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S Raposo, A Constantino, F Rodrigues, B Rodrigues, M E Lima-Costa
Nowadays, bioethanol production is one of the most important technologies by the necessity to identify alternative energy resources, principally when based on inexpensive renewable resources. However, the costs of 2nd-generation bioethanol production using current biotechnologies are still high compared to fossil fuels. The feasibility of bioethanol production, by obtaining high yields and concentrations of ethanol, using low-cost medium, is the primary goal, leading the research done today. Batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of high-density sugar from carob residues with different organic (yeast extract, peptone, urea) and inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) was performed for evaluating a cost-effective ethanol production, with high ethanol yield and productivity...
October 19, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Francisco Navarro, Eduardo Forján, María Vázquez, Zaida Montero, Elisabeth Bermejo, Miguel Ángel Castaño, Alberto Toimil, Enrique Chagüaceda, Miguel Ángel García-Sevillano, Marisa Sánchez, María José Domínguez, Rosario Pásaro, Inés Garbayo, Carlos Vílchez, José María Vega
BACKGROUND: Edible microalgae are marine or fresh water mesophilic species. Although the harvesting of microalgae offers an abundance of opportunities to the food and pharmaceutical industries, the possibility to use extremophilic microalgae as a food source for animals is not well-documented. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effects of dietary supplementation of a powdered form of the acidophilic microalga Coccomyxa onubensis on growth and health parameters of laboratory rats...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Alessandra Lodi, Bettina Karsten, Gerardo Bosco, Manuel Gómez-López, Paula Paraguassú Brandão, Antonino Bianco, Antonio Paoli
: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects on blood sugar concentrations through the calculation of the glycemic score (GS) of 10 different high-protein low-carbohydrates (CHOs) proprietary foods that are commonly used as meals during very low-CHO ketogenic diets or during low-CHO diets. Fourteen healthy females were tested for their glycemic response curve elicited by 1000 kJ of glucose three times within a 3-week period (one test each week) compared with one of 10 test foods once on separate days twice a week...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Biranchi Narayan Mohapatra, Sujit Kumar Lenka, Manoranjan Acharya, Chakradhar Majhi, Gouri Oram, Khetra Mohan Tudu
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) and to evaluate its causes. METHODS: Fifty cases of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) admitted between November 2012 to October 2014 were taken up in the study. Serum potassium level < 3.5 mmol/ltr has been taken as hypokalemia. All cases were studied for spot and/or 24 hour urinary sodium / potassium, serum potassium / calcium / magnesium. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) were diagnosed if there was spot/24 hour urine potassium excretion < 20mmol/ltr in presence of hypokalemia and flaccid weakness without other causes...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Danxia Yu, Xianglan Zhang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Hui Cai, Honglan Li, Ding Ding, Zhen Hong, Yong-Bing Xiang, Yu-Tang Gao, Wei Zheng, Gong Yang
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence on dietary carbohydrates and stroke risk remains controversial. Very few prospective cohort studies have been conducted in Asian populations, who usually consume a high-carbohydrate diet and have a high burden of stroke. OBJECTIVE: We examined dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intakes of refined and total carbohydrates in relation to risks of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke and stroke mortality. DESIGN: This study included 64,328 Chinese women, aged 40-70 y, with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Muhammad Bilal Azmi, Shamim A Qureshi
Rauwolfia serpentina is well-reported in traditional medicines for the treatment of hypertensive and neurological disorders. However, its antidiabetic potential has been currently described in both alloxan-treated and normoglycemic mice. Present effort was carried out to investigate the effect of methanol root extract (MREt) of R.serpentina in fructose-induced type 2 diabetic mice. Experimental mice were grouped into normal control (distilled water 1ml/kg) and fructose-induced type 2 diabetic groups (10% fructose 1 ml/kg)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Nadia Musco, Serena Calabro, Raffaella Tudisco, Micaela Grossi, Laura Addi, Giuseppe Moniello, Pietro Lombardi, Monica Isabella Cutrignelli
In the paper the short- and long-term glycaemic response after 4 diet programmes was evaluated. Each diet programme was alternatively administered to 6 healthy cats for 30 days. At the end of each period cats were weighed and underwent blood sampling for glucose and fructosamine determination. Glycaemia was measured every 2 hours for 24 hours using an automated glucometer. Very high protein level and low starch (VHP/LS) and high protein and moderate starch level (HP/LS) diets showed glucose (Mean and Peak) and fructosamine values signi cantly lower compared to the moderate protein and high starch diets (MP/HS)...
