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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708478/diabetes-with-obesity-is-there-an-ideal-diet
#1
REVIEW
Zahrae Sandouk, M Cecilia Lansang
For individuals who are overweight or obese, weight loss is effective in preventing and improving the management of type 2 diabetes. Together with other lifestyle factors like exercise and behavior modification, diet plays a central role in achieving weight loss. Diets vary based on the type and amount of carbohydrate, fat, and protein consumed to meet daily caloric intake goals. A number of popular diets are reviewed as well as studies evaluating the effect of various diets on weight loss, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors...
July 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694840/hepatic-adipocyte-enteric-and-pancreatic-hormones-response-to-dietary-macronutrient-composition-and-relationship-with-metabolism
#2
Bridget M Hron, Cara B Ebbeling, Henry A Feldman, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: We sought to characterize the effects of dietary macronutrient composition on various hormones implicated in the regulation of insulin sensitivity (IS) and energy expenditure (EE). METHODS: Following 10-15% weight loss, 21 overweight subjects consumed 3 weight-loss maintenance diets [low fat (LF), low glycemic index (LGI) and very low carbohydrate (VLC)] in random order, each for 4 weeks. At baseline and at the end of each treatment period, fasting samples for fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21, heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), chemerin, irisin, secreted frizzle-related protein (SFRP-4), total bile acids, ghrelin, gastrin inhibitory peptide (GIP), peptide-Y, and amylin; hepatic and peripheral IS; and EE were obtained...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694351/phosphorylation-of-ampk-by-upstream-kinases-is-required-for-activity-in-mammalian-cells
#3
Robin Willows, Matthew J Sanders, Bing Xiao, Bhakti R Patel, Stephen R Martin, Jon Read, Jon R Wilson, Julia Hubbard, Steven J Gamblin, David Carling
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a major role in regulating metabolism and has attracted significant attention as a therapeutic target for treating metabolic disorders. AMPK activity is stimulated more than one hundred fold by phosphorylation of threonine 172 (Thr(172)). Binding of AMP to the γ subunit allosterically activates the kinase. Additionally, a number of small molecules e.g. 991, have been identified that bind between the kinase domain and the carbohydrate binding module of the β subunit, stabilising their interaction and leading to activation...
July 10, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687766/biochemical-properties-of-gh94-cellodextrin-phosphorylase-tha_1941-from-a-thermophilic-eubacterium-thermosipho-africanus-tcf52b-with-cellobiose-phosphorylase-activity
#4
Yuanyuan Wu, Guotao Mao, Haiyan Fan, Andong Song, Yi-Heng Percival Zhang, Hongge Chen
A hypothetic gene (THA_1941) encoding a putative cellobiose phosphorylase (CBP) from Thermosipho africanus TCF52B has very low amino acid identities (less than 12%) to all known GH94 enzymes. This gene was cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant protein was hypothesized to be a CBP enzyme and it showed an optimum temperature of 75 °C and an optimum pH of 7.5. Beyond its CBP activity, this enzyme can use cellobiose and long-chain cellodextrins with a degree of polymerization of greater than two as a glucose acceptor, releasing phosphate from glucose 1-phosphate...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687039/carbon-nanodots-as-dual-mode-nanosensors-for-selective-detection-of-hydrogen-peroxide
#5
Cheng-Long Shen, Li-Xia Su, Jin-Hao Zang, Xin-Jian Li, Qing Lou, Chong-Xin Shan
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important product of oxidase-based enzymatic reactions, such as glucose/glucose oxidase (GOD) reaction. Therefore, the probing of generated H2O2 for achieving the detection of various carbohydrates and their oxidases is very significative. Herein, we report one kind of dual-emission carbon nanodots (CDs) that can serve as novel dual-mode nanosensors with both fluorometric and colorimetric output for the selective detection of H2O2. The dual-model nanosensors are established only by the undecorated dual-emission CDs, where significant fluorometric and colorimetric changes are observed with the addition of different concentrations of H2O2 in the CD solution, which benefit to the achievement of the naked-eye detection for H2O2...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684550/frutapin-a-lectin-from-artocarpus-incisa-breadfruit-cloning-expression-and-molecular-insights
#6
Felipe Domingos Sousa, Bruno Bezerra da Silva, Gilvan Pessoa Furtado, Igor de Sa Carneiro, Marina Duarte Pinto Lobo, Yiwei Guan, Jingxu Guo, Alun R Coker, Marcos Roberto Lourenzoni, Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes, James S Owen, David J Abraham, Ana Cristina de Oliveira Monteiro-Moreira, Renato de Azevedo Moreira
Artocarpus incisa (breadfruit) seeds contain three different lectins (Frutalin, Frutapin and Frutackin) with distinct carbohydrate specificities. The most abundant lectin is Frutalin, an α-D-galactose-specific carbohydrate-binding glycoprotein with antitumour properties and potential for tumour biomarker discovery as already reported. Frutapin (FTP) is the second most abundant, but proved difficult to purify with very low yields and contamination with Frutalin frustrating its characterization. Here, we report for the first time high-level production and isolation of biologically-active recombinant FTP in E...
