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diabetes, biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137012/the-relationship-between-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Tingting Xu, Zihua Weng, Chu Pei, Siyuan Yu, Yating Chen, Wenjie Guo, Xingzuo Wang, Peng Luo, Jia Sun
To explore the relationship between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 557 newly diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients were recruited, including 397 T2DM patients without complication (DM group) as well as 160 T2DM patients complicated with DPN (DPN group). Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, or χ test was applied to the data of the 2 groups, including the levels of neutrophils and lymphocytes as well as the NLR values of peripheral blood and other biochemistry indexes; Pearson correlation analysis was used to calculate the correlation of NLR and detected factors; risk factors of DPN were estimated via logistic regression analysis and multivariate analysis...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136331/risk-factor-management-in-a-contemporary-australian-population-at-increased-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#2
D J Campbell, J M Coller, F F Gong, M McGrady, D L Prior, U Boffa, L Shiel, D Liew, R Wolfe, A J Owen, H Krum, C M Reid
BACKGROUND: Effective management of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease risk factors offers longer, healthier lives and savings in health care. We examined risk factor management in participants of the SCReening Evaluation of the Evolution of New Heart Failure (SCREEN-HF) study, a self-selected population at increased cardiovascular disease risk recruited from members of a health insurance fund in Melbourne and Shepparton, Australia. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were age ≥60 years with one or more of self-reported ischaemic or other heart disease, irregular or rapid heart rhythm, cerebrovascular disease, renal impairment, or treatment for hypertension or diabetes for ≥2 years...
November 14, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133116/physiology-and-biochemistry-of-type-2-diabetes-a-tribute-to-alain-ktorza
#3
EDITORIAL
Luc Pénicaud, Christophe Magnan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100364/tcf7l2-rs290481-t-c-polymorphism-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-fasting-plasma-glucose-level
#4
Li Zhu, Zhiqiang Xie, Jianping Lu, Qiu Hao, Mingqiang Kang, Shuchen Chen, Weifeng Tang, Hao Ding, Yu Chen, Chao Liu, Haojie Wu
Genetic polymorphisms of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene may be key agents in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present case-control study, we aimed to assess the possible relationship of TCF7L2 polymorphisms with T2DM and determine the effect of TCF7L2 polymorphisms on the level of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in Eastern Chinese Han subjects. The TCF7L2 rs7903146C>T and rs290481 T>C polymorphisms were genotyped by SNPscan genotyping assays in 502 subjects with T2DM and 782 non-diabetic controls...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082745/cross-sectional-stepwise-approach-to-surveillance-steps-population-survey-of-noncommunicable-diseases-ncds-and-risk-factors-in-brunei-darussalam-2016
#5
Sok King Ong, Daphne Teck Ching Lai, Justin Yun Yaw Wong, Khairil Azhar Si-Ramlee, Lubna Abdul Razak, Norhayati Kassim, Zakaria Kamis, David Koh
This article provides a cross-sectional weighted measurement of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and risk factors prevalence among Brunei adult population using WHO STEPS methodology. A 2-staged randomized sampling was conducted during August 2015 to April 2016. Three-step surveillance included (1) interview using standardized questionnaire, (2) blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and (3) biochemistry tests. Data weighting was applied. A total of 3808 adults aged 18 to 69 years participated in step 1; 2082 completed steps 2 and 3 measurements...
October 1, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036763/effect-of-treadmill-exercise-on-skeletal-muscle-autophagy-in-rats-with-obesity-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#6
Do Keun Cho, Dong Hun Choi, Joon Yong Cho
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on body weight, blood biochemistry, and autophagy. METHODS: Triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, and glucose levels were measured, the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) score was calculated, and the soleus muscle was analyzed for autophagy-related factors (Beclin-1, p62, LC3, Lamp-2) in rats with obesity induced by a high-fat diet...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026467/chromogranin-a-as-a-biochemical-marker-for-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-single-center-experience-at-royal-hospital-oman
#7
Elham S Al-Risi, Fatma S Al-Essry, Waad-Allah S Mula-Abed
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the significance of serum chromogranin A (CgA) status in patients with and without different neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) by conducting a retrospective assessment of the diagnostic utility and limitations of CgA as a biomarker for NETs in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of CgA requests referred to the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Royal Hospital, Oman over a 24-month period (April 2012 to March 2014)...
