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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910808/magnesium-and-depression
#1
Anna Serefko, Aleksandra Szopa, Ewa Poleszak
Magnesium is one of the most important elements in the human body and is involved in a number of biochemical processes crucial for the proper functioning of the cardiovascular, alimentary, endocrine, and osteoarticular systems. It also plays a vital modulatory role in brain biochemistry, influencing several neurotransmission pathways associated with the development of depression. Personality changes, including apathy, depression, agitation, confusion, anxiety, and delirium are observed when there is a deficiency of this element...
March 1, 2016: Magnesium Research: Official Organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910201/meal-insulin-cycle-a-visual-summary-of-the-biochemical-events-between-meals
#2
Stavros Kalogiannis
In the present article, a scheme that summarizes the biochemical events occurring in the human body after the consumption of a meal is proposed. The scheme illustrates the metabolic sequence as a series of counteracting components occupying opposite positions in a cycle, indicating their opposite actions or physiological states, such as meal versus energy consumption, increase versus decrease of blood glucose levels, and excretion of insulin versus excretion of glucagon. Furthermore, the cycle is complemented by a table indicating the acceleration or inhibition of selected metabolic pathways and actions...
December 2, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890975/prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-among-urban-sikh-population-of-amritsar
#3
Amrinder Singh, Shweta Shenoy, Jaspal Singh Sandhu
CONTEXT: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of Hyperglycemia. More than 60% of the world's population with diabetes comes from Asia. AIM: To study the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Sikh individuals living in the urban localities of Amritsar. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was designed in the Faculty of Sports Medicine & Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846769/effect-of-cichorium-intybus-l-seed-extract-on-renal-parameters-in-experimentally-induced-early-and-late-diabetes-type-2-in-rats
#4
Yasin Pourfarjam, Lotfollah Rezagholizadeh, Azin Nowrouzi, Alipasha Meysamie, Sarah Ghaseminejad, Nasrin Ziamajidi, Davood Norouzi
Blood and urine biochemistry screening tests are important for initial detection of diabetes, determination of severity of its complications, and monitoring of therapy. We evaluated the effects of aqueous chicory seed extract (CSE), on renal biochemical parameters, histology, and Na+/glucose cotansporters, SGLT1 and SGLT2 expression levels using metformin, and aspirin as controls. Late stage type 2 diabetes (LT2D; FBS, >300 mg/dl) and early stage type 2 diabetes (ET2D; FBS, 140-220 mg/dl) were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ group) and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ group), respectively...
November 16, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788389/the-association-of-admission-blood-glucose-level-with-the-clinical-picture-and-prognosis-in-cardiogenic-shock-results-from-the-cardshock-study
#5
Anu Kataja, Tuukka Tarvasmäki, Johan Lassus, Jose Cardoso, Alexandre Mebazaa, Lars Køber, Alessandro Sionis, Jindrich Spinar, Valentina Carubelli, Marek Banaszewski, Rossella Marino, John Parissis, Markku S Nieminen, Veli-Pekka Harjola
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients often present with hyperglycemia, regardless of previous history of diabetes mellitus (DM). Hyperglycemia has been associated with adverse outcome in acute myocardial infarction and acute heart failure. We investigated the association of admission blood glucose level with the clinical picture and short-term mortality in cardiogenic shock (CS). METHODS: Consecutively enrolled CS patients were divided into five categories according to plasma glucose level at the time of enrolment: hypoglycemia (glucose <4...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774826/mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-future-experimental-exploration-for-recession-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#6
Amal H Hamza, Widad M Al-Bishri, Laila A Damiati, Hanaa H Ahmed
BACKGROUND: The progresses made in stem cell therapy offer an innovative approach and exhibit great potential for the repair of damaged organs and tissues. This study was conducted with a view to find the mechanisms responsible for the effectiveness of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in the suppression of diabetes and experimentally-induced diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: To realize this objective, diabetic and diabetic nephropathy subject groups that underwent MSC treatment were studied through numerous biochemistry and molecular genetics analyses...
October 23, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756197/protective-effect-of-l-glutamine-against-diabetes-induced-nephropathy-in-experimental-animal-role-of-kim-1-ngal-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-collagen-1
#7
Smeeta Sadar, Dipti Kaspate, Neeraj Vyawahare
Diabetic nephropathy is a serious microvascular complication and one of the main causes of end-stage renal disease. L-Glutamine (LG) is naturally occurring amino acids with antidiabetic and antioxidant potential. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the potential of LG against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in laboratory rats. DN was induced in male Wistar rats (200-220 g) by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (55 mg/kg). Animals were treated orally with either distilled water (10 mg/kg) or LG (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or Sitagliptin (5 mg/kg)...
