Read by QxMD icon Read

Very low carbohydrate

Fred Brouns
In the past, different types of diet with a generally low-carbohydrate content (< 50-< 20 g/day) have been promoted, for weight loss and diabetes, and the effectiveness of a very low dietary carbohydrate content has always been a matter of debate. A significant reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in the diet is usually accompanied by an increase in the amount of fat and to a lesser extent, also protein. Accordingly, using the term "low carb-high fat" (LCHF) diet is most appropriate...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Marc A Tuazon, Sara C Campbell, Dylan J Klein, Sue A Shapses, Keith R Anacker, Tracy G Anthony, Mehmet Uzumcu, Gregory C Henderson
BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with fatty liver, glucose dysregulation, increased body fat, and impaired bone quality. Previously, it was demonstrated that single sessions of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) are more effective than distance- and duration-matched continuous exercise (CE) on altering hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism and very-low density lipoprotein-TG (VLDL-TG) secretion. METHODS: Six weeks training using these modalities was examined for effects on hepatic TG metabolism/secretion, glucose tolerance, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) mice...
March 6, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Hiroyuki Niwa, Katsumi Iizuka, Takehiro Kato, Wudelehu Wu, Hiromi Tsuchida, Ken Takao, Yukio Horikawa, Jun Takeda
The regulation of hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion plays an important role in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia and fatty liver diseases. VLDL is controlled by hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Mttp is regulated by carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) and small heterodimer partner (SHP). However, it is unclear whether both coordinately regulate Mttp expression and VLDL secretion. Here, adenoviral overexpression of ChREBP and SHP in rat primary hepatocytes induced and suppressed Mttp mRNA, respectively...
March 7, 2018: Nutrients
Luc Tappy
Compared with other carbohydrates, fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, pure fructose and fructose-glucose mixtures) are characterized by: a sweet taste generally associated with a positive hedonic tone; specific intestinal fructose transporters, i.e. GLUT5; a two-step fructose metabolism, consisting of the conversion of fructose carbones into ubiquitous energy substrates in splanchnic organs where fructolytic enzymes are expressed, and secondary delivery of these substrates to extrasplanchnic tissues...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Kathryn C Fitzgerald, Tuula Tyry, Amber Salter, Stacey S Cofield, Gary Cutter, Robert J Fox, Ruth Ann Marrie
INTRODUCTION: Dietary approaches to management of MS has been proposed for several decades, yet very little is known concerning dietary composition or adherence to specialized diets in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We conducted a survey of participants in the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) registry assessing diet composition and the prevalence of 19 different diets. We characterized prevalence of different diets and compared diet composition with estimated intakes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) survey respondents and across demographics and MS clinical characteristics...
February 27, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Günnur Güler, Eda Acikgoz, N Ülkü Karabay Yavasoglu, Buket Bakan, Erik Goormaghtigh, Huseyin Aktug
Cellular macromolecules play important roles in cellular behaviors and biological processes. In the current work, cancer (KLN205), normal (MSFs) and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are compared using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Modifications in the composition, concentration, structure and function-related changes in the cellular components were deciphered using the infrared spectra. Our results revealed that cancer and embryonic stem cells are very similar but highly different from the normal cells based on the spectral variations in the protein, lipid, carbohydrate and nucleic acid components...
