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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546911/graphene-based-polymer-bilayers-with-superior-light-driven-properties-for-remote-construction-of-3d-structures
#1
Zhenhua Tang, Ziwei Gao, Shuhai Jia, Fei Wang, Yonglin Wang
3D structure assembly in advanced functional materials is important for many areas of technology. Here, a new strategy exploits IR light-driven bilayer polymeric composites for autonomic origami assembly of 3D structures. The bilayer sheet comprises a passive layer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and an active layer comprising reduced graphene oxides (RGOs), thermally expanding microspheres (TEMs), and PDMS. The corresponding fabrication method is versatile and simple. Owing to the large volume expansion of the TEMs, the two layers exhibit large differences in their coefficients of thermal expansion...
May 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545406/deterministic-compressive-sampling-for-high-quality-image-reconstruction-of-ultrasound-tomography
#2
Tran Quang Huy, Huynh Huu Tue, Ton That Long, Tran Duc-Tan
BACKGROUND: A well-known diagnostic imaging modality, termed ultrasound tomography, was quickly developed for the detection of very small tumors whose sizes are smaller than the wavelength of the incident pressure wave without ionizing radiation, compared to the current gold-standard X-ray mammography. Based on inverse scattering technique, ultrasound tomography uses some material properties such as sound contrast or attenuation to detect small targets. The Distorted Born Iterative Method (DBIM) based on first-order Born approximation is an efficient diffraction tomography approach...
May 25, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544016/recent-advances-of-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-technologies-for-biological-and-biomedical-investigations
#3
Vijai Singh, Nisarg Gohil, Robert Ramírez García, Darren Braddick, Christian Kuete Fofié
The Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system is a simple, efficient, and versatile tool for targeted genome editing in a wide range of organisms and cell types. It continues to gain more scientific interest and has established itself as an extremely powerful technology within our synthetic biology toolkit. It works upon a targeted site and generates a double strand breaks that become repaired by either the NHEJ or HDR pathway, modifying or permanently replacing the genomic target sequences of interest. These can include viral targets, single-mutation genetic diseases, and multiple-site corrections for wide scale disease states, offering the potential to manage and cure some of mankind's most persistent biomedical menaces...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543738/crispr-editing-in-biological-and-biomedical-investigation
#4
Xing-Da Ju, Jing Xu, Zhong Sheng Sun
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas (CRISPR--associated protein) system, a prokaryotic RNA-based adaptive immune system against viral infection, is emerging as a powerful genome editing tool in broad research areas. To further improve and expand its functionality, various CRISPR delivery strategies have been tested and optimized, and key CRISPR system components such as Cas protein have been engineered with different purposes. Benefiting from more in-depth understanding and further development of CRISPR, versatile CRISPR-based platforms for genome editing have been rapidly developed to advance investigations in biology and biomedicine...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543656/international-capacity-building-initiatives-for-national-bioethics-committees
#5
Eugenijus Gefenas, Vilma Lukaseviciene
During the last two decades, national bioethics committees have been established in many countries all over the world. They vary with respect to their structure, composition, and working methods, but the main functions are similar. They are supposed to facilitate public debate on controversial bioethical issues and produce opinions and recommendations that can help inform the public and policy-makers. The dialogue among national bioethics committees is also increasingly important in the globalized world, where biomedical technologies raise ethical dilemmas that traverse national borders...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543648/making-the-choices-necessary-to-make-a-difference-the-responsibility-of-national-bioethics-commissions
#6
Christine Grady
In this essay, I offer some reflections on how the topics were identified and approached by the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, on which I had the honor to serve, in the hope that the reflections may be useful to future national bioethics commissions. In the executive order that established the bioethics commission, President Obama explicitly recognized the ethical imperative to responsibly pursue science, innovation, and advances in biomedical research and health care, and the importance of national attention to these issues...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543438/humanized-mice-a-brief-overview-on-their-diverse-applications-in-biomedical-research
#7
REVIEW
Shigeyoshi Fujiwara
