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Pediatric sudden cardiac arrest

Yoshiki Kawamura, Hiroki Miura, Yuji Matsumoto, Hidetoshi Uchida, Kazuko Kudo, Tadayoshi Hata, Yoshinori Ito, Hiroshi Kimura, Tetsushi Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life threatening hematological disorder associated with severe systemic inflammation caused by an uncontrolled and ineffective immune response resulting in cytokine storm. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common infectious agent in patients with the viral-associated HLH. Limited numbers of cases with cardiac complication have been demonstrated in other viral-associated HLH patients. Herein, we report a pediatric case of severe EBV-associated HLH with cardiac complications...
October 28, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Kathleen L Meert, Russell Telford, Richard Holubkov, Beth S Slomine, James R Christensen, J Michael Dean, Frank W Moler
OBJECTIVE: To investigate relationships between cardiac arrest characteristics and survival and neurobehavioral outcome among children recruited to the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Out-of-Hospital trial. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Out-of-Hospital trial data. SETTING: Thirty-six PICUs in the United States and Canada. PATIENTS: All children (n = 295) had chest compressions for greater than or equal to 2 minutes, were comatose, and required mechanical ventilation after return of circulation...
December 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
RoseAnn L Scheller, Laurie Johnson, Angela Lorts, Thomas D Ryan
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in the pediatric population is a rare and potentially devastating occurrence. An understanding of the differential diagnosis for the etiology of the cardiac arrest allows for the most effective emergency care and provides the patient with the best possible outcome. Pediatric SCA can occur with or without prodromal symptoms and may occur during exercise or rest. The most common cause is arrhythmia secondary to an underlying channelopathy, cardiomyopathy, or myocarditis. After stabilization, evaluation should include electrocardiogram, chest radiograph, and echocardiogram...
September 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Aarti Dalal, Richard J Czosek, Joshua Kovach, Johannes C von Alvensleben, Santiago Valdes, Susan P Etheridge, Michael J Ackerman, Debbie Auld, Jeryl Huckaby, Courtney McCracken, Robert Campbell
OBJECTIVES: To identify the clinical presentation of children and adolescents affected by 1 of 4 cardiac conditions predisposing to sudden cardiac arrest: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva (ALCA-R). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective review of newly diagnosed pediatric patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, LQTS, CPVT, and ALCA-R referred for cardiac evaluation at 6 US centers from 2008 to 2014...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Andrew D Krahn, Jeffrey S Healey, Brenda Gerull, Paul Angaran, Santabhanu Chakrabarti, Shubhayan Sanatani, Laura Arbour, Zachary W M Laksman, Sandra L Carroll, Colette Seifer, Martin Green, Jason D Roberts, Mario Talajic, Robert Hamilton, Martin Gardner
BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a complex and clinically heterogeneous arrhythmic condition. Incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity are particularly evident in ARVC, making clinical decision-making challenging. METHODS: Pediatric and adult cardiologists, geneticists, genetic counsellors, ethicists, nurses, and qualitative researchers are collaborating to create the Canadian ARVC registry using a web-based clinical database...
April 21, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Altan Alim, Yaman Tokat, Yalcin Erdogan, Zafer Gokkaya, Murat Dayangac, Yildiray Yuzer, Arzu Oezcelik
FH is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by increased TC and LDL level, which leads to xanthomas, atherosclerosis, and cardiac complications even in childhood. The treatment options are diet, medical treatment, lipid apheresis, and LT. The aim of our study was to analyze our data of patients with FH. Between 2004 and 2015, there were 51 patients who underwent pediatric LT at our center. All patients with FH were identified, and the data were retrospectively analyzed. There were eight patients with homozygous FH in the median age of 10 years (IQR 6-12) who underwent LT...
December 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
İlker Ertuğrul, Tevfik Karagöz, Hakan Aykan, Işıl Yıldırım, Sema Özer, Heves Karagöz, Mustafa Yılmaz
OBJECTIVE: Although sudden cardiac death is rare in children, an intracardiac defibrillator system is indicated in children with various types of cardiomyopathy, primary electrical diseases, and after surgical repair of congenital heart defects. The use of transvenous defibrillator lead systems is limited in pediatric patients because of a small body size and/or limited vascular access. Subcutaneous array leads combined with an abdominally placed generator can enable implantation. METHOD: This is a retrospective study of 13 patients who underwent subcutaneous defibrillator implantation between September 2010 and March 2015...