March 2, 2018: Analyst
S W Gratz, S Hazim, A J Richardson, L Scobbie, A M Johnstone, C Fyfe, G Holtrop, G E Lobley, W R Russell
PURPOSE: High protein weight loss diets are effective in aiding body weight management. However, high protein and low carbohydrate intakes can alter colonic fermentation profiles in humans and may impact on colonic health. This study aims to identify the most important dietary contributors to colonic fermentation during diet-controlled weight loss. METHODS: Overweight or obese male volunteers (n = 18) consumed a body weight maintenance diet (fed at 1.5× basic metabolic rate, BMR) followed by three weight loss diets (fed at 1× BMR) for 10 days each in a cross-over design...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Guillaume Geffroy, Rayane Benyahia, Samuel Frey, Valerie Desquiret-Dumas, Naig Gueguen, Celine Bris, Sophie Belal, Aurore Inisan, Aurelie Renaud, Arnaud Chevrollier, Daniel Henrion, Dominique Bonneau, Franck Letournel, Guy Lenaers, Pascal Reynier, Vincent Procaccio
Ketogenic diet (KD) which combined carbohydrate restriction and the addition of ketone bodies has emerged as an alternative metabolic intervention used as an anticonvulsant therapy or to treat different types of neurological or mitochondrial disorders including MELAS syndrome. MELAS syndrome is a severe mitochondrial disease mainly due to the m.3243A > G mitochondrial DNA mutation. The broad success of KD is due to multiple beneficial mechanisms with distinct effects of very low carbohydrates and ketones...
February 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Raphael Weber, Andrea Schwendener, Sandra Schmid, Savoyane Lambert, Erin Wiley, Simon M Landhäusser, Henrik Hartmann, Günter Hoch
The usage of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) to indicate carbon (C) limitation in trees requires knowledge of the minimum tissue NSC concentrations at lethal C starvation, and the NSC dynamics during and after severe C limitation. We completely darkened and subsequently released seedlings of two deciduous and two evergreen temperate tree species for varying periods. NSCs were measured in all major organs, allowing assessment of whole-seedling NSC balances. NSCs decreased fast in darkness, but seedlings survived species-specific whole-seedling starch concentrations as low as 0...
February 9, 2018: New Phytologist
Jie Zhang, Ping-Ping Jia, Qing-Le Liu, Ming-Hua Cong, Yun Gao, Han-Ping Shi, Wei-Nan Yu, Ming-Yong Miao
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, very-low-carbohydrate diet that triggers a fasting state by decreasing glucose and increasing ketone bodies, such as β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB). In experimental models and clinical trials, the KD has shown anti-tumor effects, possibly by reducing energy supplies to cells, which damages the tumor microenvironment and inhibits tumor growth. Here, we determined expression levels of genes encoding the ketolytic enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 (BDH1) and succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) in 33 human cancer cell lines...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Ann M Neumeyer, Natalia Cano Sokoloff, Erin I McDonnell, Eric A Macklin, Christopher J McDougle, Tara M Holmes, Jane L Hubbard, Madhusmita Misra
BACKGROUND: Boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than typically developing controls. Differences in diet and exercise may contribute to low BMD. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine macro- and micronutrient intakes and self-reported physical activity in boys with ASD compared to TDC and the relationship of these variables with BMD. DESIGN/METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 49 boys (25 ASD, 24 typically developing controls) assessed for 3-day food records and physical activity records, and BMD of the whole body less head, hip, and spine using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry...
February 3, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Tomoaki Bekki, Nobuaki Fujikuni, Kazuaki Tanabe, Shuji Yonehara, Hironobu Amano, Toshio Noriyuki, Masahiro Nakahara
BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinosarcoma with severe venous invasion is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case. CASE PRESENTATION: A 79-year-old man visited the Onomichi General Hospital following abnormal upper gastrointestinal series findings. Laboratory data demonstrated no anemia, and the serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels were not elevated. Endoscopy identified a Borrmann type III lesion in the cardiac end of the stomach...
January 30, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Yongxin Dai, Lin Wang, Xianchong Wan
Drought-induced tree mortality has been observed worldwide. Nevertheless, the physiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still being debated. Potted Robinia pseudoacacia and Platycladus orientalis saplings were subjected to drought and their hydraulic failure and carbon starvation responses were studied. They underwent simulated fast drought (FD) and slow drought (SD) until death. The dynamics of their growth, photosynthesis, water relations and carbohydrate concentration were measured. The results showed that during drought, growth and photosynthesis of all saplings were significantly reduced in both species...
