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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334183/engineering-polymersomes-for-diagnostics-and-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Jiayu Leong, Jye Yng Teo, Vinay K Aakalu, Yi Yan Yang, Hyunjoon Kong
Engineered polymer vesicles, termed as polymersomes, confer a flexibility to control their structure, properties, and functionality. Self-assembly of amphiphilic copolymers leads to vesicles consisting of a hydrophobic bilayer membrane and hydrophilic core, each of which is loaded with a wide array of small and large molecules of interests. As such, polymersomes are increasingly being studied as carriers of imaging probes and therapeutic drugs. Effective delivery of polymersomes necessitates careful design of polymersomes...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333931/hyperspectral-imaging-of-tissue-perfusion-and-oxygenation-in-wounds-assessing-the-impact-of-a-micro-capillary-dressing
#2
Thomas Wild, Markus Becker, Jochen Winter, Nicole Schuhschenk, Georg Daeschlein, Frank Siemers
OBJECTIVE: Experimental tests of non-invasive multi- or hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems reveal the high potential of support for medical diagnostic purposes and scientific biomedical analysis. Until now the use of HSI technologies for medical applications was limited by complex and overly sophisticated systems. We present a new and compact HSI-camera that could be used in normal clinical practice. METHOD: We assessed the use of the HSI system on the hands of 10 healthy volunteers, looking at control parameters, and those following venous occlusion, arterial occlusion and reperfusion, including tissue oxygenation, tissue haemoglobin index, perfusion in 4-6mm depth=near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), and tissue water index...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332998/high-pressure-epr-spectroscopy-studies-of-the-e-coli-lipopolysaccharide-transport-proteins-lpta-and-lptc
#3
Kathryn M Schultz, Candice S Klug
The use of pressure is an advantageous approach to the study of protein structure and dynamics because it can shift the equilibrium populations of protein conformations toward higher energy states that are not of sufficient population to be observable at atmospheric pressure. Recently, the Hubbell group at the University of California, Los Angeles, reintroduced the application of high pressure to the study of proteins by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. This methodology is possible using X-band EPR spectroscopy due to advances in pressure intensifiers, sample cells, and resonators...
December 2017: Applied Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332786/recent-advances-and-developments-on-integrating-nanotechnology-with-chemiluminescence-assays
#4
REVIEW
Ashish Tiwari, S J Dhoble
Chemiluminescence (CL) techniques are extensively utilized for detection of analytes due to their high sensitivity, rapidity and selectivity. With the advent of nanotechnology and incorporation of the nanoparticles in the CL system has revolutionized the assays due to their unique optical and mechanical properties. Several CL-based reactions have been developed where these nanoparticle based CL sensors have evolved as excellent prospects for sensing in various analytical applications. This review article addresses the nanoparticles based CL detection system that are recently developed, the mechanisms has been summarized and the role of luminophors have been discussed...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329957/safety-and-tolerability-of-a-novel-polyclonal-human-anti-mers-coronavirus-antibody-produced-from-transchromosomic-cattle-a-phase-1-randomised-double-blind-single-dose-escalation-study
#5
John H Beigel, Jocelyn Voell, Parag Kumar, Kanakatte Raviprakash, Hua Wu, Jin-An Jiao, Eddie Sullivan, Thomas Luke, Richard T Davey
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a severe respiratory illness with an overall mortality of 35%. There is no licensed or proven treatment. Passive immunotherapy approaches are being developed to prevent and treat several human medical conditions where alternative therapeutic options are absent. We report the safety of a fully human polyclonal IgG antibody (SAB-301) produced from the hyperimmune plasma of transchromosomic cattle immunised with a MERS coronavirus vaccine...
January 9, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329224/melanin-based-functional-materials
#6
EDITORIAL
Marco d'Ischia
Melanin biopolymers are currently the focus of growing interest for a broad range of applications at the cutting edge of biomedical research and technology. This Special Issue presents a collection of papers dealing with melanin-type materials, e.g., polydopamine, for classic and innovative applications, offering a stimulating perspective of current trends in the field. Besides basic scientists, the Special Issue is directed to researchers from industries and companies that are willing to invest in melanin research for innovative and inspiring solutions...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329052/efficient-and-cost-effective-generation-of-hepatocyte-like-cells-through-microparticle-mediated-delivery-of-growth-factors-in-a-3d-culture-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#7
Zeinab Heidariyan, Mohammad Hossein Ghanian, Mohsen Ashjari, Zahra Farzaneh, Mostafa Najarasl, Mehran Rezaei Larijani, Abbas Piryaei, Massoud Vosough, Hossein Baharvand
Biomedical application of human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (hPSC-HLCs) relies on efficient large-scale differentiation, which is commonly performed by a suspension culture of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular spheroids in bioreactors. However, this approach requires large amounts of growth factors (GFs) and the need to overcome limited diffusional transport posed by the inherent 3D structure of hPSC spheroids. Here, we have hypothesized that localized delivery of GFs by incorporation of GF-laden degradable polymeric microparticles (MPs) within the hPSC spheroids would circumvent such limitations...
