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Biomedical technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155388/polyelectrolyte-multilayers-for-bio-applications-recent-advancements
#1
REVIEW
Suman Pahal, Ruchi Gakhar, Ashok M Raichur, Manoj M Varma
The synergistic relationship between structure and the bulk properties of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films has generated tremendous interest in their application for loading and release of bioactive species. Layer-by-layer assembly is the simplest, cost effective process for fabrication of such PEMs films, leading to one of the most widely accepted platforms for incorporating biological molecules with nanometre precision. The bulk reservoir properties of PEM films render them a potential candidate for applications such as biosensing, drug delivery and tissue engineering...
December 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152631/mask-free-fabrication-of-a-versatile-microwell-chip-for-multidimensional-cellular-analysis-and-drug-screening
#2
Wenguang Yang, Haibo Yu, Gongxin Li, Fanan Wei, Yuechao Wang, Lianqing Liu
Cells are frequently studied because they are basic structural, functional, and biological units of living organisms. Extracting features from cellular behaviors can facilitate decision making in medical diagnoses and represents an important aspect in the development of biomedical engineering. Previous studies have just focused on either the individual cell or cell clusters separately, which leads to a great lack of information. Microwell technologies could address the challenges of in vitro cellular studies, from individual cell studies to 3D functional assays, by providing more information from smaller sample volumes and enabling the incorporation of low-cost high-throughput assays in the drug discovery process...
November 20, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152322/choosing-a-culture-medium-for-scnt-and-iscnt-reconstructed-embryos-from-domestic-to-wildlife-species
#3
REVIEW
A Cordova, W A King, G F Mastromonaco
Over the past decades, in vitro culture media have been developed to successfully support IVF embryo growth in a variety of species. Advanced reproductive technologies, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), challenge us with a new type of embryo, with special nutritional requirements and altered physiology under in vitro conditions. Numerous studies have successfully reconstructed cloned embryos of domestic animals for biomedical research and livestock production. However, studies evaluating suitable culture conditions for SCNT embryos in wildlife species are scarce (for both intra- and interspecies SCNT)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151426/-effects-of-antibiotics-on-intestinal-microflora-and-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-function-and-its-mechanisms
#4
Yue Han, Yuxin Leng, Gaiqi Yao
Antibiotics are the cornerstone to cure infectious diseases, however, it also destroys the intestinal inherent microflora, and may cause serious gastrointestinal dysfunction, such as abdominal distension, diarrhea, mucosal barrier damage etc. In severe conditions, it may induce intestinal sepsis. With the development of the human microbiology group program and the popularity of microbial sequencing technology, people can comprehend the effects of antibiotics on intestinal flora deeply, meanwhile the traditional biomedical model (the basis of bacterial disease) is questioned...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150003/crispr-cas9-technology-applications-and-human-disease-modeling
#5
Marta Martinez-Lage, Raúl Torres-Ruiz, Sandra Rodriguez-Perales
The CRISPR/Cas9 system development has revolutionized the field of genome engineering through the efficient creation of targeted breaks in the DNA of almost any organism and cell type, opening an avenue for a wide range of applications in biomedical research and medicine. Apart from gene edition through knock-in or knock-out approaches, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been used for many other purposes, including regulation of endogenous gene expression, epigenome editing, live-cell imaging of chromosomal loci, edition of RNA and high-throughput screening...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150001/crispr-history-discovery-characterization-and-prosperity
#6
Wenyuan Han, Qunxin She
CRISPR research is a very young research field since it was only 10years ago when the system was found to confer antiviral defense. Nevertheless, there has been an explosion of publications in CRISPR research in the past 5years. The research was started with the comparative genomics of microbial genomes early this century, which revealed the prevalence of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) in bacteria and archaea. Series of hypotheses were made based on bioinformatics analyses and tested experimentally within a few years after the CRISPR acronym was coined...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149460/the-impact-of-a-prolonged-stay-in-the-icu-on-patients-fundamental-care-needs
#7
Claire Minton, Lesley Batten, Annette Huntington
AIM: To explore patients', families', and health professionals' experiences of a long-stay patient in an intensive care unit. BACKGROUND: The fast-paced technologically driven intensive care unit environment, designed for a short patient stay, supports the provision of complex physiologically-focused care for those with life-threatening illnesses. Long stay patients with pronounced fundamental care needs fall outside predicted patient pathways, and nurses can find caring for these patients challenging...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149080/novel-tactile-sensor-technology-and-smart-tactile-sensing-systems-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Liang Zou, Chang Ge, Z Jane Wang, Edmond Cretu, Xiaoou Li
During the last decades, smart tactile sensing systems based on different sensing techniques have been developed due to their high potential in industry and biomedical engineering. However, smart tactile sensing technologies and systems are still in their infancy, as many technological and system issues remain unresolved and require strong interdisciplinary efforts to address them. This paper provides an overview of smart tactile sensing systems, with a focus on signal processing technologies used to interpret the measured information from tactile sensors and/or sensors for other sensory modalities...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148314/clinical-decision-support-systems-in-hospital-care-using-ubiquitous-devices-current-issues-and-challenges
#9
Mirza Mansoor Baig, Hamid GholamHosseini, Aasia A Moqeem, Farhaan Mirza, Maria Lindén
Supporting clinicians in decision making using advanced technologies has been an active research area in biomedical engineering during the past years. Among a wide range of ubiquitous systems, smartphone applications have been increasingly developed in healthcare settings to help clinicians as well as patients. Today, many smartphone applications, from basic data analysis to advanced patient monitoring, are available to clinicians and patients. Such applications are now increasingly integrating into healthcare for clinical decision support, and therefore, concerns around accuracy, stability, and dependency of these applications are rising...