September 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993732/purinergic-signalling-therapeutic-developments
#8
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock
Purinergic signalling, i.e., the role of nucleotides as extracellular signalling molecules, was proposed in 1972. However, this concept was not well accepted until the early 1990's when receptor subtypes for purines and pyrimidines were cloned and characterised, which includes four subtypes of the P1 (adenosine) receptor, seven subtypes of P2X ion channel receptors and 8 subtypes of the P2Y G protein-coupled receptor. Early studies were largely concerned with the physiology, pharmacology and biochemistry of purinergic signalling...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971172/the-use-of-monocyte-to-hdl-ratio-to-predict-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation-after-aortocoronary-bypass-graft-surgery
#9
Ahmet Ilker Tekkesin, Mert Ilker Hayiroglu, Regayip Zehir, Ceyhan Turkkan, Muhammed Keskin, Goksel Cinier, Ahmet Taha Alper
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a frequent and serious complication after aortocoronary bypass graft (ACBG) surgery and one that, unfortunately, increases morbidity and mortality. Postoperative stroke, hemodynamic instability, renal failure, infection, need for inotropic agent and coronary unit are complications caused by POAF. Inflammation and oxidative stress are among several mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis of POAF. Monocyte to HDL (M/H) ratio is a newly defined parameter of both inflammation and oxidative stress...
2017: Northern Clinics of Istanbul
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962201/analysis-of-serum-undercarboxylated-osteocalcin-level-in-rats-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-the-correlation-with-cognitive-impairment
#10
Peng-Ying Gu, Feng Yu, Song Jin, Qian Yang, Jing Su, Yan Chen, Liang Zhao, Shi-Lian Hu
The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between the serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) level and the blood biochemistry and cognitive impairment in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the normal control group (NC) and type 2 DM group. DM group received the high-fat and high-sugar diet combined with the intraperitoneal injection of low-dose STZ to establish the type 2 DM rat model. After 12 weeks of feeding, a Morris water maze was used to observe the rats' cognitive ability, and the levels of blood lipid, ucOC, insulin and adiponectin in the two groups were measured...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960394/increased-prevalence-of-fracture-and-hypoglycaemia-in-young-adults-with-concomitant-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-and-coeliac-disease
#11
Eleanor P Thong, Phillip Wong, Anouk Dev, Peter R Ebeling, Helena J Teede, Frances Milat
BACKGROUND: Both Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and coeliac disease (CD) are independently associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Whilst poorer glycaemic control and increased microvascular complications have been described, the literature examining bone health and fractures in adults with concomitant T1DM and CD (T1DM + CD) is limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fracture prevalence and explore associations with glycaemic control, hypoglycaemia and microvascular disease in T1DM + CD compared with T1DM alone...
September 28, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912603/novel-insight-into-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-from-the-protein-misfolding-perspective
#12
Edgar Leyva-García, Reyna Lara-Martínez, Liborio Morán-Zanabria, Cristina Revilla-Monsalve, Luis Felipe Jiménez-García, Norma Oviedo, Chiharu Murata, Eulalia Garrido-Magaña, Nelly F Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M Altamirano-Bustamante
Protein folding is a process of self-assembly defined by the sequence of the amino acids of the protein involved. Additionally, proteins tend to unfold, misfold and aggregate due to both intrinsic and extrinsic causes. Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) aggregation is an early step in diabetes mellitus. However, the aggregation of rat IAPP (rIAPP) remains an open question. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-250 g were divided into two groups. The experimental group (streptozotocin [STZ]) (n = 21) received an intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 40 mg/kg STZ...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836077/circulating-il-8-levels-are-increased-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-associated-with-worse-inflammatory-and-cardiometabolic-profile
#13
F A Cimini, I Barchetta, A Porzia, F Mainiero, C Costantino, L Bertoccini, V Ceccarelli, S Morini, M G Baroni, A Lenzi, M G Cavallo
AIMS: Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine involved in systemic immunity, macrophages infiltration and activation in adipose tissue and may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and atherosclerosis. Aims of this study were to evaluate circulating IL-8 levels in adult patients with T2D in comparison with non-diabetic subjects and to describe clinical and biochemical correlates of IL-8 concentration. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 79 consecutive T2D individuals referring to our diabetes outpatient clinics at Sapienza University of Rome, and 37 sex, age and BMI comparable non-diabetic subjects as a control group...