Model animals naturally differ from humans in various respects and results from the former are not directly translatable to the latter. One approach to address this issue is humanized mice that are defined as mice engrafted with functional human cells or tissues. In humanized mice, we can investigate the development and function of human cells or tissues (including their products encoded by human genes) in the in vivo context of a small animal. As such, humanized mouse models have played important roles that cannot be substituted by other animal models in various areas of biomedical research...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542584/the-emergence-and-evolution-of-the-research-fronts-in-hiv-aids-research
#8
David Fajardo-Ortiz, Malaquias Lopez-Cervantes, Luis Duran, Michel Dumontier, Miguel Lara, Hector Ochoa, Victor M Castano
In this paper, we have identified and analyzed the emergence, structure and dynamics of the paradigmatic research fronts that established the fundamentals of the biomedical knowledge on HIV/AIDS. A search of papers with the identifiers "HIV/AIDS", "Human Immunodeficiency Virus", "HIV-1" and "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome" in the Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), was carried out. A citation network of those papers was constructed. Then, a sub-network of the papers with the highest number of inter-citations (with a minimal in-degree of 28) was selected to perform a combination of network clustering and text mining to identify the paradigmatic research fronts and analyze their dynamics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541912/a-miniaturized-0-78-mw-cm2-autonomous-thermoelectric-energy-harvesting-platform-for-biomedical-sensors
#9
Dejan Rozgic, Dejan Markovic
In order to use thermoelectric energy harvesters (TEHs) as a truly autonomous energy source for size-limited sensing applications, it is essential to improve the power conversion efficiency and energy density. This study presents a thin-film, array-based TEH with a surface area of 0.83 cm2. The TEH autonomously supplies a power management IC fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS technology. The IC utilizes a single-inductor topology with integrated analog maximum power point tracking (MPPT), resulting in a 68% peak end-to-end efficiency (92% converter efficiency) and less than 20-ms MPPT...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541225/stability-of-enzymatic-biosensors-for-wearable-applications
#10
Apurva Sonawane, Pandiaraj Manickam, Shekhar Bhansali
Technological evolution in wearable sensors is accounting for major growth and transformation in multitude of industries ranging from healthcare to computing & informatics to communication and biomedical sciences. The major driver for this transformation is the new-found ability to continuously monitor and analyze the patients' physiology in patients' natural setting. Numerous wearable sensors are already on the market and are summarized. Most of the current technologies have focused on electro-physiological, electro-mechanical or acoustic measurements...
May 19, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535341/fully-stretchable-optoelectronic-sensors-based-on-colloidal-quantum-dots-for-sensing-photoplethysmographic-signals
#11
Tae-Ho Kim, Chang-Seok Lee, Sangwon Kim, Jaehyun Hur, Sangmin Lee, Keun Wook Shin, Young-Zoon Yoon, Moon Kee Choi, Jiwoong Yang, Dae-Hyeong Kim, Taeghwan Hyeon, Seongjun Park, Sungwoo Hwang
Flexible and stretchable optoelectronic devices can be potentially applied in displays, biosensors, biomedicine, robotics, and energy generation. The use of nanomaterials with superior optical properties such as quantum dots (QDs) is important in the realization of wearable displays and biomedical devices, but specific structural design as well as selection of materials should preferentially accompany this technology to realize stretchable forms of these devices. Here, we report stretchable optoelectronic sensors manufactured using colloidal QDs and integrated with elastomeric substrates, whose optoelectronic properties are stable under various deformations...
May 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534759/new-advances-push-engineered-tissues-toward-3-d-multidisciplinary-collaboration-is-key-to-the-success-of-regenerative-medicine
#12
Leslie Mertz
Although doctors still cannot simply order new, functioning organs for patients who need replacements, researchers in labs around the world are making the important advances in tissue engineering that set the stage for regenerative medicine as well as make other biomedical technologies possible.
May 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534754/the-icvsie-a-general-purpose-integral-equation-method-for-bio-electromagnetic-analysis
#13
Luis J Gomez, Abdulkadir C Yucel, Eric Michielssen
An internally combined volume surface integral equation (ICVSIE) for analyzing electromagnetic (EM) interactions with biological tissue and wide ranging diagnostic, therapeutic, and research applications, is proposed. METHOD: The ICVSIE is a system of integral equations in terms of volume and surface equivalent currents in biological tissue subject to fields produced by externally or internally positioned devices. The system is created by using equivalence principles and solved numerically; the resulting current values are used to evaluate scattered and total electric fields, specific absorption rates, and related quantities...
