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José A Marengo, Lincoln M Alves, Regina C S Alvala, Ana Paula Cunha, Sheila Brito, Osvaldo L L Moraes
This study discusses the climatological aspects of the most severe drought ever recorded in the semiarid region Northeast Brazil. Droughts are recurrent in the region and while El Nino has driven some of these events others are more dependent on the tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperature fields. The drought affecting this region during the last 5 years shows an intensity and impact not seen in several decades in the regional economy and society. The analysis of this event using drought indicators as well as meteorological fields shows that since the middle 1990s to 2016, 16 out of 25 years experienced rainfall below normal...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Charlie K Cornwallis, Carlos A Botero, Dustin R Rubenstein, Philip A Downing, Stuart A West, Ashleigh S Griffin
Animals living in harsh environments, where temperatures are hot and rainfall is unpredictable, are more likely to breed in cooperative groups. As a result, harsh environmental conditions have been accepted as a key factor explaining the evolution of cooperation. However, this is based on evidence that has not investigated the order of evolutionary events, so the inferred causality could be incorrect. We resolved this problem using phylogenetic analyses of 4,707 bird species and found that causation was in the opposite direction to that previously assumed...
February 17, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Michelle H Reynolds, Paul Berkowitz, John L Klavitter, Karen N Courtot
Earthquake-generated tsunamis threaten coastal areas and low-lying islands with sudden flooding. Although human hazards and infrastructure damage have been well documented for tsunamis in recent decades, the effects on wildlife communities rarely have been quantified. We describe a tsunami that hit the world's largest remaining tropical seabird rookery and estimate the effects of sudden flooding on 23 bird species nesting on Pacific islands more than 3,800 km from the epicenter. We used global positioning systems, tide gauge data, and satellite imagery to quantify characteristics of the Tōhoku earthquake-generated tsunami (11 March 2011) and its inundation extent across four Hawaiian Islands...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
André Almagro, Paulo Tarso S Oliveira, Mark A Nearing, Stefan Hagemann
The impacts of climate change on soil erosion may bring serious economic, social and environmental problems. However, few studies have investigated these impacts on continental scales. Here we assessed the influence of climate change on rainfall erosivity across Brazil. We used observed rainfall data and downscaled climate model output based on Hadley Center Global Environment Model version 2 (HadGEM2-ES) and Model for Interdisciplinary Research On Climate version 5 (MIROC5), forced by Representative Concentration Pathway 4...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xingkai Zhao, Zengyao Li, Qingke Zhu
Precipitation plays an important and crucial role in processes in the water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau than in other parts of the region. We analyzed precipitation data and standardized precipitation index (SPI) at 14 representative synoptic stations from 1958 to 2015 used trend-free prewhitening, linear trend estimation, Spearman's rho test, the Mann-Kendall trend test, the Mann-Kendall abrupt change test and rescaled range analysis. The following conclusions were drawn. First, the analysis of monthly precipitation at all stations suggested that precipitation during the rainy season (July, August, September), especially rain in July and August, exhibited a general decreasing trend, while both increasing and decreasing trends were observed in other months...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Qian Wang, Barry C Kelly
Due to restrictions on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), market demand for alternative flame retardants is projected to increase, worldwide. Information regarding the environmental behavior of these compounds is limited. The present study involved field measurements of several alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), along with PBDEs and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in surface water, bottom sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) within a highly urbanized watershed in Singapore...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Prakash N Dixit, Roberto Telleria, Amal N Al Khatib, Siham F Allouzi
Different aspects of climate change, such as increased temperature, changed rainfall and higher atmospheric CO2 concentration, all have different effects on crop yields. Process-based crop models are the most widely used tools for estimating future crop yield responses to climate change. We applied APSIM crop simulation model in a dry Mediterranean climate with Jordan as sentinel site to assess impact of climate change on wheat production at decadal level considering two climate change scenarios of representative concentration pathways (RCP) viz...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Filippo Giannetti, Ruggero Reggiannini, Marco Moretti, Elisa Adirosi, Luca Baldini, Luca Facheris, Andrea Antonini, Samantha Melani, Giacomo Bacci, Antonio Petrolino, Attilio Vaccaro
We present the NEFOCAST project (named by the contraction of "Nefele", which is the Italian spelling for the mythological cloud nymph Nephele, and "forecast"), funded by the Tuscany Region, about the feasibility of a system for the detection and monitoring of precipitation fields over the regional territory based on the use of a widespread network of new-generation Eutelsat "SmartLNB" (smart low-noise block converter) domestic terminals. Though primarily intended for interactive satellite services, these devices can also be used as weather sensors, as they have the capability of measuring the rain-induced attenuation incurred by the downlink signal and relaying it on an auxiliary return channel...