August 3, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Xiaolin Jin, Runqiang Yang, Liping Guo, Xinkun Wang, Xiaokun Yan, Zhenxin Gu
The effects of sodium citrate (SC), sodium acetate (SA) and sodium tartrate (ST) spraying on mung bean germination were investigated. Exogenous SC, ST and SA treatments significantly reduced the phytic acid content and increased the antioxidant enzyme activities. In this study, an iTRAQ-based proteomic approach was employed to explore the proteomes of mung bean sprouts, and 81, 101 and 90 differentially expressed proteins were identified in 4-day-old SC-, SA- and ST-treated mung bean sprouts, with 38 proteins present in all samples...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Libao Cheng, Shuyan Li, Sainan Chen, Yan Wang, Meizhen Yu, Xuehao Chen, Liangjun Li, Jingjing Yin
The product organ (storage organ; corm) of the Chinese water chestnut has become a very popular food in Asian countries because of its unique nutritional value. Corm formation is a complex biological process, and extensive whole genome analysis of transcripts during corm development has not been carried out. In this study, four corm libraries at different developmental stages were constructed, and gene expression was identified using a high-throughput tag sequencing technique. Approximately 4.9 million tags were sequenced, and 4,371,386, 4,372,602, 4,782,494, and 5,276,540 clean tags, including 119,676, 110,701, 100,089, and 101,239 distinct tags, respectively, were obtained after removal of low-quality tags from each library...
2016: PloS One
Tomasz Klupa, Michał Możdżan, Janina Kokoszka-Paszkot, Magdalena Kubik, Małgorzata Masierek, Margerita Czerwińska, Maciej T Małecki
There is no doubt that behavioral intervention is crucial for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevention and management. We aimed to estimate dietary habits and diet-oriented knowledge as well as the level of physical activity in 2500 insulin-treated Polish type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (55.4% women). The mean age of the study participants was 64.9 ± 9.3 years, mean BMI was 31.4 kg/m(2) ± 4.5, mean diabetes duration was 12.4 ± 6.9 years, and mean baseline HbA1c was 8.5%  ± 1.2. At the study onset, all the patients completed a questionnaire concerning health-oriented behavior...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Lucile Chatellard, Eric Trably, Hélène Carrère
The impact on dark fermentation of seven carbohydrates as model substrates of lignocellulosic fractions (glucose, cellobiose, microcrystalline cellulose, arabinose, xylose, xylan and wheat straw) was investigated. Metabolic patterns and bacterial communities were characterized at the end of batch tests inoculated with manure digestate. It was found that hydrogen production was linked to the sugar type (pentose or hexose) and the degree of polymerisation. Hexoses produced less hydrogen, with a specific selection of lactate-producing bacterial community structures...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Rakesh Paul, Marc M Greenberg
The C2'-carbon-hydrogen bond in ribonucleotides is significantly weaker than other carbohydrate carbon-hydrogen bonds in RNA or DNA. Independent generation of the C2'-uridine radical (1) in RNA oligonucleotides via Norrish type I photocleavage of a ketone-substituted nucleotide yields direct strand breaks via cleavage of the β-phosphate. The reactivity of 1 in different sequences and under a variety of conditions suggests that the rate constant for strand scission is significantly greater than 10(6) s(-1) at pH 7...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ken Imaizumi, Shigenori Homma, Tadashi Yoshida, Tatsushi Shimokuni, Hideyasu Sakihama, Norihiko Takahashi, Hideki Kawamura, Emi Takakuwa, Akinobu Taketomi
BACKGROUND: The incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) of colon cancer is very low, and there have been only a few reports of solitary ALNM. Neither the mechanism involved in solitary colon cancer ALNM nor the proper treatment has been elucidated. We encountered a case of solitary left ALNM after curative resection of carcinoma at the colostomy site. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old man underwent a Hartmann's operation for Hirschsprung disease during his adolescence...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
Peter L Zock, Wendy A M Blom, Joyce A Nettleton, Gerard Hornstra
Dietary fats have important effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abundant evidence shows that partial replacement of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) with unsaturated fatty acids improves the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile and reduces the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Low-fat diets high in refined carbohydrates and sugar are not effective. Very long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 or omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 VLCPUFA) present in fish have multiple beneficial metabolic effects, and regular intake of fatty fish is associated with lower risks of fatal CHD and stroke...