November 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148178/training-in-molecular-cytopathology-testing
#10
REVIEW
P Maxwell, M Salto-Tellez
Training in molecular cytopathology testing is essential in developing and maintaining skills in modern molecular technologies as they are introduced to a universal health care system such as extant in the UK and elsewhere. We review the system in place in Northern Ireland (NI) for molecular testing of solid tumours, as an example to train staff of all grades, including pathologists, clinical scientists, biomedical scientists and equivalent technical grades. We describe training of pathologists as part of the NI Deanery medical curriculum, the NI training programme for scientists and laboratory rotation for Biomedical Scientists...
November 17, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148115/the-actionability-of-exome-sequencing-testing-results
#11
Tanya Stivers, Stefan Timmermans
Genomic tests such as exome sequencing have recently become an option for diagnosing patients. The tests allow clinical geneticists to sequence the majority of patients' disease causing genetic variants. As a new technology, exome sequencing confronts the question of what the benefit is of this increased genetic information. Against a narrow perspective of clinical utility that emphasises tangible improvements in a patient's disease management, professional organisations have argued that genomic sequencing should be considered beneficial if it helps families and society...
November 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145733/harnessing-novel-imaging-approaches-to-guide-hiv-prevention-and-cure-discoveries-a-national-institutes-of-health-and-global-hiv-vaccine-enterprise-2017-meeting-report
#12
Brigitte Elisabeth Sanders-Beer, Yegor Voronin, David McDonald, Anjali Singh
Advances in imaging technologies have greatly increased our understanding of cellular and molecular interactions in humans and their corresponding animal models of infectious diseases. In the HIV/SIV field, imaging has provided key insights into mucosal viral transmission, local and systemic virus spread, host-virus dynamics, and chronic inflammation/immune activation and the resultant immunopathology. Recent developments in imaging applications are yielding physical, spatial, and temporal measurements to enhance insight into biological functions and disease processes, while retaining important cellular, microenvironmental, organ and intact organism contextual details...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143053/recent-advances-in-microfluidic-technologies-for-cell-to-cell-interaction-studies
#13
REVIEW
Mario Rothbauer, Helene Zirath, Peter Ertl
Microfluidic cell cultures are ideally positioned to become the next generation of in vitro diagnostic tools for biomedical research, where key biological processes such as cell signalling and dynamic cell-to-cell interactions can be reliably analysed under reproducible physiological cell culture conditions. In the last decade, a large number of microfluidic cell analysis systems have been developed for a variety of applications including drug target optimization, drug screening and toxicological testing. More recently, advanced in vitro microfluidic cell culture systems have emerged that are capable of replicating the complex three-dimensional architectures of tissues and organs and thus represent valid biological models for investigating the mechanism and function of human tissue structures, as well as studying the onset and progression of diseases such as cancer...