August 12, 2017: Sensors
Jui-Ming Liu, Yu-Lung Chang, Ren-Jun Hsu, Her-Young Su, Sen-Wen Teng, Fung-Wei Chang
OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the main reason of community-acquired infection which causes large losses in social economy. The individual as well as climate factors make changes on the incidence. Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is one of the most serious UTI in female. The object of our study is to analyze whether climate factors will have effect on the incidence of female APN in Taiwan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study consisted of 14,568 female patients with APN from 2001 to 2013 in Taiwan and patients with repeated APN were excluded...
August 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Bozhi Ren, Yingying Zhou, Andrew S Hursthouse, Renjian Deng
We aimed to study the characteristics and the mechanism of the cumulative release of antimony at an antimony smelting slag stacking area in southern China. A series of dynamic and static leaching experiments to simulate the effects of rainfall were carried out. The results showed that the release of antimony from smelting slag increased with a decrease in the solid-liquid ratio, and the maximum accumulated release was found to be 42.13 mg Sb/kg waste and 34.26 mg Sb/kg waste with a solid/liquid ratio of 1 : 20; the maximum amount of antimony was released within 149-420 μm size fraction with 7...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Stephen Shelton, Jay Hamm, Bankole Olatosi, R Ory Johnson
Excessive rainfall and dam failures resulted in floodwater contaminating our public water supply. The endotoxin risk in the contaminated water created challenges in recovery of sterile processing for our surgical equipment. Recovery plans should include a potable water source and a method to connect it to the required location. We share our solution of plumbing our sterile processing equipment to tanker-transported potable water sources. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 4).
August 14, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Chien-Yuan Chen, Qun Wang
Chushui Creek in Shengmu Village, Nantou County, Taiwan, was analyzed for recurrent debris flow using numerical modeling and geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis. The two-dimensional water flood and mudflow simulation program FLO-2D were used to simulate debris flow induced by rainfall during typhoon Herb in 1996 and Mindulle in 2004. Changes in topographic characteristics after the debris flows were simulated for the initiation of hydrological characteristics, magnitude, and affected area. Changes in topographic characteristics included those in elevation, slope, aspect, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), and hypsometric curve integral (HI), all of which were analyzed using GIS spatial analysis...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
E L Cuttance, W A Mason, J McDermott, R A Laven, S McDougall, C V C Phyn
The aims of this study were to (1) estimate the perinatal (birth to 24 h) and postnatal (∼24 h to the mean weaning age of 13 wk) mortality risk in pasture-based dairy calves until weaning, and (2) identify associated risk factors in the 2015 calving season. A prospective survey of 32 seasonal calving dairy farms was undertaken. Farmers recorded (daily) the number and sex of the calves alive or dead in the paddocks where cows calved. All daily animal movements in and out of the calf rearing facilities, including death and euthanasia, and the identification of the animals (if applicable) were recorded, and a survey of the farm management practices was undertaken...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Emilie Jardé, Laurent Jeanneau, Loïc Harrault, Emmanuelle Quenot, Olivia Solecki, Patrice Petitjean, Solen Lozach, Julien Chevé, Michèle Gourmelon
This study identified sources of fecal contamination in three different French headwater and coastal catchments (the Justiçou, Pen an Traon, and La Fresnaye) using a combination of microbial source tracking tools. The tools included bacterial markers (three host-associated Bacteroidales) and chemical markers (six fecal stanols), which were monitored monthly over one or two years in addition to fecal indicator bacteria. 168 of the 240 freshwater and marine water samples had Escherichia coli (E. coli) or enterococci concentrations higher than "excellent" European water quality threshold...
