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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107342/seroprevalence-of-chikungunya-virus-in-a-rural-community-in-brazil
#1
Rivaldo V Cunha, Karen S Trinta, Camila A Montalbano, Michel V F Sucupira, Maricelia M de Lima, Erenilde Marques, Izilyanne H Romanholi, Julio Croda
BACKGROUND: The emergence of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is currently expanding. In 2015, 38,332 cases of Chikungunya were reported to the Brazilian epidemiological surveillance system. Eighteen months after notification of the first case in the city of Feira de Santana, we conducted the first serosurvey to define the magnitude of transmission in a rural community in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: The serosurvey was conducted in a random sample of 450 residences in the Chapada district, located 100 kilometers from Feira de Santana...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104334/evaluation-of-factors-affecting-soil-carbon-sequestration-services-of-stormwater-wet-retention-ponds-in-varying-climate-zones
#2
L S Merriman, T L C Moore, J W Wang, D L Osmond, A M Al-Rubaei, A P Smolek, G T Blecken, M Viklander, W F Hunt
The carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds were investigated in four different climates: U.S., Northern Sweden, Southern Sweden, and Singapore, representing a range of annual mean temperatures, growing season lengths and rainfall depths: geographic factors that were not statistically compared, but have great effect on carbon (C) accumulation. A chronosequence was used to estimate C accumulations rates; C accumulation and decomposition rates were not directly measured. C accumulated significantly over time in vegetated shallow water areas (0-30cm) in the USA (78...
January 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103269/wildlife-population-dynamics-in-human-dominated-landscapes-under-community-based-conservation-the-example-of-nakuru-wildlife-conservancy-kenya
#3
Joseph O Ogutu, Bernard Kuloba, Hans-Peter Piepho, Erustus Kanga
Wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in Africa, including in Kenya. We analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy (NWC), located in the Nakuru-Naivasha region of Kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from March 1996 to May 2015. Rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component and varying from 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097426/functional-diversity-increases-ecological-stability-in-a-grazed-grassland
#4
Lauren M Hallett, Claudia Stein, Katharine N Suding
Understanding the factors governing ecological stability in variable environments is a central focus of ecology. Functional diversity can stabilize ecosystem function over time if one group of species compensates for an environmentally driven decline in another. Although intuitively appealing, evidence for this pattern is mixed. We hypothesized that diverse functional responses to rainfall will increase the stability of vegetation cover and biomass across rainfall conditions, but that this effect depends on land-use legacies that maintain functional diversity...
January 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096603/gastrointestinal-nematode-larvae-in-the-grazing-land-of-cattle-in-guwahati-assam
#5
Meena Das, D K Deka, S Islam, P C Sarmah, K Bhattacharjee
AIM: To know the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode larvae (L3) in the grazing land of cattle in Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pastures were collected and examined for the presence of nematode larvae (L3) from six localities of Guwahati at monthly interval from August 2012 to July 2013. The counted larvae were then expressed as per kg dry matter of herbage (L3/kg DM). RESULTS: Examination of pastures revealed presence of nematode larvae (L3) in pastures throughout the year which varied from 4...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096416/infrastructure-mitigates-the-sensitivity-of-child-growth-to-local-agriculture-and-rainfall-in-nepal-and-uganda
#6
Gerald E Shively
This paper investigates linear growth and weight gain among 11,946 children below the age of 5 y in Nepal and Uganda, testing the hypothesis that child growth is sensitive to precipitation during key periods in a child's early life. The paper also tests the importance of the economic and physical environments in which children reside. Outcomes are not completely explained by agricultural performance or the observed characteristics of children or their households. Associations between height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) and rainfall are generally positive, but patterns are heterogeneous...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096384/holocene-enso-related-cyclic-storms-recorded-by-magnetic-minerals-in-speleothems-of-central-china
#7
Zongmin Zhu, Joshua M Feinberg, Shucheng Xie, Mark D Bourne, Chunju Huang, Chaoyong Hu, Hai Cheng
Extreme hydrologic events such as storms and floods have the potential to severely impact modern human society. However, the frequency of storms and their underlying mechanisms are limited by a paucity of suitable proxies, especially in inland areas. Here we present a record of speleothem magnetic minerals to reconstruct paleoprecipitation, including storms, in the eastern Asian monsoon area over the last 8.6 ky. The geophysical parameter IRMsoft-flux represents the flux of soil-derived magnetic minerals preserved in stalagmite HS4, which we correlate with rainfall amount and intensity...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095496/opportunities-for-integrated-ecological-analysis-across-inland-australia-with-standardised-data-from-ausplots-rangelands
