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pediatrics, microbiology, biology

Miguel Santin, José-María García-García, José Domínguez
INTRODUCTION: Interferon-gamma release assays are widely used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in low-prevalence countries. However, there is no consensus on their application. The objective of this study was to develop guidelines for the use of interferon-gamma release assays in specific clinical scenarios in Spain. METHODS: A panel of experts comprising specialists in infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, microbiology, pediatrics and preventive medicine, together with a methodologist, formulated the clinical questions and outcomes of interest...
May 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
J-L Wang, G-W Zhao, Z-Q Zhang, X-F Wang, M-S Wang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of pediatric tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) patients to make an accurate diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pediatric TPE patients who admitted to Shandong Provincial Chest Hospital were retrospectively reviewed from March 2006 to April 2015. RESULTS: 112 pediatric TPE patients were enrolled. The mean age was 11.6 ± 3.2 years. 60 (53.6%) patients were diagnosed as TPE, 40 (35...
August 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Anne Beneteau, Corinne Levy, Pierre Foucaud, Stéphane Béchet, Robert Cohen, Josette Raymond, Marie-Aliette Dommergues
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Sporadic cases of Streptococcus bovis have been described in neonates and infants. To assess the epidemiologic, clinical and biologic characteristics of this meningitis, we used the French Surveillance Network for BM in children. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-seven pediatric wards working with 168 microbiology departments throughout France were asked to report all cases of BM in patients <18 years...
February 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
C Levy, E Varon, M-K Taha, S Béchet, S Bonacorsi, R Cohen, E Bingen
BACKGROUND: For the past 20 years, three vaccines against the three main bacterial species implicated in meningitis in children have been included in the French vaccine calendar: Haemophilus influenzae b in 1993, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2003 (replaced by 13-valent in 2010) and Neisseria meningitidis C in 2009. The French active surveillance network from the GPIP/ACTIV monitors the change in the epidemiological, clinical, and biological features of bacterial meningitis due to vaccine use...
July 2014: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Roberta Iatta, Claudia Cafarchia, Teresa Cuna, Osvaldo Montagna, Nicola Laforgia, Ottavio Gentile, Antonino Rizzo, Teun Boekhout, Domenico Otranto, Maria Teresa Montagna
Despite being considered an emerging yeast related to immunocompromised individuals, severe infections by Malassezia furfur have not been evaluated. During a one-year survey on yeasts fungemia, 290 neonatal and 17 pediatric patients with intravascular catheters, lipid parenteral nutrition, prolonged ward stay, and surgery were enrolled. In addition, the origin of the infection was investigated by swabbing hand skin of patients, parents, and healthcare workers and medical devices. All biological specimens and swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and Dixon agar...
April 2014: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Anne Limelette, Camille Boulagnon, Caroline Terrade, Yohan N'guyen, Thomas Guillard, Laurent Andréoletti, Roselyne Garnotel, Béatrice Digeon, Christophe De Champs, Paul Fornes, Nicolas Lévêque
The concept of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is defined as the sudden, unexpected death of an infant less than a year old which remains unexplained after in-depth investigations comprising a complete autopsy, biological analyses, and a clinical examination of the circumstances surrounding the death. This definition underlines the importance of finding the cause of this disease in order to improve preventative measures to reduce the number of deaths due to sudden infant death syndrome. Among the causes of SIDS, pediatric infectious diseases may be neglected and must be systematically sought after...
May 2013: Annales de Biologie Clinique
Enrique Blázquez Fernández
During many centuries the scientific knowledge has advanced in a slow and discontinue manner, with much time to deposit the established things and to generate theories and hypothesis about the unexplained and unknown matters. However, in the last decades happened an exponential increase in the knowledge of Medicine, because the technological advance and the contribution of several disciplines, which produce the development of Health Sciences. In the last 60 years Medicine has progressed faster than in the previous twenty centuries, which make very difficult to describe the events happened in this period...
