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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649464/light-in-diagnosis-therapy-and-surgery
#1
Seok Hyun Yun, Sheldon J J Kwok
Light and optical techniques have made profound impacts on modern medicine, with numerous lasers and optical devices being currently used in clinical practice to assess health and treat disease. Recent advances in biomedical optics have enabled increasingly sophisticated technologies - in particular those that integrate photonics with nanotechnology, biomaterials and genetic engineering. In this Review, we revisit the fundamentals of light-matter interactions, describe the applications of light in imaging, diagnosis, therapy and surgery, overview their clinical use, and discuss the promise of emerging light-based technologies...
2017: Nature biomedical engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649245/camelid-single-domain-antibodies-as-an-alternative-to-overcome-challenges-related-to-the-prevention-detection-and-control-of-neglected-tropical-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Carla F C Fernandes, Soraya Dos S Pereira, Marcos B Luiz, Juliana P Zuliani, Gilvan P Furtado, Rodrigo G Stabeli
Due mainly to properties such as high affinity and antigen specificity, antibodies have become important tools for biomedical research, diagnosis, and treatment of several human diseases. When the objective is to administer them for therapy, strategies are used to reduce the heterologous protein immunogenicity and to improve pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. Size minimization contributes to ameliorate these characteristics, while preserving the antigen-antibody interaction site. Since the discovery that camelids produce functional antibodies devoid of light chains, studies have proposed the use of single domains for biosensors, monitoring and treatment of tumors, therapies for inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, drug delivery, or passive immunotherapy...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647645/adding-dimension-to-cellular-mechanotransduction-advances-in-biomedical-engineering-of-multiaxial-cell-stretch-systems-and-their-application-to-cardiovascular-biomechanics-and-mechano-signaling
#3
REVIEW
O Friedrich, D Schneidereit, Y A Nikolaev, V Nikolova-Krstevski, S Schürmann, A Wirth-Hücking, A L Merten, D Fatkin, B Martinac
Hollow organs (e.g. heart) experience pressure-induced mechanical wall stress sensed by molecular mechano-biosensors, including mechanosensitive ion channels, to translate into intracellular signaling. For direct mechanistic studies, stretch devices to apply defined extensions to cells adhered to elastomeric membranes have stimulated mechanotransduction research. However, most engineered systems only exploit unilateral cellular stretch. In addition, it is often taken for granted that stretch applied by hardware translates 1:1 to the cell membrane...
June 21, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646119/rest-suppression-mediates-neural-conversion-of-adult-human-fibroblasts-via-microrna-dependent-and-independent-pathways
#4
Janelle Drouin-Ouellet, Shong Lau, Per Ludvik Brattås, Daniella Rylander Ottosson, Karolina Pircs, Daniela A Grassi, Lucy M Collins, Romina Vuono, Annika Andersson Sjöland, Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson, Caroline Graff, Lennart Minthon, Håkan Toresson, Roger A Barker, Johan Jakobsson, Malin Parmar
Direct conversion of human fibroblasts into mature and functional neurons, termed induced neurons (iNs), was achieved for the first time 6 years ago. This technology offers a promising shortcut for obtaining patient- and disease-specific neurons for disease modeling, drug screening, and other biomedical applications. However, fibroblasts from adult donors do not reprogram as easily as fetal donors, and no current reprogramming approach is sufficiently efficient to allow the use of this technology using patient-derived material for large-scale applications...
June 23, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643930/moving-towards-precision-orthodontics-an-evolving-paradigm-shift-in-the-planning-and-delivery-of-customized-orthodontic-therapy
#5
REVIEW
A H Jheon, S Oberoi, R C Solem, S Kapila
Advances in precision medicine portend similar progress in orthodontics and will be increasingly harnessed to achieve customized treatment approaches and enhance treatment efficiencies. Our goal is to provide a background on emerging advances in computer technologies and biomedicine and highlight their current and likely future applications to precision orthodontics. A review of orthodontically relevant technologies and advances in pertinent biological research was undertaken. Innovations in computer hardware and software, and 3D imaging technologies offer the ability for customized treatment and biomechanical planning that will be more fully realized within the next few decades...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642940/mass-spectrometry-imaging-for-clinical-research-latest-developments-applications-and-current-limitations
#6
REVIEW
Pierre-Maxence Vaysse, Ron M A Heeren, Tiffany Porta, Benjamin Balluff
Mass spectrometry is being used in many clinical research areas ranging from toxicology to personalized medicine. Of all the mass spectrometry techniques, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), in particular, has continuously grown towards clinical acceptance. Significant technological and methodological improvements have contributed to enhance the performance of MSI recently, pushing the limits of throughput, spatial resolution, and sensitivity. This has stimulated the spread of MSI usage across various biomedical research areas such as oncology, neurological disorders, cardiology, and rheumatology, just to name a few...
