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diabetes, biochemistry

Smeeta Sadar, Dipti Kaspate, Neeraj Vyawahare
Diabetic nephropathy is a serious microvascular complication and one of the main causes of end-stage renal disease. L-Glutamine (LG) is naturally occurring amino acids with antidiabetic and antioxidant potential. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the potential of LG against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in laboratory rats. DN was induced in male Wistar rats (200-220 g) by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (55 mg/kg). Animals were treated orally with either distilled water (10 mg/kg) or LG (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or Sitagliptin (5 mg/kg)...
October 19, 2016: Renal Failure
Netanya Y Spencer, Robert C Stanton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway. G6PD is the main source of the essential cellular reductant, NADPH. The purpose of this review is to describe the biochemistry of G6PD and NADPH, cellular factors that regulate G6PD, normal physiologic roles of G6PD, and the pathogenic role altered G6PD/NADPH plays in kidney disease. RECENT FINDINGS: NADPH is required for many essential cellular processes such as the antioxidant system, nitric oxide synthase, cytochrome p450 enzymes, and NADPH oxidase...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Pranita Waghmare, Kalyan Goswami
Microalbuminuria represents a condition wherein the urinary albumin excretion is in the range of 30 mg/24 hrs -300 mg/24 hrs. Recently microalbuminuria is gaining attention as more than just a surrogate marker of kidney damage. Although apparently representing passage of a rather trace amount of protein excretion, this has great implication in terms of clinico-pathological association with diabetic nephropathy and other cardiovascular complications in subjects with or without diabetes. Early detection of microalbuminuria is considered to be the aim of clinicians in context to patient's health perspective so as to change the treatment strategy accordingly...
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Paraskevas Vezyridis, Stephen Timmons
OBJECTIVE: To identify publication and citation trends, most productive institutions and countries, top journals, most cited articles and authorship networks from articles that used and analysed data from primary care databases (CPRD, THIN, QResearch) of pseudonymised electronic health records (EHRs) in UK. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and scientometric tools were used to analyse a SCOPUS data set of 1891 articles. Open access software was used to extract networks from the data set (Table2Net), visualise and analyse coauthorship networks of scholars and countries (Gephi) and density maps (VOSviewer) of research topics co-occurrence and journal cocitation...
October 11, 2016: BMJ Open
Maulee Hiromi Arambewela, Noel P Somasundaram, Chaminda Garusinghe
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is a frequent occurrence among hospitalized patients. Severe hypernatremia is associated with mortality rates of over 60 %. Extreme hypernatremia, defined as sodium levels >190 mmol/l, is a rare occurrence. The literature on electrocardiographic changes occurring with this degree of hypernatremia is extremely scarce. We report the case of an 11-year-old Sri Lankan girl who presented with sodium levels of 226 mmol/l following infusion with 3 % hypertonic saline who developed diffuse QT prolongation leading to fatal ventricular tachycardia...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Rabia Farooq, Shajrul Amin, M Hayat Bhat, Rawoof Malik, Hilal Ahmad Wani, Sabhiya Majid
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a consequence of complex interactions among multiple genetic variants and environmental risk factors. This complex disorder is also characterized by changes in various adipokines. In this study, our objective was to estimate the levels of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin (ALR) in T2DM patients, besides studying the effect of various drugs on their levels. Study participants included 400 diabetic and 300 normal patients from the Department of Endocrinology and Department of Biochemistry, Govt Medical College Srinagar...
October 5, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Qin Zhang, Lin Liu, Wenjun Lin, Shasha Yin, Aiping Duan, Zhihong Liu, Wangsen Cao
Rhein is an anthraquinone compound isolated from the medicinal plant rhubarb and mainly used in the clinical treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Rhein exhibits various renoprotective functions, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully determined. However, its renoprotective properties recapitulate the role of Klotho, a renal-specific antiaging protein critical for maintaining kidney homeostasis. Here we explored the connections between rhein renoprotection and Klotho in a mouse model of adenine-induced chronic kidney disease...
September 27, 2016: Kidney International
Claire L Meek
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a common pregnancy disorder which is generally managed with diet, exercise, metformin or insulin treatment and which usually resolves after delivery of the infant. Identifying and treating GDM improves maternal and fetal outcomes, and allows for health promotion to reduce the mother's risk of type 2 diabetes in later life. However, there remains considerable controversy about the optimal method of identification and diagnosis of women with GDM. The NICE-2015 diagnostic criteria (75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 0 hr ⩾5...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
D I Kuzmenko, T K Klimentyeva
This review presents data on the functional biochemistry of ceramide, one of the key sphingolipids with properties of a secondary messenger. Molecular mechanisms of the involvement of ceramide in apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells and its role in the formation of insulin resistance in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes are reviewed. One of the main predispositions for the development of insulin resistance and diabetes is obesity, which is associated with ectopic fat deposition and significant increase in intracellular concentrations of cytotoxic ceramides...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Raul Hernandes Bortolin, Francisco Paulo Freire Neto, Carlos Alberto Arcaro Filho, João Felipe Bezerra, Flávio Santos da Silva, Marcela Abott Galvão Ururahy, Karla Simone da Costa Souza, Valeria Morgiana Gualberto Duarte Moreira Lima, André Ducati Luchessi, Francisco Pignataro Lima, Marcus Vinicius Lia Fook, Bartolomeu Jorge da Silva, Maria das Graças Almeida, Bento João Abreu, Luciana Augusto de Rezende, Adriana Augusto de Rezende
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with several skeletal alterations, particularly in conditions of poor glycaemic control. Insulin therapy is the major conservative treatment for T1DM; however, the effects of this hormone on bone markers of T1DM rats are limited, and the regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, the evaluation of molecular and non-molecular parameters in a chronic animal model of T1DM-induced bone loss, treated with and without insulin, may help in elucidating insulin mechanisms...