#8
Greg R Guerin, Ben Sparrow, Andrew Tokmakoff, Anita Smyth, Emrys Leitch, Zdravko Baruch, Andrew J Lowe
Australian rangelands ecosystems cover 81% of the continent but are understudied and continental-scale research has been limited in part by a lack of precise data that are standardised between jurisdictions. We present a new dataset from AusPlots Rangelands that enables integrative rangelands analysis due to its geographic scope and standardised methodology. The method provides data on vegetation and soils, enabling comparison of a suite of metrics including fractional vegetation cover, basal area, and species richness, diversity, and composition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094918/mercury-wet-scavenging-and-deposition-differences-by-precipitation-type
#9
Aaron S Kaulfus, Udaysankar S Nair, Christopher D Holmes, William M Landing
We analyze the effect of precipitation type on mercury wet deposition using a new database of individual rain events spanning the contiguous United States. Measurements from the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) containing single rainfall events were identified and classified into 6 precipitation types. Mercury concentrations in surface precipitation follow a power law of precipitation depth that is modulated by precipitation system morphology. After controlling for precipitation depth, the highest mercury deposition occurs in supercell thunderstorms with decreasing deposition in disorganized thunderstorms, quasi-linear convective systems (QLCS), extratropical cyclones, light rain and land-falling tropical cyclones...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094899/identification-of-glyphosate-resistance-in-salsola-tragus-in-northeastern-oregon
#10
Judit Barroso, Jennifer A Gourlie, Larry K Lutcher, Mingyang Liu, Carol A Mallory-Smith
BACKGROUND: Farmers in the low-rainfall region of eastern Oregon rely on repeated applications of non-selective herbicides, predominately glyphosate, to control Salsola tragus in no-till fallow systems. Reports of poor glyphosate effectiveness have increased in recent years. Reduced efficacy is often attributed to dust, water stress, or generally poor growing conditions during application. Inadequate control also may be the result of the evolution of glyphosate resistance. Therefore, studies were undertaken to determine if glyphosate-resistant S...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092980/hydrogeochemical-and-isotope-study-of-perched-aquifers-in-the-cuvelai-etosha-basin-namibia
#11
Josefina T Hamutoko, Heike Wanke, Paul Koeniger, Matthias Beyer, Marcel Gaj
A hydrogeochemical and stable isotope study ((2)H and (18)O) was carried out in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in order to characterize available groundwater and to identify possible recharge mechanisms for the perched aquifers. Data were collected during seven field campaigns between 2013 and 2015 from a total of 24 shallow and deep groundwater hand-dug wells. In the investigated groundwaters, hydrogencarbonate is the dominating anion in both well types, whereas cations vary between calcium and magnesium in deep wells, and sodium and potassium in shallow wells...
January 16, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092769/spatiotemporal-change-of-phosphorous-speciation-and-concentration-in-stormwater-in-the-st-lucie-estuary-watershed-south-florida
#12
Liguang Li, Zhenli He, Zhigang Li, Suli Li, Yongshan Wan, Peter J Stoffella
Phosphorous (P) concentration in stormwater runoff varies at different spatial and temporal scales. Excessive P loading from agriculture system into the St. Lucie Estuary (SLE) contributed to water quality deterioration in southern Indian River Lagoon. This study examines the spatial and temporal shifts of different P forms in runoff and storm water under different land use, water management, and rainfall conditions. Storm water samplings were conducted monthly between April 2013 and December 2014 in typical farmland and along the waterway (Canal C-24) that connects lands to the SLE...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091992/analysing-the-correlations-of-long-term-seasonal-water-quality-parameters-suspended-solids-and-total-dissolved-solids-in-a-shallow-reservoir-with-meteorological-factors
#13
Chen Zhang, Wenna Zhang, Yixuan Huang, Xueping Gao
To explore the correlations among water quality parameters, suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) with meteorological factors in a shallow reservoir in China, the long-term variations of water quality were considered. A non-parametric regression method, generalized additive models (GAM), was used to analyse the correlations among eleven physicochemical and biological parameters as well as three meteorological factors (wind speed, rainfall and solar radiation) which we collected from 2000 to 2011...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087073/abnormal-mortality-of-octopus-after-a-storm-water-event-accumulated-lead-and-lead-isotopes-as-fingerprints
#14
J Raimundo, F Ruano, J Pereira, M Mil-Homens, P Brito, C Vale, M Caetano
Octopus vulgaris is a sedentary organism that inhabits coastal waters being exposed to anthropogenic compounds. Lead concentration in coastal environments reflects many processes and activities namely weathering, industrial and domestic discharges, and atmospheric deposition. Since lead isotopic composition is little affected by kinetic processes occurring between source and sink, its signature has been used to identify different Pb sources. After a short-term heavy rainfall, hundreds of octopus appeared dead in two Portuguese coastal areas...