June 23, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640594/biomedical-diagnostics-enabled-by-integrated-organic-and-printed-electronics
#7
Termeh Ahmadraji, Laura Gonzalez-Macia, Tapio Ritvonen, Andreas Willert, Saara Tuurala, Satu Ylimaula, David Donaghy, Mika Suhonen, Dave Smart, Vitaly Efremov, Aoife Morrin, Reinhard R Baumann, Munira Raja, Antti Kemppainen, Anthony J Killard
Organic and printed electronics integration has the potential to revolutionise many technologies, including biomedical diag-nostics. This work demonstrates the successful integration of multiple printed electronic functionalities into a single device capable of the measurement of hydrogen peroxide, and total cholesterol. The single-use device employed printed electrochemical sen-sors for hydrogen peroxide electroreduction integrated with printed electrochromic display and battery. The system was driven by a conventional electronic circuit designed to illustrate the complete integration of silicon ICs via pick and place, or using organic electronic circuits...
June 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639959/3d-printing-current-use-in-facial-plastic-and-reconstructive-surgery
#8
Tsung-Yen Hsieh, Raj Dedhia, Brian Cervenka, Travis T Tollefson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, with a focus on current uses in surgical training, surgical planning, clinical outcomes, and biomedical research. To evaluate the limitations and future implications of 3D printing in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies reviewed demonstrated 3D printing applications in surgical planning including accurate anatomic biomodels, surgical cutting guides in reconstruction, and patient-specific implants fabrication...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639617/gene-therapy-for-spinomuscular-atrophy-a-biomedical-advance-a-missed-opportunity-for-more-equitable-drug-pricing
#9
T Friedmann
An experimental approach for gene therapy of spinomuscular atrophy has been reported to prevent development of the neuromuscular features of this lethal and previously untreatable disorder. The approach involves treatment of patients suffering from SMN1-associated infantile form of the disease with a splice-switching antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that corrects aberrant splicing of the nearly identical SMN2 gene to allow the generation of functional SMN protein, thereby mitigating the development of the disease...
June 22, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639403/writing-with-fluid-structuring-hydrogels-with-micrometer-precision-by-afm-in-combination-with-nanofluidics
#10
Nicolas Helfricht, Andreas Mark, Marina Behr, Andreas Bernet, Hans-Werner Schmidt, Georg Papastavrou
Hydrogels have many applications in biomedical surface modification and tissue engineering. However, the structuring of hydrogels after their formation represents still a major challenge, in particular due to their softness. Here, a novel approach is presented that is based on the combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanofluidics, also referred to as FluidFM technology. Its applicability is demonstrated for supramolecular hydrogel films that are prepared from low-molecular weight hydrogelators, such as derivates of 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxamides (BTAs)...
June 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633659/computing-patient-data-in-the-cloud-practical-and-legal-considerations-for-genetics-and-genomics-research-in-europe-and-internationally
#11
Fruzsina Molnár-Gábor, Rupert Lueck, Sergei Yakneen, Jan O Korbel
Biomedical research is becoming increasingly large-scale and international. Cloud computing enables the comprehensive integration of genomic and clinical data, and the global sharing and collaborative processing of these data within a flexibly scalable infrastructure. Clouds offer novel research opportunities in genomics, as they facilitate cohort studies to be carried out at unprecedented scale, and they enable computer processing with superior pace and throughput, allowing researchers to address questions that could not be addressed by studies using limited cohorts...
June 20, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632205/speckle-modulating-optical-coherence-tomography-in-living-mice-and-humans
#12
Orly Liba, Matthew D Lew, Elliott D SoRelle, Rebecca Dutta, Debasish Sen, Darius M Moshfeghi, Steven Chu, Adam de la Zerda
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful biomedical imaging technology that relies on the coherent detection of backscattered light to image tissue morphology in vivo. As a consequence, OCT is susceptible to coherent noise (speckle noise), which imposes significant limitations on its diagnostic capabilities. Here we show speckle-modulating OCT (SM-OCT), a method based purely on light manipulation that virtually eliminates speckle noise originating from a sample. SM-OCT accomplishes this by creating and averaging an unlimited number of scans with uncorrelated speckle patterns without compromising spatial resolution...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632140/thermal-stability-and-rheological-properties-of-the-non-stick-caf1-biomaterial
#13
Yakup Ulusu, Gema Dura, Helen Waller, Matthew Benning, David Fulton, Jeremy Lakey, Daniel Thomas Peters
The ability to culture cells in three dimensions has many applications, from drug discovery to wound healing. 3D cell culture methods often require appropriate scaffolds that mimic the cellular environments of different tissue types. The choice of material from which these scaffolds are made is of paramount importance, as its properties will define the manner in which cells interact with the scaffold. Caf1 is a protein polymer that is secreted from its host organism, Yersinia pestis, to enable escape from phagocytosis...