July 6, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681340/fdg-pet-ct-findings-of-extra-thoracic-sarcoid-are-associated-with-cardiac-sarcoid-a-rationale-for-using-fgd-pet-ct-for-cardiac-sarcoid-evaluation
#7
Darshan C Patel, Senthil S Gunasekaran, Christopher Goettl, Nadera J Sweiss, Yang Lu
PURPOSE: This retrospective study investigates the relationship between cardiac and extra-thoracic sarcoid findings on FDG PET-CT using a 72-hour pretest high-fat, high-protein, and very low-carbohydrate (HFHPVLC) diet. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 196 consecutive FDG PET-CT scans with 72-hour HFHPVLC diet preparation were performed between December 2014 and December 2015 in known sarcoid patients. Of these scans, 5 were excluded for non-adherence to diet preparation or underlying cancer...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675251/diet-effect-on-short-and-long-term-glycaemic-response-in-adult-healthy-cats
#8
REVIEW
Nadia Musco, Serena Calabro, Raffaella Tudisco, Ghulam Muhammad, Micaela Grossi, Laura Addi, Giuseppe Moniello, Pietro Lombardi, Monica Isabella Cutrignelli
In the paper the short- and long-term glycaemic response after 4 diet programmes was evaluated. Each diet programme was alternatively administered to 6 healthy cats for 30 days. At the end of each period cats were weighed and underwent blood sampling for glucose and fructosamine determination. Glycaemia was measured every 2 hours for 24 hours using an automated glucometer. Very high protein level and low starch (VHP÷LS) and high protein and moderate starch level (HP÷LS) diets showed glucose (Mean and Peak) and fructosamine values signi cantly lower compared to the moderate protein and high starch diets (MP/HS)...
June 30, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660452/bamboo-shoots-as-a-nutritive-boon-for-northeast-india-an-overview
#9
Anusriti Basumatary, Sushil Kumar Middha, Talambedu Usha, Amit Kumar Basumatary, Birendra Kumar Brahma, Arvind Kumar Goyal
With about 136 species, India is one among the richest countries in bamboo resources that help mankind in more than 1500 diverse ways. Although the utilization of juvenile shoots of bamboo in tribal diet of Northeast India is a very old observable fact, its numerous health benefits and potentiality remains uncharted. Apart from being delicious, the bamboo shoots are also rich in minerals and nutrient components such as carbohydrates, proteins, fiber and are low in fat and sugar which could be helpful in mitigating the problem of malnutrition...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641919/prevalence-of-candida-africana-and-candida-dubliniensis-in-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-first-turkish-candida-africana-isolates-from-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#10
G Hazirolan, H U Altun, R Gumral, N C Gursoy, B Otlu, B Sancak
INTRODUCTION: Candida africana and C. dubliniensis are closely related species of C. albicans. Current phenotypic methods are not suitable to accurately distinguish all the species belonging to the C. albicans complex. Several molecular-based methods have recently been designed for discriminating among closely related Candida species. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vulvovaginal samples with phenotypic and genotypic methods...
June 19, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640802/peroxisomal-biogenesis-is-genetically-and-biochemically-linked-to-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-drosophila-and-mouse
#11
Michael F Wangler, Yu-Hsin Chao, Vafa Bayat, Nikolaos Giagtzoglou, Abhijit Babaji Shinde, Nagireddy Putluri, Cristian Coarfa, Taraka Donti, Brett H Graham, Joseph E Faust, James A McNew, Ann Moser, Marco Sardiello, Myriam Baes, Hugo J Bellen
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a group of multi-system human diseases due to mutations in the PEX genes that are responsible for peroxisome assembly and function. These disorders lead to global defects in peroxisomal function and result in severe brain, liver, bone and kidney disease. In order to study their pathogenesis we undertook a systematic genetic and biochemical study of Drosophila pex16 and pex2 mutants. These mutants are short-lived with defects in locomotion and activity. Moreover these mutants exhibit severe morphologic and functional peroxisomal defects...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639757/-ketogenic-diets-the-miraculous-solution
#12
Christophe Kosinski, François R Jornayvaz
The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered and aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, carbohydrate restriction is popular, specifically ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and /or proteins. Results are controversial, but some benefits such as weight loss and improved glycemic control have been described. Nevertheless, these effects seem to be limited in time...