November 18, 2015: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Kari Heinonen, Nea Lehtimäki, Pertti Suominen, Markku Kuisma, Heini Harve
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the medical history of the pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients to determine preexisting conditions that may relate to a later OHCA. METHODS: The study was a retrospective population-based cohort study in Helsinki (population 595,000) served by a single emergency medical service (EMS) system. All OHCA patients aged between 0 and 17 met by the local EMS from 2002 to 2011 were included. Medical records of the Helsinki University Hospital and its clinics were examined to find preexisting medical or surgical conditions...
January 16, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Stuart Berger, Emanuele Maccalli
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) or sudden cardiac death (SCD) in children and adolescents is a devastating event. Although the true incidence is unclear, the etiologies are not. Strategies for prevention include both primary as well as secondary prevention strategies, and these strategies are not mutually exclusive. From a primary prevention standpoint, many of the episodes of SCA or SCD may occur without any antecedent warning signs and in the absence of an important family history. There are a subset of children and adolescents who may have antecedent warning signs and symptoms such as syncope with exercise, chest pain, and palpitations...
December 2015: Pediatric Annals
Jeanny K Park
Palpitations are a common complaint, particularly in teenagers, with etiologies ranging from no detectable cardiac dysrhythmia to life-threatening dysrhythmias. Despite the fact that as many as 50% of children and adolescents may be asymptomatic prior to experiencing sudden cardiac arrest, the occurrence of palpitations may afford the opportunity to detect a potentially lethal arrhythmia condition. This article discusses the evaluation of palpitations in the pediatric population by focusing on the two most common life-threatening arrhythmia diagnoses that may initially manifest itself in the pediatric population with the chief complaint of palpitations-Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and the long QT syndrome...
December 2015: Pediatric Annals
Mindy H Li, Jenica L Abrudan, Matthew C Dulik, Ariella Sasson, Joshua Brunton, Vijayakumar Jayaraman, Noreen Dugan, Danielle Haley, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Sawona Biswas, Mahdi Sarmady, Elizabeth T DeChene, Matthew A Deardorff, Alisha Wilkens, Sarah E Noon, Maria I Scarano, Avni B Santani, Peter S White, Jeffrey Pennington, Laura K Conlin, Nancy B Spinner, Ian D Krantz, Victoria L Vetter
BACKGROUND: Conditions associated with sudden cardiac arrest/death (SCA/D) in youth often have a genetic etiology. While SCA/D is uncommon, a pro-active family screening approach may identify these inherited structural and electrical abnormalities prior to symptomatic events and allow appropriate surveillance and treatment. This study investigated the diagnostic utility of exome sequencing (ES) by evaluating the capture and coverage of genes related to SCA/D. METHODS: Samples from 102 individuals (13 with known molecular etiologies for SCA/D, 30 individuals without known molecular etiologies for SCA/D and 59 with other conditions) were analyzed following exome capture and sequencing at an average read depth of 100X...
2015: Human Genomics
Helene M Altmann, David J Tester, Melissa L Will, Sumit Middha, Jared M Evans, Bruce W Eckloff, Michael J Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Long-QT syndrome (LQTS) may result in syncope, seizures, or sudden cardiac arrest. Although 16 LQTS-susceptibility genes have been discovered, 20% to 25% of LQTS remains genetically elusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed whole-exome sequencing child-parent trio analysis followed by recessive and sporadic inheritance modeling and disease-network candidate analysis gene ranking to identify a novel underlying genetic mechanism for LQTS. Subsequent mutational analysis of the candidate gene was performed with polymerase chain reaction, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, and DNA sequencing on a cohort of 33 additional unrelated patients with genetically elusive LQTS...