June 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631849/experiences-of-closed-loop-insulin-delivery-among-pregnant-women-with-type-1-diabetes
#14
C Farrington, Z A Stewart, K Barnard, R Hovorka, H R Murphy
AIMS: To explore the experiences of pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes, and the relationships between perceptions of glucose control, attitudes to technology and glycaemic responses with regard to closed-loop insulin delivery. METHODS: We recruited 16 pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes [mean ± sd age 34.1 ± 4.6 years, duration of diabetes 23.6 ± 7.2 years, baseline HbA1c 51±5 mmol/mol (6.8 ± 0.6%)] to a randomized crossover trial of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs automated closed-loop therapy...
June 20, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631360/reduced-cell-attachment-to-poly-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-coated-ventricular-catheters-in-vitro
#15
Brian W Hanak, Chia-Yun Hsieh, William Donaldson, Samuel R Browd, Kenneth K S Lau, William Shain
The majority of patients with hydrocephalus are dependent on ventriculoperitoneal shunts for diversion of excess cerebrospinal fluid. Unfortunately, these shunts are failure-prone and over half of all life-threatening pediatric failures are caused by obstruction of the ventricular catheter by the brain's resident immune cells, reactive microglia and astrocytes. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogels are widely used for biomedical implants. The extreme hydrophilicity of PHEMA confers resistance to protein fouling, making it a strong candidate coating for ventricular catheters...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629097/emerging-bone-tissue-engineering-via-polyhydroxyalkanoate-pha-based-scaffolds
#16
REVIEW
Janice Lim, Mingliang You, Jian Li, Zibiao Li
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a class of biodegradable polymers derived from microorganisms. On top of their biodegradability and biocompatibility, different PHA types can contribute to varying mechanical and chemical properties. This has led to increasing attention to the use of PHAs in numerous biomedical applications over the past few decades. Bone tissue engineering refers to the regeneration of new bone through providing mechanical support while inducing cell growth on the PHA scaffolds having a porous structure for tissue regeneration...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629090/low-temperature-direct-heterogeneous-bonding-of-polyether-ether-ketone-and-platinum
#17
Weixin Fu, Akitsu Shigetou, Shuichi Shoji, Jun Mizuno
Direct heterogeneous bonding between polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and Pt was realized at the temperatures lower than 150°C. In order to create sufficient bondability to diverse materials, the surface was modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation, which formed hydrate bridges. For comparison, direct bonding between surfaces atomically cleaned via Ar fast atom bombardment (FAB) was conducted in a vacuum. The VUV irradiation was found to be effective for creating an ultrathin hydrate bridge layer from the residual water molecules in the chamber...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628999/synthesis-characterisation-and-phase-transition-behaviour-of-temperature-responsive-physically-crosslinked-poly-n-vinylcaprolactam-based-polymers-for-biomedical-applications
#18
Shane C Halligan, Maurice B Dalton, Kieran A Murray, Yixiao Dong, Wenxin Wang, John G Lyons, Luke M Geever
Poly (N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) is a polymer which offers superior characteristics for various potential medical device applications. In particular it offers unique thermoresponsive capabilities, which fulfils the material technology constraints required in targeted drug delivery applications. PNVCL phase transitions can be tailored in order to suit the requirements of current and next generation devices, by modifying the contents with regard to the material composition and aqueous polymer concentration. In this study, physically crosslinked Poly (N-vinylcaprolactam)-Vinyl acetate (PNVCL-VAc) copolymers were prepared by photopolymerisation...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626425/lemons-or-squeezed-for-resources-information-symmetry-and-asymmetric-resources-in-biotechnology
#19
Arthur Neuberger, Nektarios Oraiopoulos, Donald L Drakeman
Thousands of biotech companies are developing promising products, but have insufficient resources to complete the clinical testing process, while large, well-funded companies have increasingly focused on the need to access external innovation. As a result, licensing deals are an essential and growing part of this industry. Yet, casting a shadow over the licensing market is the classic Lemons Problem: Does asymmetrical information put licensees at a severe disadvantage, leading to a market dominated by inferior opportunities, with the best products retained for internal development? Our analysis of clinical stage products developed over three decades shows that there is no Lemons Problem...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624197/crispr-cas9-transcending-the-reality-of-genome-editing
#20
REVIEW
Sergiu Chira, Diana Gulei, Amin Hajitou, Alina-Andreea Zimta, Pierre Cordelier, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
With the expansion of the microbiology field of research, a new genome editing tool arises from the biology of bacteria that holds the promise of achieving precise modifications in the genome with a simplicity and versatility that surpasses previous genome editing methods. This new technique, commonly named CRISPR/Cas9, led to a rapid expansion of the biomedical field; more specifically, cancer characterization and modeling have benefitted greatly from the genome editing capabilities of CRISPR/Cas9. In this paper, we briefly summarize recent improvements in CRISPR/Cas9 design meant to overcome the limitations that have arisen from the nuclease activity of Cas9 and the influence of this technology in cancer research...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
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