November 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142216/polymer-mimics-of-biomacromolecular-antifreezes
#14
REVIEW
Caroline I Biggs, Trisha L Bailey, Ben Graham, Christopher Stubbs, Alice Fayter, Matthew I Gibson
Antifreeze proteins from polar fish species are remarkable biomacromolecules which prevent the growth of ice crystals. Ice crystal growth is a major problem in cell/tissue cryopreservation for transplantation, transfusion and basic biomedical research, as well as technological applications such as icing of aircraft wings. This review will introduce the rapidly emerging field of synthetic macromolecular (polymer) mimics of antifreeze proteins. Particular focus is placed on designing polymers which have no structural similarities to antifreeze proteins but reproduce the same macroscopic properties, potentially by different molecular-level mechanisms...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141515/mri-powered-biomedical-devices
#15
Sierra Hovet, Hongliang Ren, Sheng Xu, Bradford Wood, Junichi Tokuda, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is beneficial for imaging-guided procedures because it provides higher resolution images and better soft tissue contrast than computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and X-ray. MRI can be used to streamline diagnostics and treatment because it does not require patients to be repositioned between scans of different areas of the body. It is even possible to use MRI to visualize, power, and control medical devices inside the human body to access remote locations and perform minimally invasive procedures...
November 16, 2017: Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies: MITAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137639/proactive-ethical-design-for-neuroengineering-assistive-and-rehabilitation-technologies-the-cybathlon-lesson
#16
REVIEW
Marcello Ienca, Reto W Kressig, Fabrice Jotterand, Bernice Elger
BACKGROUND: Rapid advancements in rehabilitation science and the widespread application of engineering techniques are opening the prospect of a new phase of clinical and commercial maturity for Neuroengineering, Assistive and Rehabilitation Technologies (NARTs). As the field enters this new phase, there is an urgent need to address and anticipate the ethical implications associated with novel technological opportunities, clinical solutions, and social applications. MAIN IDEA: In this paper we review possible approaches to the ethics of NART, and propose a framework for ethical design and development, which we call the Proactive Ethical Design (PED) framework...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137136/incorporation-of-fiber-bragg-sensors-for-shape-memory-polyurethanes-characterization
#17
Nélia Alberto, Maria A Fonseca, Victor Neto, Rogério Nogueira, Mónica Oliveira, Rui Moreira
Shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) are thermally activated shape memory materials, which can be used as actuators or sensors in applications including aerospace, aeronautics, automobiles or the biomedical industry. The accurate characterization of the memory effect of these materials is therefore mandatory for the technology's success. The shape memory characterization is normally accomplished using mechanical testing coupled with a heat source, where a detailed knowledge of the heat cycle and its influence on the material properties is paramount but difficult to monitor...
November 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136460/graphitic-nitrogen-triggers-red-fluorescence-in-carbon-dots
#18
Kateřina Holá, Mária Sudolská, Sergii Kalytchuk, Dana Nachtigallová, Andrey L Rogach, Michal Otyepka, Radek Zbořil
Carbon dots (CDs) are a stable and highly biocompatible fluorescent material offering great application potential in cell labeling, optical imaging, LED diodes, and optoelectronic technologies. Because their emission wavelengths provide the best tissue penetration, red-emitting CDs are of particular interest for applications in biomedical technologies. Current synthetic strategies enabling red-shifted emission include increasing the CD particle size (sp(2) domain) by a proper synthetic strategy and tuning the surface chemistry of CDs with suitable functional groups (e...
November 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131597/facile-low-temperature-synthesis-of-cellulose-nanocrystals-carrying-buckminsterfullerene-and-its-radical-scavenging-property-in-vitro
#19
Jinxian Lin, Zhijing Zhong, Qunling Li, Zhaoyi Tan, Tao Lin, Yi Quan, Dong Zhang
Buckminsterfullerene (C60), known for its strong radical scavenging properties, has been studied extensively for its biomedical applications. Its clinical use would be promoted by novel functionalisation of C60 with the aid of drug delivery carriers based on nanoparticle technologies. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), have been recently exploited as a promising nanoplatform for drug delivery, owing to their intriguing attributes such as nanoscale dimensions, low toxicity, broad chemical-modifying capacity, and biocompatibility...
November 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131565/protein-based-3d-microstructures-with-controllable-morphology-and-ph-responsive-properties
#20
Shuxin Wei, Jie Liu, Yuanyuan Zhao, Tingbin Zhang, Mei-Ling Zheng, Feng Jin, Xianzi Dong, Jinfeng Xing, Xuanming Duan
The microtechnology of controlling stimuli-responsive biomaterials at micrometer scale is crucial for biomedical applications. Here, we report bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based three-dimensional (3D) microstructures with tunable surface morphology and pH-responsive properties via two-photon polymerization (TPP) microfabrication technology. The laser processing parameters including laser power, scanning speed and layer distance are optimized for the fabrication of well-defined 3D BSA microstructures. The tunable morphology of BSA microstructures and a wide range pH response corresponding to the swelling ratio from 1...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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