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Biomedical technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773123/circumstances-of-child-deaths-in-mali-and-uganda-a-community-based-confidential-enquiry
#1
Merlin L Willcox, Elias Kumbakumba, Drissa Diallo, Vincent Mubangizi, Peter Kirabira, Florence Nakaggwa, Birungi Mutahunga, Chiaka Diakité, Eugene Dembélé, Mamadou Traoré, Pierre Daou, Drissa Bamba, Amadou Traoré, Diafara Berthé, Nick Wooding, Kieran Dinwoodie, Sarah Capewell, Hamish Foster, Rowena Neville, Joseph Ngonzi, Jerome Kabakyenga, David Mant, Anthony Harnden
BACKGROUND: Interventions to reduce child deaths in Africa have often underachieved, causing the Millennium Development Goal targets to be missed. We assessed whether a community enquiry into the circumstances of death could improve intervention effectiveness by identifying local avoidable factors and explaining implementation failures. METHODS: Deaths of children younger than 5 years were ascertained by community informants in two districts in Mali (762 deaths) and three districts in Uganda (442 deaths) in 2011-15...
June 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772963/simplifying-skin-disease-diagnosis-with-topical-nanotechnology
#2
David C Yeo, Chenjie Xu
A new study published in the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering1 documents a novel diagnostic technology that exploits topically applied nanotechnology to detect skin tissue biomarkers for diagnosis. This concept is demonstrated by noninvasively imaging connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA in abnormal scar cells, whole tissue, and animal models. In this commentary, we highlight the main findings and discuss their implications. Successful implementation in the clinic could give rise to self-applied, biopsy-free diagnostic technology and significantly reduce healthcare burden...
May 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772781/the-potential-role-of-fc-receptor-functions-in-the-development-of-a-universal-influenza-vaccine
#3
Sinthujan Jegaskanda
Despite global vaccination efforts, influenza virus continues to cause yearly epidemics and periodic pandemics throughout most of the world. Many of us consider the generation of broader, potent and long-lasting immunity against influenza viruses as critical in curtailing the global health and economic impact that influenza currently plays. To date, classical vaccinology has relied on the generation of neutralizing antibodies as the benchmark to measure vaccine effectiveness. However, recent developments in numerous related fields of biomedical research including, HIV, HSV and DENV have emphasized the importance of Fc-mediate effector functions in pathogenesis and immunity...
May 17, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764369/vareporter-variant-reporter-for-cancer-research-of-massive-parallel-sequencing
#4
Po-Jung Huang, Chi-Ching Lee, Ling-Ya Chiu, Kuo-Yang Huang, Yuan-Ming Yeh, Chia-Yu Yang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Petrus Tang
BACKGROUND: High throughput sequencing technologies have been an increasingly critical aspect of precision medicine owing to a better identification of disease targets, which contributes to improved health care cost and clinical outcomes. In particular, disease-oriented targeted enrichment sequencing is becoming a widely-accepted application for diagnostic purposes, which can interrogate known diagnostic variants as well as identify novel biomarkers from panels of entire human coding exome or disease-associated genes...
May 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763548/zein-increases-the-cytoaffinity-and-biodegradability-of-scaffolds-3d-printed-with-zein-and-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-composite-ink
#5
Linzhi Jing, Xiang Wang, Hang Liu, Yuyun Lu, Jinsong Bian, Jie Sun, Dejian Huang
Electrohydrodynamic printing (EHDP) has attracted extensive interests as a powerful technology to fabricate micro to nanoscale fibrous scaffolds in a custom-tailored manner for biomedical applications. A few synthetic biopolymer inks are applicable to this EHDP technology, but the fabricated scaffolds suffered from low mechanical strength, biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this study, a series of poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL)/zein composite inks were developed and their printability was examined on a solution-based EHDP system for scaffold fabrication...
May 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763456/comprehensive-evaluation-of-blood-brain-barrier-forming-micro-vasculatures-reference-and-marker-genes-with-cellular-composition
#6
Mei Dai, Yi Lin, Salim S El-Amouri, Mara Kohls, Dao Pan
Primary brain microvessels (BrMV) maintain the cellular characters and molecular signatures as displayed in vivo, and serve as a vital tool for biomedical research of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the development/optimization of brain drug delivery. The variations of relative purities or cellular composition among different BrMV samples may have significant consequences in data interpretation and research outcome, especially for experiments with high-throughput genomics and proteomics technologies. In this study, we aimed to identify suitable reference gene (RG) for accurate normalization of real-time RT-qPCR analysis, and determine the proper marker genes (MG) for relative purity assessment in BrMV samples...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761629/simultaneous-local-heating-thermometry-based-on-plasmonic-magnetochromic-nanoheaters
#7
Zhi Li, Alberto Lopez-Ortega, Antonio Aranda-Ramos, José Luis Tajada, Jordi Sort, Carme Nogues, Paolo Vavassori, Josep Nogues, Borja Sepulveda
A crucial challenge in nanotherapies is achieving accurate and real-time control of the therapeutic action, which is particularly relevant in local thermal therapies to minimize healthy tissue damage and necrotic cell deaths. Here, a nanoheater/thermometry concept is presented based on magnetoplasmonic (Co/Au or Fe/Au) nanodomes that merge exceptionally efficient plasmonic heating and simultaneous highly sensitive detection of the temperature variations. The temperature detection is based on precise optical monitoring of the magnetic-induced rotation of the nanodomes in solution...