October 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755120/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-and-the-kidney
#8
Netanya Y Spencer, Robert C Stanton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway. G6PD is the main source of the essential cellular reductant, NADPH. The purpose of this review is to describe the biochemistry of G6PD and NADPH, cellular factors that regulate G6PD, normal physiologic roles of G6PD, and the pathogenic role altered G6PD/NADPH plays in kidney disease. RECENT FINDINGS: NADPH is required for many essential cellular processes such as the antioxidant system, nitric oxide synthase, cytochrome p450 enzymes, and NADPH oxidase...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731559/microalbuminuria-a-mere-marker-or-an-ominous-sign
#9
Pranita Waghmare, Kalyan Goswami
Microalbuminuria represents a condition wherein the urinary albumin excretion is in the range of 30 mg/24 hrs -300 mg/24 hrs. Recently microalbuminuria is gaining attention as more than just a surrogate marker of kidney damage. Although apparently representing passage of a rather trace amount of protein excretion, this has great implication in terms of clinico-pathological association with diabetic nephropathy and other cardiovascular complications in subjects with or without diabetes. Early detection of microalbuminuria is considered to be the aim of clinicians in context to patient's health perspective so as to change the treatment strategy accordingly...
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729352/evolution-of-primary-care-databases-in-uk-a-scientometric-analysis-of-research-output
#10
Paraskevas Vezyridis, Stephen Timmons
OBJECTIVE: To identify publication and citation trends, most productive institutions and countries, top journals, most cited articles and authorship networks from articles that used and analysed data from primary care databases (CPRD, THIN, QResearch) of pseudonymised electronic health records (EHRs) in UK. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and scientometric tools were used to analyse a SCOPUS data set of 1891 articles. Open access software was used to extract networks from the data set (Table2Net), visualise and analyse coauthorship networks of scholars and countries (Gephi) and density maps (VOSviewer) of research topics co-occurrence and journal cocitation...
October 11, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716387/extreme-hypernatremia-as-a-probable-cause-of-fatal-arrhythmia-a-case-report
#11
Maulee Hiromi Arambewela, Noel P Somasundaram, Chaminda Garusinghe
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is a frequent occurrence among hospitalized patients. Severe hypernatremia is associated with mortality rates of over 60 %. Extreme hypernatremia, defined as sodium levels >190 mmol/l, is a rare occurrence. The literature on electrocardiographic changes occurring with this degree of hypernatremia is extremely scarce. We report the case of an 11-year-old Sri Lankan girl who presented with sodium levels of 226 mmol/l following infusion with 3 % hypertonic saline who developed diffuse QT prolongation leading to fatal ventricular tachycardia...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705028/type-2-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome-adipokine-levels-and-effect-of-drugs
#12
Rabia Farooq, Shajrul Amin, M Hayat Bhat, Rawoof Malik, Hilal Ahmad Wani, Sabhiya Majid
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a consequence of complex interactions among multiple genetic variants and environmental risk factors. This complex disorder is also characterized by changes in various adipokines. In this study, our objective was to estimate the levels of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin (ALR) in T2DM patients, besides studying the effect of various drugs on their levels. Study participants included 400 diabetic and 300 normal patients from the Department of Endocrinology and Department of Biochemistry, Govt Medical College Srinagar...
October 5, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692562/rhein-reverses-klotho-repression-via-promoter-demethylation-and-protects-against-kidney-and-bone-injuries-in-mice-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Qin Zhang, Lin Liu, Wenjun Lin, Shasha Yin, Aiping Duan, Zhihong Liu, Wangsen Cao
Rhein is an anthraquinone compound isolated from the medicinal plant rhubarb and mainly used in the clinical treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Rhein exhibits various renoprotective functions, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully determined. However, its renoprotective properties recapitulate the role of Klotho, a renal-specific antiaging protein critical for maintaining kidney homeostasis. Here we explored the connections between rhein renoprotection and Klotho in a mouse model of adenine-induced chronic kidney disease...