August 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Conrad Wasko, Ashish Sharma
There is overwhelming consensus that the intensity of heavy precipitation events is increasing in a warming world. It is generally expected such increases will translate to a corresponding increase in flooding. Here, using global data sets for non-urban catchments, we investigate the sensitivity of extreme daily precipitation and streamflow to changes in daily temperature. We find little evidence to suggest that increases in heavy rainfall events at higher temperatures result in similar increases in streamflow, with most regions throughout the world showing decreased streamflow with higher temperatures...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Haili Yu, Nianpeng He, Qiufeng Wang, Jianxing Zhu, Yang Gao, Yunhai Zhang, Yanlong Jia, Guirui Yu
Atmospheric acid deposition is a global environmental issue. China has been experiencing serious acid deposition, which is anticipated to become more severe with the country's economic development and increasing consumption of fossil fuels in recent decades. We explored the spatiotemporal variations of acid deposition (wet acid deposition) and its influencing factors by collecting nationwide data on pH and concentrations of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) in precipitation between 1980 and 2014 in China...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Matthew Konkler, Jeffrey J Morrell
The potential for migration of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper naphthenate (CuNaph) from Douglas-fir was assessed in a bridge over a stream located in Western Oregon in the United States. All rainfall runoff was collected from a portion of the bridge on 15 occasions over a 27 month period and analyzed for pentachlorophenol or copper. PCP and copper were detected at every time point. PCP concentrations ranged from 0.296 to 6.183 μg/mL, while those for copper ranged from 0.37 to 7.80 μg/mL. These data were then used to estimate PCP and Cu inputs in runoff from the entire bridge...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Nirupam Karmakar, Arindam Chakraborty, Ravi S Nanjundiah
The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) shows quasi-rhythmic intraseasonal oscillations (ISO) manifested as alternate 'active' phases of copious rainfall and quiescent phases of 'break'. Within these periodic phases, the daily rainfall shows large variability and exhibits spatiotemporally sporadic extreme rainfall events. The recent decades have witnessed a significant increase in the number of these extreme rainfall events, especially in the quiescent phases. This increase is accompanied by a decreasing trend in the mean monsoon rainfall and a weakening variance of its low-frequency ISO (LF-ISO) cycle...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Philippe Sorrel, Ines Eymard, Philippe-Herve Leloup, Gweltaz Maheo, Nicolas Olivier, Mary Sterb, Loraine Gourbet, Guocan Wang, Wu Jing, Haijian Lu, Haibing Li, Xu Yadong, Kexin Zhang, Kai Cao, Marie-Luce Chevalier, Anne Replumaz
Cenozoic climate cooling at the advent of the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), ~33.7 Ma ago, was stamped in the ocean by a series of climatic events albeit the impact of this global climatic transition on terrestrial environments is still fragmentary. Yet archival constraints on Late Eocene atmospheric circulation are scarce in (tropical) monsoonal Asia, and the paucity of terrestrial records hampers a meaningful comparison of the long-term climatic trends between oceanic and continental realms. Here we report new sedimentological data from the Jianchuan basin (SE Tibet) arguing for wetter climatic conditions in monsoonal Asia at ~35...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Long Yan, Hong Wang, Xuan Zhang, Ming-Yue Li, Juan He
OBJECTIVES: Influence of meteorological variables on the transmission of bacillary dysentery (BD) is under investigated topic and effective forecasting models as public health tool are lacking. This paper aimed to quantify the relationship between meteorological variables and BD cases in Beijing and to establish an effective forecasting model. METHODS: A time series analysis was conducted in the Beijing area based upon monthly data on weather variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, vapor pressure, and wind speed) and on the number of BD cases during the period 1970-2012...
2017: PloS One
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