January 2, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328784/dna-encoded-chemical-libraries-a-selection-system-based-on-endowing-organic-compounds-with-amplifiable-information
#8
Dario Neri, Richard A Lerner
The discovery of organic ligands that bind specifically to proteins is a central problem in chemistry, biology, and the biomedical sciences. The encoding of individual organic molecules with distinctive DNA tags, serving as amplifiable identification bar codes, allows the construction and screening of combinatorial libraries of unprecedented size, thus facilitating the discovery of ligands to many different protein targets. Fundamentally, one links powers of genetics and chemical synthesis. After the initial description of DNA-encoded chemical libraries in 1992, several experimental embodiments of the technology have been reduced to practice...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328139/holographic-display-methods-for-volume-data-polygon-based-and-mip-based-methods
#9
Zixiang Lu, Yuji Sakamoto
Volume data are widely used in many areas, especially in biomedical science and geology. However, current visualization technologies of volume data cannot satisfy the visual requirements of humans. In this study, we propose two holographic display methods for volume data. The first method is polygon-based, and the other is maximum intensity projection (MIP)-based. Both methods are able to generate computer generated holograms of volume data. The polygon-based method can obtain various and colorful holograms, while the MIP-based method can be quickly calculated...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327398/ways-of-knowing-on-the-internet-a-qualitative-review-of-cancer-websites-from-a-critical-nursing-perspective
#10
Kristen R Haase, Roanne T Thomas, Wendy Gifford, Lorraine F Holtslander
People diagnosed with cancer typically want information from their doctor or nurse. However, many individuals now turn to the Internet to tackle unmet information needs and to complement healthcare professional information. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore the content of commonly searched cancer websites from a critical nursing perspective, as this information is accessible, and allows patients to address their information needs in ways that healthcare professionals cannot. This qualitative examination of websites is informed by Carper's fundamental patterns of knowing and complemented with the critical view to technology espoused by the philosophy of technology...
January 12, 2018: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322916/cells-in-experimental-life-sciences-challenges-and-solution-to-the-rapid-evolution-of-knowledge
#11
EDITORIAL
Sirarat Sarntivijai, Alexander D Diehl, Yongqun He
Cell cultures used in biomedical experiments come in the form of both sample biopsy primary cells, and maintainable immortalised cell lineages. The rise of bioinformatics and high-throughput technologies has led us to the requirement of ontology representation of cell types and cell lines. The Cell Ontology (CL) and Cell Line Ontology (CLO) have long been established as reference ontologies in the OBO framework. We have compiled a series of the challenges and the proposals of solutions in this CELLS (Cells in ExperimentaL Life Sciences) thematic series that cover the grounds of standing issues and the directions, which were discussed in the First International Workshop on CELLS at the the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO)...
December 21, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322886/chronicity-crisis-and-the-end-of-aids
#12
Thurka Sangaramoorthy
In biomedical, public health, and popular discourses, the 'end of AIDS' has emerged as a predominant way to understand the future of HIV research and prevention. This approach is predicated on structuring and responding to HIV in ways that underscore its presumed lifelong nature. In this article, I examine the phenomenon of HIV chronicity that undergirds the 'end of AIDS' discourse. In particular, I explore how the logic of HIV chronicity, induced by technological advances in treatment and global financial and political investments, intensifies long-term uncertainty and prolonged crisis...
January 11, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322778/using-genome-sequence-to-enable-the-design-of-medicines-and-chemical-probes
#13
Alicia J Angelbello, Jonathan L Chen, Jessica L Childs-Disney, Peiyuan Zhang, Zi-Fu Wang, Matthew D Disney
Rapid progress in genome sequencing technology has put us firmly into a postgenomic era. A key challenge in biomedical research is harnessing genome sequence to fulfill the promise of personalized medicine. This Review describes how genome sequencing has enabled the identification of disease-causing biomolecules and how these data have been converted into chemical probes of function, preclinical lead modalities, and ultimately U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. In particular, we focus on the use of oligonucleotide-based modalities to target disease-causing RNAs; small molecules that target DNA, RNA, or protein; the rational repurposing of known therapeutic modalities; and the advantages of pharmacogenetics...