September 27, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687080/annals-express-natural-selection-the-evolution-of-diagnostic-criteria-for-gestational-diabetes
#14
Claire L Meek
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a common pregnancy disorder which is generally managed with diet, exercise, metformin or insulin treatment and which usually resolves after delivery of the infant. Identifying and treating GDM improves maternal and fetal outcomes, and allows for health promotion to reduce the mother's risk of type 2 diabetes in later life. However, there remains considerable controversy about the optimal method of identification and diagnosis of women with GDM. The NICE-2015 diagnostic criteria (75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 0 hr ⩾5...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682164/role-of-ceramide-in-apoptosis-and-development-of-insulin-resistance
#15
REVIEW
D I Kuzmenko, T K Klimentyeva
This review presents data on the functional biochemistry of ceramide, one of the key sphingolipids with properties of a secondary messenger. Molecular mechanisms of the involvement of ceramide in apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells and its role in the formation of insulin resistance in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes are reviewed. One of the main predispositions for the development of insulin resistance and diabetes is obesity, which is associated with ectopic fat deposition and significant increase in intracellular concentrations of cytotoxic ceramides...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651300/anabolic-effect-of-insulin-therapy-on-the-bone-osteoprotegerin-and-osteocalcin-up-regulation-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#16
Raul Hernandes Bortolin, Francisco Paulo Freire Neto, Carlos Alberto Arcaro Filho, João Felipe Bezerra, Flávio Santos da Silva, Marcela Abott Galvão Ururahy, Karla Simone da Costa Souza, Valeria Morgiana Gualberto Duarte Moreira Lima, André Ducati Luchessi, Francisco Pignataro Lima, Marcus Vinicius Lia Fook, Bartolomeu Jorge da Silva, Maria das Graças Almeida, Bento João Abreu, Luciana Augusto de Rezende, Adriana Augusto de Rezende
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with several skeletal alterations, particularly in conditions of poor glycaemic control. Insulin therapy is the major conservative treatment for T1DM; however, the effects of this hormone on bone markers of T1DM rats are limited, and the regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, the evaluation of molecular and non-molecular parameters in a chronic animal model of T1DM-induced bone loss, treated with and without insulin, may help in elucidating insulin mechanisms...
September 21, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650434/the-progress-and-challenges-in-metabolic-research-in-china
#17
Li Xu, Hao Ren, Guangang Gao, Linkang Zhou, Muhammad Arshad Malik, Peng Li
Metabolism refers to a chain of chemical reactions converting food/fuel into energy to conduct cellular processes, including the synthesis of the building blocks of the body, such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. Metabolic chain reactions are catalyzed by various enzymes that are orchestrated in specific pathways. Metabolic pathways are important for organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments...
September 20, 2016: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644706/evaluation-of-liver-enzyme-levels-and-identification-of-asymptomatic-liver-disease-patients-in-primary-care
#18
Irene Cacciola, Riccardo Scoglio, Angela Alibrandi, Giovanni Squadrito, Giovanni Raimondo
The evaluation of serum liver enzyme levels is the most used surrogate marker of liver injury in clinical practice. The prevalence and association of abnormal enzyme values with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, and with other major causes of liver damage (obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and alcohol abuse) were evaluated in individuals attending the surgeries of 14 general practitioners (GPs) working in Messina. Alanine-amino-transferase, aspartate-amino-transferase, and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase measurements were measured in 7816 individuals consecutively attending the GP surgeries between January 1, 2011 and June 30, 2012...
September 19, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623968/glycated-albumin-from-biochemistry-and-laboratory-medicine-to-clinical-practice
#19
Elena Dozio, Nicola Di Gaetano, Peter Findeisen, Massimiliano Marco Corsi Romanelli
This review summarizes current knowledge about glycated albumin. We review the changes induced by glycation on the properties of albumin, the pathological implications of high glycated albumin levels, glycated albumin quantification methods, and the use of glycated albumin as a complementary biomarker for diabetes mellitus diagnosis and monitoring and for dealing with long-term complications. The advantages and limits of this biomarker in different clinical settings are also discussed.
September 13, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614725/involvement-of-skeletal-renin-angiotensin-system-and-kallikrein-kinin-system-in-bone-deteriorations-of-type-1-diabetic-mice-with-estrogen-deficiency
#20
Yan Zhang, Liang Wang, Jin-Xin Liu, Xin-Luan Wang, Qi Shi, Yong-Jun Wang
AIMS: This study was aimed to investigate the involvement of skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) in bone deteriorations of mice in response to the combination treatment of estrogen deficiency and hyperglycemia. METHODS: The female C57BL/6J mice were sham-operated or ovariectomized with vehicle or streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. Two weeks later, the biochemistries in serum and urine were determined by standard colorimetric methods or ELISA...
November 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
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