June 9, 2015: Circulation
Nnenna O Chime, Xun Luo, LeAnn McNamara, Akira Nishisaki, Elizabeth A Hunt
OBJECTIVE: Hyperkalemia is one of the reversible causes of cardiac arrest in children. The Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support guidelines have specific recommendations on the choice and sequence of medications for treatment of life-threatening hyperkalemia. However, the Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines have no specific treatment recommendations. The objective of this study was to measure the extent to which opinions diverge among pediatricians on the choice and sequence of medication administration in the management of hyperkalemia during cardiac arrest...
June 2015: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Lillian Su, Mary Waller, Seth Kaplan, Anne Watson, Melissa Jones, David L Wessel
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of paper cardiopulmonary resuscitation records. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Twenty-six-bed video-monitored pediatric cardiac ICU. PATIENTS: All patients who had a resuscitation event with available video and electronically stored vital sign and waveform data from May 2012 to February 2013. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 41 cardiopulmonary resuscitation events during the study period...
May 2015: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Gabriele Bronzetti
In recent years, medical and surgical therapy has progressed such that even children with the most complex cardiac disease may reach adulthood with an acceptable quality of life. However, apart from this minority, pediatricians and cardiologists deal with diseases such as cardiomyopathies, arrhythmias, channelopathies and other acquired heart diseases. The majority of patients can be problematic 'cause of a cardiac murmur or in obtaining a certificate of sports eligibility. Following recent regulations, in Italy the electrocardiogram (ECG) must be performed also in 6-year-old children who want to practice sport...
December 2014: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Elizabeth S DeWitt, John K Triedman, Frank Cecchin, Doug Y Mah, Dominic J Abrams, Edward P Walsh, Kimberlee Gauvreau, Mark E Alexander
BACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) used to prevent sudden cardiac arrest in children not only provide appropriate therapy in 25% of patients but also result in a significant incidence of inappropriate shocks and other device complications. ICDs placed for secondary prevention have higher rates of appropriate therapy than those placed for primary prevention. Pediatric patients with primary prevention ICDs were studied to determine time-dependent incidence of appropriate use and adverse events...
December 2014: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Marco Denegri, Rossana Bongianino, Francesco Lodola, Simona Boncompagni, Verónica C De Giusti, José E Avelino-Cruz, Nian Liu, Simone Persampieri, Antonio Curcio, Francesca Esposito, Laura Pietrangelo, Isabelle Marty, Laura Villani, Alejandro Moyaho, Paola Baiardi, Alberto Auricchio, Feliciano Protasi, Carlo Napolitano, Silvia G Priori
BACKGROUND: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is an inherited arrhythmogenic disorder characterized by sudden cardiac death in children. Drug therapy is still insufficient to provide full protection against cardiac arrest, and the use of implantable defibrillators in the pediatric population is limited by side effects. There is therefore a need to explore the curative potential of gene therapy for this disease. We investigated the efficacy and durability of viral gene transfer of the calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2) wild-type gene in a catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia knock-in mouse model carrying the CASQ2(R33Q/R33Q) (R33Q) mutation...
June 24, 2014: Circulation
Pierluigi Marzuillo, Alessandra Benettoni, Claudio Germani, Giovanna Ferrara, Biancamaria D'Agata, Egidio Barbi
Acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a disorder of cardiac repolarization most often due to specific drugs, hypokalemia, or hypomagnesemia that may precipitate torsade de pointes and cause sudden cardiac death. Common presentations of the LQTS are palpitations, presyncope, syncope, cardiac arrest, and seizures. An abnormal 12-lead electrocardiogram obtained while the patient is at rest is the key to diagnosis. The occurrence of drug-induced LQTS is unpredictable in any given individual, but a common observation is that most patients have at least 1 identifiable risk factor in addition to drug exposure...
April 2014: Pediatric Emergency Care
Bas Bergmans, Janneke A E Kammeraad, Leon N A van Adrichem, Lonneke M Staals
We report on a case where craniosynostosis surgery for a left-sided coronal synostosis was performed successfully on an 11-month old infant with a hypoplastic left ventricle with a dysplastic mitral valve, double outlet right ventricle, transposition of the great arteries, atrial septal defect, multiple ventricular septal defects, and surgically applied pulmonary banding. Craniosynostosis surgery is considered high-risk surgery, because of possible sudden and extensive blood loss, and is usually performed in cardiopulmonary healthy children...
July 2014: Paediatric Anaesthesia
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