January 11, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320538/germline-and-somatic-variant-identification-using-bgiseq-500-and-hiseq-x-ten-whole-genome-sequencing
#14
Ann-Marie Patch, Katia Nones, Stephen H Kazakoff, Felicity Newell, Scott Wood, Conrad Leonard, Oliver Holmes, Qinying Xu, Venkateswar Addala, Jenette Creaney, Bruce W Robinson, Shujin Fu, Chunyu Geng, Tong Li, Wenwei Zhang, Xinming Liang, Junhua Rao, Jiahao Wang, Mingyu Tian, Yonggang Zhao, Fei Teng, Honglan Gou, Bicheng Yang, Hui Jiang, Feng Mu, John V Pearson, Nicola Waddell
Technological innovation and increased affordability have contributed to the widespread adoption of genome sequencing technologies in biomedical research. In particular large cancer research consortia have embraced next generation sequencing, and have used the technology to define the somatic mutation landscape of multiple cancer types. These studies have primarily utilised the Illumina HiSeq platforms. In this study we performed whole genome sequencing of three malignant pleural mesothelioma and matched normal samples using a new platform, the BGISEQ-500, and compared the results obtained with Illumina HiSeq X Ten...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317627/mapping-the-microscale-origins-of-magnetic-resonance-image-contrast-with-subcellular-diamond-magnetometry
#15
Hunter C Davis, Pradeep Ramesh, Aadyot Bhatnagar, Audrey Lee-Gosselin, John F Barry, David R Glenn, Ronald L Walsworth, Mikhail G Shapiro
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used biomedical imaging modality that derives much of its contrast from microscale magnetic field patterns in tissues. However, the connection between these patterns and the appearance of macroscale MR images has not been the subject of direct experimental study due to a lack of methods to map microscopic fields in biological samples. Here, we optically probe magnetic fields in mammalian cells and tissues with submicron resolution and nanotesla sensitivity using nitrogen-vacancy diamond magnetometry, and combine these measurements with simulations of nuclear spin precession to predict the corresponding MRI contrast...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316283/split-cas9-not-hairs-advancing-the-therapeutic-index-of-crispr-technology
#16
REVIEW
Carolin Schmelas, Dirk Grimm
The discovery that the bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system can be translated into mammalian cells continues to have an unprecedented impact on the biomedical research community, as it largely facilitates efforts to experimentally interrogate or therapeutically modify the cellular genome. In particular, CRISPR promises the ability to correct disease-associated genetic defects, or to target and destroy invading foreign DNA, in a simple, efficient and selective manner directly in affected human cells or tissues. Here, we highlight a set of exciting new strategies that aim at further increasing the therapeutic index of CRISPR technologies, by reducing the size of Cas9 expression cassettes and thus enhancing their compatibility with viral gene delivery vectors...
January 5, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315333/cell-penetrating-peptide-driven-cre-recombination-in-porcine-primary-cells-and-generation-of-marker-free-pigs
#17
Qianqian Kang, Zhaolin Sun, Zhiyuan Zou, Ming Wang, Qiuyan Li, Xiaoxiang Hu, Ning Li
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been increasingly used to deliver various molecules, both in vitro and in vivo. However, there are no reports of CPPs being used in porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). The increased use of transgenic pigs for basic research and biomedical applications depends on the availability of technologies for efficient genetic-modification of PFFs. Here, we report that three CPPs (CPP5, TAT, and R9) can efficiently deliver active Cre recombinase protein into PFFs via an energy-dependent endocytosis pathway...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312824/biotea-semantics-for-pubmed-central
#18
Alexander Garcia, Federico Lopez, Leyla Garcia, Olga Giraldo, Victor Bucheli, Michel Dumontier
A significant portion of biomedical literature is represented in a manner that makes it difficult for consumers to find or aggregate content through a computational query. One approach to facilitate reuse of the scientific literature is to structure this information as linked data using standardized web technologies. In this paper we present the second version of Biotea, a semantic, linked data version of the open-access subset of PubMed Central that has been enhanced with specialized annotation pipelines that uses existing infrastructure from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306017/statistical-analysis-of-non-coding-rna-data
#19
Qianchuan He, Yang Liu, Wei Sun
With rapid progress in high-throughput genome technology, the study of noncoding RNA has arisen as a highly popular topic in biomedical research. Noncoding RNA plays fundamental roles in cell proliferation, cell differentiation and epigenetic regulation, and the study of noncoding RNA will yield novel insights into gene regulation and provide new clues for disease treatment. However, due to the large volume and diverse functions of noncoding RNAs, the analysis of these RNAs has proved to be a challenging task...
January 3, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305341/a-pilot-study-of-biomedical-text-comprehension-using-an-attention-based-deep-neural-reader-design-and-experimental-analysis
#20
Seongsoon Kim, Donghyeon Park, Yonghwa Choi, Kyubum Lee, Byounggun Kim, Minji Jeon, Jihye Kim, Aik Choon Tan, Jaewoo Kang
BACKGROUND: With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology centered on deep-learning, the computer has evolved to a point where it can read a given text and answer a question based on the context of the text. Such a specific task is known as the task of machine comprehension. Existing machine comprehension tasks mostly use datasets of general texts, such as news articles or elementary school-level storybooks. However, no attempt has been made to determine whether an up-to-date deep learning-based machine comprehension model can also process scientific literature containing expert-level knowledge, especially in the biomedical domain...
January 5, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
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