February 2018: AoB Plants
R B Srygley, S T Jaronski
Little is known about the effects of dietary macronutrients on the capacity of insects to ward off a fungal pathogen. Here we tested the hypothesis that Mormon crickets fed restricted protein diets have lower enzymatic assays of generalized immunity, slower rates of encapsulation of foreign bodies, and greater mortality from infection by Beauveria bassiana, a fungal pathogen. Beginning in the last nymphal instar, crickets were fed a high, intermediate, or low protein diet with correspondingly low, intermediate, or high carbohydrate proportions...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Nichole F Huntley, John F Patience
Xylose, as β-1,4-linked xylan, makes up much of the hemicellulose in cell walls of cereal carbohydrates fed to pigs. As inclusion of fibrous ingredients in swine diets continues to increase, supplementation of carbohydrases, such as xylanase, is of interest. However, much progress is warranted to achieve consistent enzyme efficacy, including an improved understanding of the utilization and energetic contribution of xylanase hydrolysis product (i.e. xylooligosaccharides or monomeric xylose). This review examines reports on xylose absorption and metabolism in the pig and identifies gaps in this knowledge that are essential to understanding the value of carbohydrase hydrolysis products in the nutrition of the pig...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Hisham Hosny, Mohamed Ibrahim, Wael El-Siory, Amr Abdel-Monem
OBJECTIVES: Postoperative insulin resistance represents a major component of postoperative metabolic disorder. The authors compared the effects of preoperative infusion of lipid emulsion or carbohydrate to conventional preoperative fasting on postoperative insulin and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. DESIGN: A prospective randomized double-blinded study. SETTINGS: Tertiary university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-three patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Cédric Przybylski, Juan M Benito, Véronique Bonnet, Carmen Ortiz Mellet, José M García Fernández
Gene delivery is critical for the development of nucleic acid-based therapies against a range of severe diseases. The conception of non-viral (semi)synthetic vectors with low cytotoxicity and virus-like efficiency is gathering a lot of efforts, but it represents a fantastic challenge still far from accomplishment. Carbohydrate-based scaffolds offer interesting features towards this end, such as easy availability, relatively cheap cost, tuning properties and a good biocompatibility. The lack of analytical methods providing quantitative and qualitative data on their binding properties with oligonucleotides (DNA/RNA), with a minimal time and sample consumption, represents a limitation for these channels...
March 9, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Julia Y Q Low, Kathleen E Lacy, Robert L McBride, Russell S J Keast
Compared to simple sugars, complex carbohydrates have been assumed invisible to taste. However, two recent studies proposed that there may be a perceivable taste quality elicited by complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste. There is precedent with behavioural studies demonstrating that rats are very attracted to complex carbohydrates, and that complex carbohydrates are preferred to simple sugars at low concentrations. This suggests that rats may have independent taste sensors for simple sugars and complex carbohydrates...
2017: PloS One
Liwei Zheng, Juanjuan Ma, Lizhi Zhang, Cai Gao, Dong Zhang, Caiping Zhao, Mingyu Han
Brassinosteroid is identified as an important hormone. However, information about brassinosteroid has not been fully elucidated, and few studies concerned its role in apple. The aim of this work was to study the role of brassinosteroid for apple tree growth. In our study, the effect of brassinosteroid on apple nursery tree was analyzed. The biomass, cell size and xylem content of apple nursery tree were obviously evaluated by brassinosteroid treatment; mineral elements contents, photosynthesis indexes, carbohydrate level and hormone contents were significantly high in brassinosteroid treated trees...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Bárbara Catarina Bastos de Freitas, Eduarda Holz Brächer, Etiele Greque de Morais, Daniel Ibraim Pires Atala, Michele Greque de Morais, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa
New strategies for reformulating species-specific culture media are of great interest to increase the productivity of microalgae. In the search for alternative carbon sources for microalgae cultivation, pentoses can be considered interesting alternatives since the most abundant global source of renewable biomass is lignocellulosic waste, which contains significant quantities of pentoses. However, the use of pentoses (C5) in the cultivation of microalgae is still not widely studied and only recently the first metabolic pathway for pentose absorption in microalgae was proposed, so the numbers of works that exploring this subject is still very low...
December 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"