May 14, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758049/user-evaluations-offer-promise-for-pod-intravaginal-ring-as-a-drug-delivery-platform-a-mixed-methods-study-of-acceptability-and-use-experiences
#8
Kate M Guthrie, Rochelle K Rosen, Sara E Vargas, Melissa L Getz, Lauren Dawson, Melissa Guillen, Jaime J Ramirez, Marc M Baum, Kathleen L Vincent
BACKGROUND: Effective HIV prevention requires efficient delivery of safe and efficacious drugs and optimization of user adherence. The user's experiences with the drug, delivery system, and use parameters are critical to product acceptability and adherence. Prevention product developers have the opportunity to directly control a drug delivery system and its impact on acceptability and adherence, as well as product efficacy. Involvement of potential users during preclinical design and development can facilitate this process...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757744/-block-chain-reaction-a-blockchain-revolution-sweeps-into-health-care-offering-the-possibility-for-a-much-needed-data-solution
#9
Leslie Mertz
Electronic health records may have digitized patient data, but getting that data from one clinician to another remains a huge challenge, especially since patients often have multiple doctors ordering tests, prescribing drugs, and providing treatment. Many experts now believe that blockchain technology might be just the thing to get a patient's pertinent medical information from where it is stored to where it is needed, as well as to allow patients to easily view their own medical histories. In addition, blockchain technology might also be able to help with other aspects of health care, such as improving the insurance claim or other administrative processes within healthcare networks and making health-related population data available to biomedical researchers...
May 2018: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756761/digital-microarrays-single-molecule-readout-with-interferometric-detection-of-plasmonic-nanorod-labels
#10
Derin Sevenler, George G Daaboul, Fulya Ekiz Kanik, Nese Lortlar Ünlü, M Selim Ünlu
DNA and protein microarrays are a high-throughput technology that allow the simultaneous quantification of tens of thousands of different biomolecular species. The mediocre sensitivity and limited dynamic range of traditional fluorescence microarrays compared to other detection techniques have been the technology's Achilles' Heel, and prevented their adoption for many biomedical and clinical diagnostic applications. Previous work to enhance the sensitivity of microarray readout to the single-molecule ('digital') regime have either required signal amplifying chemistry or sacrificed throughput, nixing the platform's primary advantages...
May 14, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756242/novel-materials-for-3d-printing-by-photopolymerization
#11
Michael Layani, Xiaofeng Wang, Shlomo Magdassi
The field of 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM), is developing rapidly in both academic and industrial research environments. New materials and printing technologies, which enable rapid and multimaterial printing, have given rise to new applications and utilizations. However, the main bottleneck for achieving many more applications is the lack of materials with new physical properties. Here, some of the recent reports on novel materials in this field, such as ceramics, glass, shape-memory polymers, and electronics, are reviewed...
May 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755216/yoga-for-heart-failure-a-review-and-future-research
#12
REVIEW
Paula R Pullen, William S Seffens, Walter R Thompson
Background: Complementary and alternative medicine is a rapidly growing area of biomedical inquiry. Yoga has emerged in the forefront of holistic medical care due to its long history of linking physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. Research in yoga therapy (YT) has associated improved cardiovascular and quality of life (QoL) outcomes for the special needs of heart failure (HF) patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to review yoga intervention studies on HF patients, discuss proposed mechanisms, and examine yoga's effect on physiological systems that have potential benefits for HF patients...