November 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Rui Fan, Meihong Xu, Junbo Wang, Zhaofeng Zhang, Qihe Chen, Ye Li, Jiaojiao Gu, Xiaxia Cai, Qianying Guo, Lei Bao, Yong Li
Diabetes mellitus is very common in elderly Chinese individuals. Although nutritional intervention can provide a balanced diet, the sustaining effect on at-home dietary behavior and long-term plasma glucose control is not clear. Consequently, we conducted a long-term survey following one month of experiential nutritional intervention combined with health education. Based on the Dietary Guidelines for a Chinese Resident, we found that the food items met the recommended values, the percentages of energy provided from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were more reasonable after one year...
2016: Nutrients
A Goday, D Bellido, I Sajoux, A B Crujeiras, B Burguera, P P García-Luna, A Oleaga, B Moreno, F F Casanueva
UNLABELLED: Brackground:The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (<50 g of carbohydrate daily) in an interventional weight loss program including lifestyle and behavioral modification support (Diaprokal Method) in subjects with T2DM. METHODS: Eighty-nine men and women, aged between 30 and 65 years, with T2DM and body mass index between 30 and 35 kg m(-)(2) participated in this prospective, open-label, multi-centric randomized clinical trial with a duration of 4 months...
September 19, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
Christine M White, Heather G Lillico, Lana Vanderlee, David Hammond
Health Check (HC) was a voluntary nutrition labeling program developed by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada as a guide to help consumers choose healthy foods. Items meeting nutrient criteria were identified with a HC symbol. This study examined the impact of the program on differences in consumer awareness and use of nutritional information in restaurants. Exit surveys were conducted with 1126 patrons outside four HC and four comparison restaurants in Ontario, Canada (2013). Surveys assessed participant noticing of nutrition information, influence of nutrition information on menu selection, and nutrient intake...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Michal Anděl, Ludmila Brunerová, Pavel Dlouhý, Jan Polák, Jan Gojda, Pavel Kraml
UNLABELLED: Recently, thousands of papers brought knowledge about effects of nutrients on cellular level, in experimental animals and in human experiments on one side, the results of epidemiological studies on the other side have suggested the nutrients and foods for healthy diet and nutrients and foods, which should be consumed only in limited amount. Among foods, which should be avoided, those with higher content of trans-fatty acids. Their daily intake should not exceed 1 % of total energy intake...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Kandy T Velazquez, Reilly T Enos, Meredith S Carson, Taryn L Cranford, Jackie Bader, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Udai Singh, Prakash S Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti, J Mark Davis, James A Carson, E Angela Murphy
Obesity presents a significant public health concern given its association with increased cancer incidence, unfavorable prognosis, and metastasis. However, there is very little literature on the effects of weight-loss, following obesity, on risk for colon cancer or liver cancer. Therefore, we sought to study whether intentional weight loss through diet manipulation was capable of mitigating colon and liver cancer in mice. We fed mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) comprised of 47% carbohydrates, 40% fat, and 13% protein for 20 weeks to mimic human obesity...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Anita S Elidottir, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Ingibjörg Gunnarsdottir, Alfons Ramel
BACKGROUND/AIM: Most studies regarding low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been intervention studies. The aim of the current study was to investigate dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors among individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted (N = 54, 20-66yrs) in Reykjavik, Iceland. Participants recorded food intake for three days. Blood samples were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Nearly half of the participants were obese and around 60% had been on a LCD for ≥ 6 months...
2016: PloS One
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