2011: Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina
Alessandro Fiocchi, Wesley Burks, Sami L Bahna, Leonard Bielory, Robert J Boyle, Renata Cocco, Sten Dreborg, Richard Goodman, Mikael Kuitunen, Tari Haahtela, Ralf G Heine, Gideon Lack, David A Osborn, Hugh Sampson, Gerald W Tannock, Bee Wah Lee
BACKGROUND: : Probiotic administration has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of specific allergic manifestations such as eczema, rhinitis, gastrointestinal allergy, food allergy, and asthma. However, published statements and scientific opinions disagree about the clinical usefulness. OBJECTIVE: : A World Allergy Organization Special Committee on Food Allergy and Nutrition review of the evidence regarding the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergy...
November 2012: World Allergy Organization Journal
C Levy, M-K Taha, E Bingen, R Cohen
BACKGROUND: The GPIP/ACTIV (Groupe de Pathologie Infectieuse Pédiatrique and Association Clinique et Thérapeutique Infantile du Val de Marne) set up an active surveillance network to analyze the epidemiological, clinical and biological features of meningococcal meningitis. METHODS: French pediatric wards working with 166 microbiology laboratories enrolled all children (0-18 years old) with bacterial meningitis. Risk factors, signs and symptoms, vaccination status, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, treatments and case fatality rate were recorded...
September 2012: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Amir Mian, David Becton, Robert Saylors, Laura James, Xinyu Tang, Adnan Bhutta, Parthak Prodhan
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy remain at increased risk for developing febrile neutropenia (FN). For this heterogeneous population, a biomarker based risk stratification of FN patients may be a useful clinical tool. We hypothesized that serum biomarkers during initial presentation of an FN event could be predictive of subsequent clinical outcome. PROCEDURE: Eighty-nine FN events from 36 non-consecutive subjects were analyzed. "High-risk" FN criteria included prolonged hospitalization (≥ 7 days), admission to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) or a microbiology confirmed bacteremia...
August 2012: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Federica Del Chierico, Pamela Vernocchi, Luigi Bonizzi, Rita Carsetti, Anna Maria Castellazzi, Bruno Dallapiccola, Willem de Vos, Maria Elisabetta Guerzoni, Melania Manco, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Maurizio Muraca, Paola Roncada, Guglielmo Salvatori, Fabrizio Signore, Andrea Urbani, Lorenza Putignani
The establishment of gut microbiota immediately after birth is modulated by different mechanisms that can be considered specific determinants of temporal and spatial variability. Over the last few years, molecular methods have been offering a complementary support to the classical microbiology, often underpowered by its inability to provide unbiased representation of gut microbiota. The advent of high-throughput-omics-based methods has opened new avenues in the knowledge of the gut ecosystem by shedding light on its shape and modulation...
August 3, 2012: Journal of Proteomics
Jeremy W Pryce, Martin A Weber, Simon Heales, Steve Krywawych, Michael T Ashworth, Nigel J Klein, Neil J Sebire
Numerous hypotheses have been suggested to explain the cause of sudden unexpected infant death, including infection. As part of the autopsy, routine ancillary investigations are performed, including blood/bile tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) primarily for detection of metabolic disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate and assess TMS derived acylcarnitine profiles to determine whether infectious deaths were associated with characteristic profiles. As part of a retrospective study including >2,500 pediatric autopsies at a single specialist centre over a 14 year period, acylcarnitine profiles were reviewed...
September 2012: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Michael J Docktor, Bruce J Paster, Shelly Abramowicz, Jay Ingram, Yaoyu E Wang, Mick Correll, Hongyu Jiang, Sean L Cotton, Alexis S Kokaras, Athos Bousvaros
BACKGROUND: Oral pathology is a commonly reported extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease (CD). The host-microbe interaction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in genetically susceptible hosts, yet limited information exists about oral microbes in IBD. We hypothesize that the microbiology of the oral cavity may differ in patients with IBD. Our laboratory has developed a 16S rRNA-based technique known as the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) to study the oral microbiome of children and young adults with IBD...
May 2012: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Karen C Carroll, John G Bartlett
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming, gram-positive rod that causes a spectrum of antibiotic-associated colitis through the elaboration of two large clostridial toxins and other virulence factors. Since its discovery in 1978 as the agent responsible for pseudomembranous colitis, the organism has continued to evolve into an adaptable, aggressive, hypervirulent strain. Advances in molecular methods and improved animal models have facilitated an understanding of how this organism survives in the environment, adapts to the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans, and accomplishes its unique pathogenesis...