October 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815303/effect-of-barley-supplementation-on-the-fecal-microbiota-caecal-biochemistry-and-key-biomarkers-of-obesity-and-inflammation-in-obese-db-db-mice
#14
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, David A Mills, Kevin Murphy, Giuliana Noratto
PURPOSE: Barley is a low-glycemic index grain that can help diabetic and obese patients. The effect of barley intake depends on the host and the associated gut microbiota. This study investigated the effect of barley intake on the fecal microbiota, caecal biochemistry, and key biomarkers of obesity and inflammation. METHODS: Obese db/db mice were fed diets with and without barley during 8 weeks; lean mice were used as lean controls. Fecal microbiota was evaluated using 16S marker gene sequencing in a MiSeq instrument; several markers of caecal biochemistry, obesity, and inflammation were also evaluated using standard techniques...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810840/the-association-between-tuberculosis-and-the-development-of-insulin-resistance-in-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-western-sub-district-of-the-cape-metropole-region-south-africa-a-combined-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#15
Lauren Philips, Janicke Visser, Daan Nel, Renée Blaauw
BACKGROUND: The existence of a bi-directional relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and insulin resistance (IR)/diabetes has been alluded to in literature. Although diabetes has been linked to increased tuberculosis risk, the relationship between tuberculosis as a causative factor for IR remains unclear. The study aimed to determine if an association existed between tuberculosis and IR development in adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis at baseline. It was additionally aimed to document changes in IR status during TB follow-up periods...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804275/metabolomics-based-markers-predict-type-2-diabetes-in-a-14-year-follow-up-study
#16
Jun Liu, Sabina Semiz, Sven J van der Lee, Ashley van der Spek, Aswin Verhoeven, Jan B van Klinken, Eric Sijbrands, Amy C Harms, Thomas Hankemeier, Ko Willems van Dijk, Cornelia M van Duijn, Ayşe Demirkan
BACKGROUND: The growing field of metabolomics has opened up new opportunities for prediction of type 2 diabetes (T2D) going beyond the classical biochemistry assays. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify markers from different pathways which represent early metabolic changes and test their predictive performance for T2D, as compared to the performance of traditional risk factors (TRF). METHODS: We analyzed 2776 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen Family study from which 1571 disease free individuals were followed up to 14-years...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793853/equine-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-to-exercise-and-training-evidence-of-differential-regulation-of-autophagosomal-and-mitochondrial-components
#17
Kenneth Bryan, Beatrice A McGivney, Gabriella Farries, Paul A McGettigan, Charlotte L McGivney, Katie F Gough, David E MacHugh, Lisa M Katz, Emmeline W Hill
BACKGROUND: A single bout of exercise induces changes in gene expression in skeletal muscle. Regular exercise results in an adaptive response involving changes in muscle architecture and biochemistry, and is an effective way to manage and prevent common human diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disorders and type II diabetes. However, the biomolecular mechanisms underlying such responses still need to be fully elucidated. Here we performed a transcriptome-wide analysis of skeletal muscle tissue in a large cohort of untrained Thoroughbred horses (n = 51) before and after a bout of high-intensity exercise and again after an extended period of training...
August 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768770/nmda-receptors-mediate-leptin-signaling-and-regulate-potassium-channel-trafficking-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#18
Yi Wu, Dale A Fortin, Veronica A Cochrane, Pei-Chun Chen, Show-Ling Shyng
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are Ca(2+)-permeant, ligand-gated ion channels activated by the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and have well-characterized roles in the nervous system. The expression and function of NMDARs in pancreatic β-cells, by contrast, are poorly understood. Here, we report a novel function of NMDARs in β-cells. Using a combination of biochemistry, electrophysiology, and imaging techniques, we now show that NMDARs have a key role in mediating the effect of leptin to modulate β-cell electrical activity by promoting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent trafficking of KATP and Kv2...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751653/biochemical-profiling-of-diabetes-disease-progression-by-multivariate-vibrational-microspectroscopy-of-the-pancreas
#19
Christoffer Nord, Maria Eriksson, Andrea Dicker, Anna Eriksson, Eivind Grong, Erwin Ilegems, Ronald Mårvik, Bård Kulseng, Per-Olof Berggren, András Gorzsás, Ulf Ahlgren
Despite the dramatic increase in the prevalence of diabetes, techniques for in situ studies of the underlying pancreatic biochemistry are lacking. Such methods would facilitate obtaining mechanistic understanding of diabetes pathophysiology and aid in prognostic and/or diagnostic assessments. In this report we demonstrate how a multivariate imaging approach (orthogonal projections to latent structures - discriminant analysis) can be applied to generate full vibrational microspectroscopic profiles of pancreatic tissues...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727628/replication-confirms-the-association-of-loci-in-foxe1-pde8b-capzb-and-pde10a-with-thyroid-traits-a-genetics-of-diabetes-audit-and-research-tayside-study-godarts
#20
Enrique Soto-Pedre, Moneeza K Siddiqui, Alex S Doney, Colin N A Palmer, Ewan R Pearson, Graham P Leese
OBJECTIVE: Replication of associations in genome-wide association studies is desirable to ensure that such signals are potentially clinically meaningful. This study aimed to replicate associations of selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with hypothyroidism and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) using electronic medical records (EMRs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among patients of European Caucasian ethnicity from the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research Tayside recruited in Tayside (Scotland, UK)...
October 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
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