May 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534676/applications-of-raman-spectroscopy-in-biopharmaceutical-manufacturing-a-short-review
#14
Kevin Buckley, Alan G Ryder
The production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is currently undergoing its biggest transformation in a century. The changes are based on the rapid and dramatic introduction of protein- and macromolecule-based drugs (collectively known as biopharmaceuticals) and can be traced back to the huge investment in biomedical science (in particular in genomics and proteomics) that has been ongoing since the 1970s. Biopharmaceuticals (or biologics) are manufactured using biological-expression systems (such as mammalian, bacterial, insect cells, etc...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533451/animal-coloration-research-why-it-matters
#15
Tim Caro, Mary Caswell Stoddard, Devi Stuart-Fox
While basic research on animal coloration is the theme of this special edition, here we highlight its applied significance for industry, innovation and society. Both the nanophotonic structures producing stunning optical effects and the colour perception mechanisms in animals are extremely diverse, having been honed over millions of years of evolution for many different purposes. Consequently, there is a wealth of opportunity for biomimetic and bioinspired applications of animal coloration research, spanning colour production, perception and function...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531339/limtox-a-web-tool-for-applied-text-mining-of-adverse-event-and-toxicity-associations-of-compounds-drugs-and-genes
#16
Andres Cañada, Salvador Capella-Gutierrez, Obdulia Rabal, Julen Oyarzabal, Alfonso Valencia, Martin Krallinger
A considerable effort has been devoted to retrieve systematically information for genes and proteins as well as relationships between them. Despite the importance of chemical compounds and drugs as a central bio-entity in pharmacological and biological research, only a limited number of freely available chemical text-mining/search engine technologies are currently accessible. Here we present LimTox (Literature Mining for Toxicology), a web-based online biomedical search tool with special focus on adverse hepatobiliary reactions...
May 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531265/utility-of-nonhuman-primates-in-substance-use-disorders-research
#17
Matthew L Banks, Paul W Czoty, Sidney S Negus
Substance use disorders (i.e., drug addiction) constitute a global and insidious public health issue. Preclinical biomedical research has been invaluable in elucidating the environmental, biological, and pharmacological determinants of drug abuse and in the process of developing innovative pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies. For more than 70 years, nonhuman primates have been utilized as research subjects in biomedical research related to drug addiction. There are already several excellent published reviews highlighting species differences in both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between rodents and nonhuman primates in preclinical substance abuse research...
May 20, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531195/livestock-metabolomics-and-the-livestock-metabolome-a-systematic-review
#18
Seyed Ali Goldansaz, An Chi Guo, Tanvir Sajed, Michael A Steele, Graham S Plastow, David S Wishart
Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527497/informatics-and-technology-in-resident-education
#19
REVIEW
William Niehaus
Biomedical or clinical informatics is the transdisciplinary field that studies and develops effective uses of biomedical data, information technology innovations, and medical knowledge for scientific inquiry, problem solving, and decision making, with an emphasis on improving human health. Given the ongoing advances in information technology, the field of informatics is becoming important to clinical practice and to residency education. This article will discuss how informatics is specifically relevant to residency education and the different ways to incorporate informatics into residency education, and will highlight applications of current technology in the context of residency education...
May 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527117/non-viral-and-viral-delivery-systems-for-crispr-cas9-technology-in-the-biomedical-field
#20
REVIEW
Zhi-Yao He, Ke Men, Zhou Qin, Yang Yang, Ting Xu, Yu-Quan Wei
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system provides a novel genome editing technology that can precisely target a genomic site to disrupt or repair a specific gene. Some CRISPR-Cas9 systems from different bacteria or artificial variants have been discovered or constructed by biologists, and Cas9 nucleases and single guide RNAs (sgRNA) are the major components of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. These Cas9 systems have been extensively applied for identifying therapeutic targets, identifying gene functions, generating animal models, and developing gene therapies...
May 2, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
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