September 21, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Li Xu, Hao Ren, Guangang Gao, Linkang Zhou, Muhammad Arshad Malik, Peng Li
Metabolism refers to a chain of chemical reactions converting food/fuel into energy to conduct cellular processes, including the synthesis of the building blocks of the body, such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. Metabolic chain reactions are catalyzed by various enzymes that are orchestrated in specific pathways. Metabolic pathways are important for organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments...
September 20, 2016: IUBMB Life
Irene Cacciola, Riccardo Scoglio, Angela Alibrandi, Giovanni Squadrito, Giovanni Raimondo
The evaluation of serum liver enzyme levels is the most used surrogate marker of liver injury in clinical practice. The prevalence and association of abnormal enzyme values with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, and with other major causes of liver damage (obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and alcohol abuse) were evaluated in individuals attending the surgeries of 14 general practitioners (GPs) working in Messina. Alanine-amino-transferase, aspartate-amino-transferase, and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase measurements were measured in 7816 individuals consecutively attending the GP surgeries between January 1, 2011 and June 30, 2012...
September 19, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Elena Dozio, Nicola Di Gaetano, Peter Findeisen, Massimiliano Marco Corsi Romanelli
This review summarizes current knowledge about glycated albumin. We review the changes induced by glycation on the properties of albumin, the pathological implications of high glycated albumin levels, glycated albumin quantification methods, and the use of glycated albumin as a complementary biomarker for diabetes mellitus diagnosis and monitoring and for dealing with long-term complications. The advantages and limits of this biomarker in different clinical settings are also discussed.
September 13, 2016: Endocrine
Yan Zhang, Liang Wang, Jin-Xin Liu, Xin-Luan Wang, Qi Shi, Yong-Jun Wang
AIMS: This study was aimed to investigate the involvement of skeletal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) in bone deteriorations of mice in response to the combination treatment of estrogen deficiency and hyperglycemia. METHODS: The female C57BL/6J mice were sham-operated or ovariectomized with vehicle or streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. Two weeks later, the biochemistries in serum and urine were determined by standard colorimetric methods or ELISA...
November 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Marco Cascella
Professor Giuseppe Moscati (1880-1927) was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1987. This act recognized the extraordinary qualities of a doctor who, considering his work as a "sublime mission", dedicated his life to helping the sick. The fame of the "Holy doctor" or "doctor of the poor", as people called him, was soon widespread and, immediately after his death, made him the subject of several biographies. These treatises, mainly written by religious hagiographers, have little analyzed Moscati as a doctor and scientist, or, in rare cases, privileged the description of his medical career, touching only marginally salient aspects of his work as a scientist and researcher...
August 2016: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Rona R Ramsay, Magdalena Majekova, Milagros Medina, Massimo Valoti
HIGHLIGHTS Compounds that interact with multiple targets but minimally with the cytochrome P450 system (CYP) address the many factors leading to neurodegeneration.Acetyl- and Butyryl-cholineEsterases (AChE, BChE) and Monoamine Oxidases A/B (MAO A, MAO B) are targets for Multi-Target Designed Ligands (MTDL).ASS234 is an irreversible inhibitor of MAO A >MAO B and has micromolar potency against the cholinesterases.ASS234 is a poor CYP substrate in human liver, yielding the depropargylated metabolite.SMe1EC2, a stobadine derivative, showed high radical scavenging property, in vitro and in vivo giving protection in head trauma and diabetic damage of endothelium...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Naoto Tani, Tomomi Michiue, Jian-Hua Chen, Shigeki Oritani, Takaki Ishikawa
A severely malnourished, Japanese female in her twenties was found dead in her apartment. On autopsy, most of the findings from the internal examination were suggestive of hypothermia. Postmortem biochemistry, however, showed severely increased levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood and urine glucose levels. Levels of acetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetate in various body fluids were also highly increased, indicating ketosis. The serum insulin and c-peptide levels were severely low, and subsequent testing was positive for anti-GAD antibodies...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Sandra Schaefer, Hans S Kooistra, Barbara Riond, Jan S Suchodolski, Jörg M Steiner, Marrit Prins, Eric Zini, Claudia E Reusch
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), feline pancreas-specific lipase (fPLI) and total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations and urinary corticoid-to-creatinine ratio (UCCR) as indicators for the prevalence of acromegaly, pancreatitis, hyperthyroidism and hypercortisolism in cats with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Blood and urine samples were collected from diabetic cats treated in primary care clinics in Switzerland and the Netherlands...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Tze Ping Loh, Stefan Ma, Derrick Heng, Chin Meng Khoo
We describe the centile trends of the blood pressure, glycemia and lipid profiles as well as renal function of a representative population who participated in the Singapore National Health Survey in 2010. Representative survey population was sampled in two phases, first using geographical/ residential dwelling type stratification, followed up ethnicity. 2,407 survey participants without any self-reported medical or medication history for diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia were included in this analysis...
2016: PloS One
Farida Chentli, Nadia Terki, Said Azzoug
AIM: Ovarian corticosteroid-producing tumors are exquisitely rare. Our aim was to describe the first case observed in our practice. CASE HISTORY: A 34-year-old female was referred for Cushing's syndrome (CS) occurring in the postpartum period. Clinical examination showed severe CS with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a large mass in the right lower abdomen. Biochemistry demonstrated corticotropin (ACTH)-independent CS (cortisol=1900ng/mL (n=50-250), ACTH<10pg/mL (n=20-46)) with estradiol and testosterone overproduction...
October 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
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