January 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081179/effect-of-straw-amendment-on-soil-zn-availability-and-ageing-of-exogenous-water-soluble-zn-applied-to-calcareous-soil
#15
Yanlong Chen, Juan Cui, Xiaohong Tian, Aiqing Zhao, Meng Li, Shaoxia Wang, Xiushaung Li, Zhou Jia, Ke Liu
Organic matter plays a key role in availability and transformation of soil Zn (zinc), which greatly controls Zn concentrations in cereal grains and human Zn nutrition level. Accordingly, soils homogenized with the wheat straw (0, 12 g straw kg-1) and Zn fertilizer (0, 7 mg Zn kg-1) were buried and incubated in the field over 210 days to explore the response of soil Zn availability and the ageing of exogenous Zn to straw addition. Results indicated that adding straw alone scarcely affected soil DTPA-Zn concentration and Zn fractions because of the low Zn concentration of wheat straw and the high soil pH, and large clay and calcium carbonate contents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079147/flood-dynamics-in-urbanised-landscapes-100-years-of-climate-and-humans-interaction
#16
G Sofia, G Roder, G Dalla Fontana, P Tarolli
Raising interest in the interaction between humans and climate drivers to understand the past and current development of floods in urbanised landscapes is of great importance. This study presents a regional screening of land-use, rainfall regime and flood dynamics in north-eastern Italy, covering the timeframe 1900-2010. This analysis suggests that, statistically, both climate and land-use have been contributing to a significant increase of the contribution of short duration floods to the increase in the number of flooded locations...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079075/hydroclimate-changes-across-the-amazon-lowlands-over-the-past-45-000-years
#17
Xianfeng Wang, R Lawrence Edwards, Augusto S Auler, Hai Cheng, Xinggong Kong, Yongjin Wang, Francisco W Cruz, Jeffrey A Dorale, Hong-Wei Chiang
Reconstructing the history of tropical hydroclimates has been difficult, particularly for the Amazon basin-one of Earth's major centres of deep atmospheric convection. For example, whether the Amazon basin was substantially drier or remained wet during glacial times has been controversial, largely because most study sites have been located on the periphery of the basin, and because interpretations can be complicated by sediment preservation, uncertainties in chronology, and topographical setting. Here we show that rainfall in the basin responds closely to changes in glacial boundary conditions in terms of temperature and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078369/effectiveness-of-integrated-best-management-practices-on-mitigation-of-atrazine-and-metolachlor-in-an-agricultural-lake-watershed
#18
Richard Lizotte, Martin Locke, Ronald Bingner, R Wade Steinriede, Sammie Smith
The study examined the influence of land-use (cropping patterns) and integrated agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on spring herbicide levels in an agricultural watershed. Atrazine and metolachlor were applied for weed control during spring of 1998-2002, 2005, and 2007-2013. Watershed-wide mass of applied herbicides ranged from 12.7 to 209.2 g atrazine and 10.9-302.2 g metolachlor with greatest application during 1998, 2009-2010 (atrazine) and 2007-2013 (metolachlor). Spring herbicide concentrations in Beasley Lake water ranged from below detection to 3...
January 11, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077687/stronger-seasonal-adjustment-in-leaf-turgor-loss-point-in-lianas-than-trees-in-an-amazonian-forest
#19
Isabelle Maréchaux, Megan K Bartlett, Amaia Iribar, Lawren Sack, Jérôme Chave
Pan-tropically, liana density increases with decreasing rainfall and increasing seasonality. This pattern has led to the hypothesis that lianas display a growth advantage over trees under dry conditions. However, the physiological mechanisms underpinning this hypothesis remain elusive. A key trait influencing leaf and plant drought tolerance is the leaf water potential at turgor loss point (πtlp). πtlp adjusts under drier conditions and this contributes to improved leaf drought tolerance. For co-occurring Amazonian tree (n = 247) and liana (n = 57) individuals measured during the dry and the wet seasons, lianas showed a stronger osmotic adjustment than trees...
January 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077210/spatial-temporal-and-multi-media-variations-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-a-highly-urbanized-river-from-south-china
#20
Di Zhang, Jun-Jian Wang, Hong-Gang Ni, Hui Zeng
Comprehensive studies on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within an urban river are urgently needed to carry out strategies to limit their contamination and dispersal. Here, we analyzed 16 PAH occurrences in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediment monthly for a year in the Maozhou River mainstream (Shenzhen, South China). Monthly rainfall positively correlated with both total PAH concentrations in filtered water (water PAHs) and SPM. Sediment PAH concentration increased from the river source to estuary...
January 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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