2011: Annual Review of Microbiology
Julie Postma, Philip W Butterfield, Tamara Odom-Maryon, Wade Hill, Patricia G Butterfield
PURPOSE: Implementing the recent American Academy of Pediatrics' (AAP) policy for annual well water testing will impact pediatric healthcare providers, who will be called upon for advice regarding testing, interpretation, and mitigation. We report findings from a study of low-income rural families' participation in household well water testing. DATA SOURCES: We collected data from 188 rural low-income households inclusive of 320 children under the age of seven. Participating families lived in one of two western U...
May 2011: Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners
William T Harris, Marianne S Muhlebach, Robert A Oster, Michael R Knowles, J P Clancy, Terry L Noah
INTRODUCTION: Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β₁) is an important genetic modifier of lung disease severity in cystic fibrosis (CF), yet the mechanism behind this disease association remains unknown. Initial steps in the investigation of the relationship between TGF-β₁ and CF lung disease include determining the most appropriate available biospecimen for TGF-β₁ protein measurement. HYPOTHESIS: In hospitalized pediatric CF patients, plasma TGF-β₁ is increased in association with clinical parameters of lung disease severity...
July 2011: Pediatric Pulmonology
X-L Gao, C-Y S Hsu, Y Xu, H B Hwarng, T Loh, D Koh
UNLABELLED: Despite the well-recognized importance of caries risk assessment, practical models remain to be established. This study was designed to develop biopsychosocial models for caries risk assessment in various settings. With a questionnaire, an oral examination, and biological (salivary, microbiological, and plaque pH) tests, a prospective study was conducted among 1782 children aged 3-6 years, with 1576 (88.4%) participants followed in 12 months. Multiple risk factors, indicators, and protective factors were identified...
June 2010: Journal of Dental Research
Selwyn A Wilson David, Dmitriy V Volokhov, Zhiping Ye, Vladimir Chizhikov
Although mycoplasmas are generally considered to be harmless commensals, some mycoplasma species are able to cause infections in pediatric, geriatric, or immunocompromised patients. Thus, accidental contamination of biologics with mycoplasmas represents a potential risk for the health of individuals who receive cell-derived biological and pharmaceutical products. To assess the efficiency of inactivation of mycoplasmas by the agents used in the manufacture of egg-derived influenza vaccines, we carried out a series of experiments aimed at monitoring the viability of mycoplasmas spiked into both chicken allantoic fluid and protein-rich microbiological media and then treated with beta-propiolactone, formalin, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, Triton X-100, and sodium deoxycholate, which are agents that are commonly used for virus inactivation and disruption of viral particles during influenza vaccine production...
May 2010: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mojca Groselj-Grenc, Alojz Ihan, Maja Pavcnik-Arnol, Andreja Natasa Kopitar, Tanja Gmeiner-Stopar, Metka Derganc
OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of neutrophil and monocyte CD64 indexes (CD64in and CD64im) for sepsis in critically ill neonates and children with that of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, observational study in a level III multidisciplinary neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit (ICU). PATIENTS: Forty-six neonates and 36 children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and suspected infection, classified into two groups: those with bacterial sepsis (microbiologically proven or clinical sepsis) and those without bacterial sepsis (infection not supported by subsequent clinical course, laboratory data and microbiological tests)...
November 2009: Intensive Care Medicine
C Levy, E Bingen, Y Aujard, M Boucherat, D Floret, D Gendrel, R Cohen et al.
OBJECTIVES: Consequence of the introduction of vaccines against bacteria involved in meningitis in children and various recommendations concerning antibiotics, the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has changed during the last fifteen years. The GPIP/ACTIV (Groupe de Pathologie Infectieuse Pédiatrique and Association Clinique et Thérapeutique Infantile du Val de Marne) set up an active surveillance network to analyze the clinical and biological features of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: From 2001 to 2007, 252 French pediatric wards working with 168 microbiology laboratories enrolled all children (0-18 years old) with bacterial meningitis...
December 2008: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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