May 2018: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754238/construction-and-integration-of-a-synthetic-microrna-cluster-for-multiplex-rna-interference-in-mammalian-cells
#13
Tingting Wang, Zhen Xie
Basic biological research and biomedical applications often require studying the multiple interactions between genes or proteins while multiplex RNA interference (RNAi) technology is still challenging in mammalian cells. In mammalian genomes, the natural microRNA (miRNA) clusters, of which the miRNAs often share similar expression patterns and target diverse genes, would provide a potential multiplex RNAi scaffold. Based on the natural pri-miR-155 precursor, we have developed and characterized a multiplex RNAi method by engineering synthetic miRNA clusters, among which the maturation and function of individual miRNA precursors are independent of their positions in the cluster...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754234/rapid-control-of-genome-editing-in-human-cells-by-chemical-inducible-crispr-cas-systems
#14
Kaiwen Ivy Liu, Muhammad Nadzim Bin Ramli, Norfala-Aliah Binte Sutrisnoh, Meng How Tan
Genome editing using programmable DNA endonucleases enables the engineering of eukaryotic cells and living organisms with desirable properties or traits. Among the various molecular scissors that have been developed to date, the most versatile and easy-to-use family of nucleases derives from CRISPR-Cas, which exists naturally as an adaptive immune system in bacteria. Recent advances in the CRISPR-Cas technology have expanded our ability to manipulate complex genomes for myriad biomedical and biotechnological applications...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753964/a-web-based-system-for-neural-network-based-classification-in-temporomandibular-joint-osteoarthritis
#15
Priscille de Dumast, Clément Mirabel, Lucia Cevidanes, Antonio Ruellas, Marilia Yatabe, Marcos Ioshida, Nina Tubau Ribera, Loic Michoud, Liliane Gomes, Chao Huang, Hongtu Zhu, Luciana Muniz, Brandon Shoukri, Beatriz Paniagua, Martin Styner, Steve Pieper, Francois Budin, Jean-Baptiste Vimort, Laura Pascal, Juan Carlos Prieto
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the methodological innovations of a web-based system for storage, integration and computation of biomedical data, using a training imaging dataset to remotely compute a deep neural network classifier of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA). METHODS: This study imaging dataset consisted of three-dimensional (3D) surface meshes of mandibular condyles constructed from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans...
May 1, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752695/sodium-tanshinone-ii-a-sulfonate-for-coronary-heart-disease-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
Mei-Li Yu, Si-Ming Li, Xiang Gao, Jin-Gen Li, Hao Xu, Ke-Ji Chen
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether an adjunctive therapy of Sodium Tanshinone II A Sulfonate Injection (STS) is effective and safe in improving clinical outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: literature search was conducted through PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Knowledge Infrastructure Databases (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (SinoMed), Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP) and Wanfang Database up to August 2017...
May 11, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751143/characterization-and-cytotoxicity-evaluation-of-biocompatible-amino-acid-esters-used-to-convert-salicylic-acid-into-ionic-liquids
#17
Rahman Md Moshikur, Chowdhury Md Raihan, Rie Wakabayashi, Yoshiro Tahara, Muhammad Moniruzzaman, Masahiro Goto
The technological utility of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is greatly enhanced when they are transformed into ionic liquids (ILs). API-ILs have better solubility, thermal stability, and the efficacy in topical delivery than solid or crystalline drugs. However, toxicological issue of API-ILs is the main challenge for their application in drug delivery. To address this issue, 11 amino acid esters (AAEs) were synthesized and investigated as biocompatible counter cations for the poorly water-soluble drug salicylic acid (Sal) to form Sal-ILs...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750850/lipase-catalysed-synthesis-of-furan-based-oligoesters-and-their-self-assembly-assisted-polymerization
#18
Nagarajan Subbiah, Muthusamy K, Lalitha Krishnamoorthy, Siva Prasad Yadavali, Thamizhanban Ayyapillai, Sridharan Vellaisamy, Maheswari C Uma
Bio-based polyesters are well-known biodegradable materials that are frequently used in our daily life, which include food industries and biomedical fields. The journey towards the development of sustainable polymer materials and technology postulate the replacement of traditionally using petrochemical-based monomers, transition metal catalyst, and more intensive purification techniques, which do not agree with the green chemistry principles. This contribution investigates the synthesis of bio-based hydrophilic and hydrophobic oligoesters, which in turn derived from easily accessible monomers of natural resources...
May 11, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749848/institutional-interventions-that-remove-barriers-to-recruit-and-retain-diverse-biomedical-phd-students
#19
Marenda A Wilson, Anthony DePass, Andrew J Bean
The faculty and student populations in academia are not representative of the diversity in the U.S. POPULATION: Thus, research institutions and funding agencies invest significant funds and effort into recruitment and retention programs that focus on increasing the flow of historically underrepresented minorities (URMs) into the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pipeline. Here, we outline challenges, interventions, and assessments by the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (GSBS) that increased the diversity of the student body independently of grade point averages and Graduate Record Examination scores...
June 2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749540/personalized-regulation-of-glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells-based-on-biomedical-technologies-from-theory-to-experiment-review
#20
Igor Bryukhovetskiy, Arina Ponomarenko, Irina Lyakhova, Sergey Zaitsev, Yulia Zayats, Maria Korneyko, Marina Eliseikina, Polina Mischenko, Valerie Shevchenko, Hari Shanker Sharma, Aruna Sharma, Yuri Khotimchenko
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive brain tumors. GBM represents >50% of primary tumors of the nervous system and ~20% of intracranial neoplasms. Standard treatment involves surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, the prognosis of GBM is usually poor, with a median survival of 15 months. Resistance of GBM to treatment can be explained by the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) among the GBM cell population. At present, there are no effective therapeutic strategies for the elimination of CSCs...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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