May 31, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630601/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-diets-and-body-composition
#13
REVIEW
Alan A Aragon, Brad J Schoenfeld, Robert Wildman, Susan Kleiner, Trisha VanDusseldorp, Lem Taylor, Conrad P Earnest, Paul J Arciero, Colin Wilborn, Douglas S Kalman, Jeffrey R Stout, Darryn S Willoughby, Bill Campbell, Shawn M Arent, Laurent Bannock, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jose Antonio
Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. 3) Diets primarily focused on fat loss are driven by a sustained caloric deficit...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628658/effects-of-obesogenic-diet-and-estradiol-on-dorsal-raphe-gene-expression-in-old-female-macaques
#14
Cynthia L Bethea, Kevin Mueller, Arubala P Reddy, Steven G Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
The beneficial effects of bioidentical ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT) during the perimenopause are gaining recognition. However, the positive effects of estrogen (E) plus or minus progesterone (P) administration to ovariectomized (Ovx) lab animals were recognized in multiple systems for years before clinical trials could adequately duplicate the results. Moreover, very large numbers of women are often needed to find statistically significant results in clinical trials of HT; and there are still opposing results being published, especially in neural and cardiovascular systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621445/nutritional-and-functional-bioactivity-value-of-selected-azorean-macroalgae-ulva-compressa-ulva-rigida-gelidium-microdon-and-pterocladiella-capillacea
#15
Lisete Paiva, Elisabete Lima, Ana Isabel Neto, Massimo Marcone, José Baptista
This study presents information on the biochemical composition (dry weight basis), nutritional aspects, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties of selected macroalgae (Ulva compressa, Ulva rigida, Gelidium microdon, and Pterocladiella capillacea) from Azores. Moisture content was very high (83.2% to 90.0% of fresh weight). Total dietary fiber (33.7% to 41.0%) that presented a good balance of both soluble and insoluble fibers (15.5% to 19.2% and 18.2% to 21.8%, respectively) was the most abundant component in these macroalgae...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618958/current-and-future-biomarkers-for-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#16
REVIEW
Sven H Loosen, Ulf P Neumann, Christian Trautwein, Christoph Roderburg, Tom Luedde
Although pancreatic cancer is only the twelfth most common type of cancer in the world, it features a very unfavorable prognosis. The mortality rate almost equals the incidence rate, corroborating the very poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer. The 5-year survival rate for all stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is only 7%. Surgical resection represents the only potentially curative treatment option for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients but is often not feasible due to the advanced stage of the disease upon diagnosis...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604374/a-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-diet-improves-weight-loss-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-adjustable-gastric-banding
#17
Marina Taus, Daniele Fumelli, Debora Busni, Francesca Borroni, Sonia Sebastianelli, Giulia Nicolai, Albano Nicolai
BACKGROUND: Often, in severe obesity, diet and physical activity are not enough to achieve a healthy BMI. Bariatric surgical approach, in particular laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), has encouraging results in terms of weight loss and resolution of obesity-related comorbidities. However, several months after LAGB, some patients are enable to lose weight anymore and don't tolerate a further calibration because of its collateral effects (excessive sense of fullness, heartburn, regurgitation and vomiting)...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576849/proteome-wide-identification-of-glycosylation-dependent-interactors-of-galectin-1-and-galectin-3-on-mesenchymal-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#18
Jara Obermann, Claudia S Priglinger, Juliane Merl-Pham, Arie Geerlof, Sigfried Priglinger, Magdalena Götz, Stefanie M Hauck
Identification of interactors is a major goal in cell biology. Not only protein-protein but also protein-carbohydrate interactions are of high relevance for signal transduction in biological systems. Here we aim to identify novel interacting binding partners for the β-galactoside-binding proteins Galectin-1 (Gal-1) and Galectin-3 (Gal-3) relevant in the context of the eye disease proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). PVR is one of the most common failures after retinal detachment surgeries and is characterized by the migration, adhesion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) and the subsequent formation of sub- and epiretinal fibrocellular membranes...
June 2, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573450/cloning-production-and-characterization-of-a-glycoside-hydrolase-family-7-enzyme-from-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-termite-coptotermes-curvignathus
#19
James Sy-Keen Woon, Patricia Jie Hung King, Mukram Mohamed Mackeen, Nor Muhammad Mahadi, Wan Mohd Khairulikhsan Wan Seman, William J Broughton, Abdul Munir Abdul Murad, Farah Diba Abu Bakar
Coptotermes curvignathus is a termite that, owing to its ability to digest living trees, serves as a gold mine for robust industrial enzymes. This unique characteristic reflects the presence of very efficient hydrolytic enzyme systems including cellulases. Transcriptomic analyses of the gut of C. curvignathus revealed that carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) were encoded by 3254 transcripts and that included 69 transcripts encoding glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GHF7) enzymes. Since GHF7 enzymes are useful to the biomass conversion industry, a gene encoding for a GHF7 enzyme (Gh1254) was synthesized, sub-cloned and expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537798/neonatal-morbidity-count-is-associated-with-a-reduced-likelihood-of-achieving-recommendations-for-protein-lipid-and-energy-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Dawn V Y Ng, Sharon Unger, Michelle Asbury, Alex Kiss, Rosine Bishara, Nicole Bando, Chris Tomlinson, Sharyn Gibbins, Deborah L O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Serious morbidity may elevate nutrient requirements and affect adherence to feeding guidelines for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. An understanding of factors affecting nutrient intakes of VLBW infants will facilitate development of strategies to improve nutrient provision. Our aim was to examine the impact of neonatal morbidity count on achieving recommended nutrient intakes in VLBW infants. METHODS: VLBW infants enrolled in the Donor Milk for Improved Neurodevelopmental Outcomes trial (ISRCTN35317141, n = 363) were included...
May 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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