B Dunbar
Panamá's extreme hydroclimate seasonality is driven by Intertropical Convergence Zone rainfall and resulting runoff. River discharge (Q) carries terrestrially-derived barium to coastal waters that can be recorded in coral. We present a Ba/Ca record (1996-1917) generated from a Porites coral colony in the Gulf of Chiriquí near Coiba Island (Panamá) to understand regional hydroclimate. Here coral Ba/Ca is correlated to instrumental Q (R=0.67, p<0.001), producing a seasonally-resolved Reduced Major Axis regression of Ba/Ca (μmol/mol)=Q (m(3)/s)×0...
February 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213336/linking-the-mobilization-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-catchments-and-its-removal-in-drinking-water-treatment-to-its-molecular-characteristics
#12
Julia Raeke, Oliver J Lechtenfeld, Jörg Tittel, Marieke R Oosterwoud, Katrin Bornmann, Thorsten Reemtsma
Drinking water reservoirs in the Northern Hemisphere are largely affected by the decadal-long increase in riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. The removal of DOC in drinking water treatment is costly and predictions are needed to link DOC removal efficiency to its mobilization in catchments, both of which are determined by the molecular composition. To study the effect of hydrological events and land use on the molecular characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM), 36 samples from three different catchment areas in the German low mountain ranges, with DOC concentrations ranging from 3 to 32 mg L(-1), were examined...
February 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211583/in%C3%A2-situ-temperature-response-of-photosynthesis-of-42-tree-and-liana-species-in-the-canopy-of-two-panamanian-lowland-tropical-forests-with-contrasting-rainfall-regimes
#13
Martijn Slot, Klaus Winter
Tropical forests contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle, but little is known about the temperature response of photosynthetic carbon uptake in tropical species, and how this varies within and across forests. We determined in situ photosynthetic temperature-response curves for upper canopy leaves of 42 tree and liana species from two tropical forests in Panama with contrasting rainfall regimes. On the basis of seedling studies, we hypothesized that species with high photosynthetic capacity - light-demanding, fast-growing species - would have a higher temperature optimum of photosynthesis (TOpt ) than species with low photosynthetic capacity - shade-tolerant, slow-growing species - and that, therefore, TOpt would scale with the position of a species on the slow-fast continuum of plant functional traits...
February 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211478/ecology-and-genetics-affect-relative-invasion-success-of-two-echium-species-in-southern-australia
#14
Xiaocheng Zhu, Paul A Weston, Dominik Skoneczny, David Gopurenko, Lucie Meyer, Brendan J Lepschi, Ragan M Callaway, Geoff M Gurr, Leslie A Weston
Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare are congeneric exotics first introduced to Australia in the early 1800 s. There, E. plantagineum is now highly invasive, whereas E. vulgare has a limited distribution. Studies were conducted to evaluate distribution, ecology, genetics and secondary chemistry to shed light on factors associated with their respective invasive success. When sampled across geographically diverse locales, E. plantagineum was widespread and exhibited a small genome size (1 C = 0.34 pg), an annual life cycle, and greater genetic diversity as assessed by DNA sequence analysis...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211323/evaluation-the-urban-atmospheric-conditions-in-different-cities-using-comet-and-micronuclei-assay-in-tradescantia-pallida
#15
Juliana Caroline Vivian Sposito, Bruno do Amaral Crispim, Amanda Izadora Romãn, Rosilda Mara Mussury, Joelson Gonçalves Pereira, Leonardo Oliveira Seno, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
In the present study, genotoxicity and mutagenicity were investigated in Tradescantia pallida exposed to vehicular traffic at different sites in a high-altitude tropical climate. During March, May, July, September, and November 2014, a comet assay and micronucleus bioassays were conducted on young inflorescences and leaves of T. pallida collected from twelve towns in the southern region of Mato Grosso do Sul with different amounts of vehicular traffic. Weather parameters (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) were measured and vehicles were counted to determine traffic levels in each town...
February 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199898/differential-release-of-manure-borne-bioactive-phosphorus-forms-to-runoff-and-leachate-under-simulated-rain
#16
R A Blaustein, Thanh H Dao, Y A Pachepsky, D R Shelton
Limited information exists on the unhindered release of bioactive phosphorus (P) from a manure layer to model the partitioning and transport of component P forms before they reach an underlying soil. Rain simulations were conducted to quantify effects of intensity (30, 60, and 90 mm h(-1)) on P release from an application of 60 Mg ha(-1) of dairy manure. Runoff contained water-extractable- (WEP), exchangeable and enzyme-labile bioactive P (TBIOP), in contrast to the operationally defined "dissolved-reactive P" form...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199877/characterising-stormwater-gross-pollutants-captured-in-catch-basin-inserts
#17
Md Zahanggir Alam, A H M Faisal Anwar, Dipok Chandra Sarker, Anna Heitz, Craig Rothleitner
The accumulation of wash-off solid waste, termed gross pollutants (GPs), in drainage systems has become a major constraint for best management practices (BMPs) of stormwater. GPs should be captured at source before the material clogs the drainage network, seals the infiltration capacity of side entry pits or affects the aquatic life in receiving waters. BMPs intended to reduce stormwater pollutants include oil and grit separators, grassed swales, vegetated filter strips, retention ponds, and catch basin inserts (CBIs) are used to remove GP at the source and have no extra land use requirement because they are typically mounted within a catch basin (e...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198917/environmental-drivers-on-leaf-phenology-of-ironstone-outcrops-species-under-seasonal-climate
#18
Letícia C Garcia, Fernanda V Barros, José P Lemos-Filho
Banded iron formations (BIF) have a particular vegetation type and provide a good model system for testing theories related to leaf phenology, due to unique stressful environmental conditions. As a consequence of the stressful conditions of BIF environment, we hypothesize that most species would retain at least some significant canopy cover, even at the end of the dry season, independently of growth form - trees, shrubs, and sub-shrubs. Considering the strong seasonality, we also hypothesize that photoperiod and rainfall act as triggers for leaf fall and leaf flushing in these environments...
February 9, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198649/fatal-drownings-in-fiji
#19
Kathryn Murray, Peter Carter
Drowning is a newly comprehended public health concern in Fiji. Defined as "the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersions or immersion in liquid," drowning has been identified as one of Fiji's 5 leading causes of death for those aged 1 to 29 years. The aim of this article was to develop the most parsimonious model that can be used to explain the number of monthly fatal drowning cases in Fiji. Based on a cross-section of 187 drowning incidents from January 2012 to April 2015, this observational study found the number of monthly drownings in Fiji was significantly affected by monthly rainfall ( P = ...
January 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195575/a-land-data-assimilation-system-for-sub-saharan-africa-food-and-water-security-applications
#20
Amy McNally, Kristi Arsenault, Sujay Kumar, Shraddhanand Shukla, Pete Peterson, Shugong Wang, Chris Funk, Christa D Peters-Lidard, James P Verdin
Seasonal agricultural drought monitoring systems, which rely on satellite remote sensing and land surface models (LSMs), are important for disaster risk reduction and famine early warning. These systems require the best available weather inputs, as well as a long-term historical record to contextualize current observations. This article introduces the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), a custom instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The FLDAS is routinely used to produce multi-model and multi-forcing estimates of hydro-climate states and fluxes over semi-arid, food insecure regions of Africa...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Data
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