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Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia

Shi-Min Yuan
Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (CPL) is a rare developmental disorder of the lung, characterized by dilation of pulmonary subpleural, interlobar, perivascular and peribronchial lymphatics. The incidence of CPL among stillborn and neonates was estimated to be <1%. The etiology of CPL is unknown. However, it has been suspected to be of a genetic background. Recent basic studies revealed that it might be caused by the FOXC2, Vegfr-3 and integrin α9β1gene mutations. A clinical diagnosis of CPL can be made much easier in full-term neonates who present with respiratory distress, pleural (especially chylous) effusions with or without generalized edema...
July 2017: Klinische Pädiatrie
Christopher Z Lam, Tanmay Anant Bhamare, Tamadhir Gazzaz, David Manson, Tilman Humpl, Mike Seed
BACKGROUND: Secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia is a complication of congenital heart disease that results from chronic pulmonary venous obstruction. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the performance of chest ultrasound (US) in diagnosing secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia and to review the clinical course of children with secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chest US was performed on 26 children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection or cor triatriatum in a prospective observational study...
October 2017: Pediatric Radiology
Jeremy L Herrmann, Mallory L Irons, Christopher E Mascio, Jack Rychik, Thomas L Spray, J William Gaynor, Jennifer E Pogoriler
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary lymphangiectasia associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or restrictive atrial septum may result from increased left atrial pressure, and is associated with worse outcomes following staged reconstruction due to lung dysfunction and significant hypoxaemia. Our objective was to characterise the incidence of pulmonary lymphangiectasia in cases of early mortality following stage 1 reconstructions. METHODS: An institutional cardiac surgical database was retrospectively searched for patients who died within 30 days following a stage 1 reconstruction between 1 January, 1984 and 31 December, 2013...
September 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Shi-Min Yuan
Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (CPL) is a rare but fatal disease, usually having an onset from the first few hours to days after birth. Inconsistent nomenclatures were used for CPL in the past decades. Patients often present with intractable respiratory failure, hydrops fetalis and even sudden death. The etiologies of CPL remain unclear. Previous hypotheses suggested that CPL might be caused by conditions preventing normal regression of the lymphatics after the 18th-20th week of gestation. Up-to-date biological studies on lymphatic development, lymphatic valve formation and occurrence of hydrops fetalis revealed possible causative relations with mutations of genes of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), RAS/MAPK, PI3K/AKT and NF-κB signaling pathways...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Maxim Itkin
Pulmonary lymphatic diseases have been recognized for many years and have been referred as pulmonary lymphangiectasia, pulmonary lymphangiomatosis, plastic bronchitis, and idiopathic chylothorax or chylopericardium. The lymphatic etiology of these conditions has been determined by detection of cystic lymphatic structures on biopsy or postmortem examination. Development of new imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography has allowed better understanding of pathophysiology of these conditions...
December 2016: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
M Kardos, P Martanovic, J Masura
No abstract Keywords.
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Cristiane Rúbia Ferreira, Verônica Sibre, Regina Schultz, Ana Maria Andrello Gonçalves Pereira de Melo, Silvia Maria Ibidi, Jackeline Della Torre
Firstly described by Rudolf Virchow in the 19th century, congenital generalized lymphangiectasia is a rare entity characterized by dilation of lymphatic vessels, and was recently classified in primary or secondary lymphangiectasia. Generalized forms may be diagnosed during pre-natal follow-up with ultrasound examination, and, depending on its severity, the newborn outcome is very poor. The authors report the case of a female newborn with a previous diagnosis of fetal hydropsy who was born after a full-term gestation with respiratory failure due to bilateral voluminous pleural effusion and ascites...
October 2015: Autopsy & Case Reports
David Saul, Karl Degenhardt, Suzanne D Iyoob, Lea F Surrey, Ann M Johnson, Mark P Johnson, Jack Rychik, Teresa Victoria
BACKGROUND: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is the third most common cause of critical congenital heart disease in newborns, and one of the most challenging forms to treat. Secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia has been recognized in association with HLHS, an appearance described on fetal MRI as the "nutmeg lung." OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of fetal nutmeg lung with HLHS survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective search of the fetal MRI database was performed...
April 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Jennifer E Pogoriler, Thomas J Kulik, Alicia M Casey, Christopher W Baird, Mary P Mullen, Kathy J Jenkins, Sara O Vargas
Pulmonary vein stenosis is a rare progressive narrowing of the extrapulmonary pulmonary veins, presenting predominantly in infancy and virtually always lethal. It typically arises following repair of congenital heart disease, particularly anomalous pulmonary venous return. Histologic characterization of pediatric pulmonary vein stenosis, not previously well described, may provide insight into the disease pathobiology. We retrieved archival lung specimens (biopsy, explant, or autopsy) from patients with pediatric pulmonary vein stenosis...
May 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Xiaoxia An, Jimei Wang, Xiaolei Zhuang, Jiale Dai, Chengqiu Lu, Xiaotian Li, Yingliu Yan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of neonates with hydrops fetalis to improve recognition of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical data of 10 neonates with hydrops fetalis were retrospectively studied. Prenatal characteristics, causes, clinical features, and prognosis were explored. RESULTS: Eight neonates presenting abnormal nonstress test suffered from severe neonatal asphyxia at birth and were resuscitated by endotracheal intubation...
November 2015: American Journal of Perinatology
Moti M Chowdhury, Subhasis Chakraborty
Congenital lung malformations are a heterogeneous group of anomalies that involve the lungs and tracheobronchial tree (congenital airway pulmonary malformation, bronchial atresia, bronchogenic cyst, congenital lobar overinflation, pulmonary cyst, hamartoma, pulmonary isomerism and azygous lobe), vascular abnormalities (arteriovenous malformations, anomalous pulmonary venous return, pulmonary artery sling, interrupted pulmonary artery, pulmonary varix, pulmonary vein stenosis and pulmonary lymphangiectasia), or frequently both entities (pulmonary sequestration, pulmonary maldevelopment and scimitar syndrome)...
August 2015: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
D T Malleske, B A Yoder
Congenital chylothorax (CC) can result from a congenital malformation or an acquired obstruction or disruption of the thoracic duct. Recently, oral administration of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, was reported to be effective in resolving non-pulmonary lymphatic malformations in infants and young children. We report a case of CC in a late preterm infant with congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia where octreotide was not effective, but management with oral sildenafil was successful.
May 2015: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Jariya Waisayarat, Chinnawut Suriyonplengsaeng, Chaiyos Khongkhatithum, Mana Rochanawutanon
INTRODUCTION: Nemaline myopathy is a rare genetic muscle disorder defined by the presence of nemaline rods in the muscle fibre sarcoplasm. Congenital nemaline myopathy is the most serious form of the disease's spectrum. CASE PRESENTATION: The affected newborn has no spontaneous movement, fractures at birth and respiratory insufficiency. The present case was a Thai male, floppy at birth with fractures of both humeri and femurs and ventilator-dependent respiration...
2015: Diagnostic Pathology
Giovanni Ruggeri, Francesca Destro, Michela Maffi, Giulio Gregori, Mario Lima
Pulmonary lymphangiectasia (PL) is a rare condition characterized by dilatation of the lymphatic vessels. Post-neonatal PL is usually associated with pleural effusion and should therefore be suspected in the presence of chylothorax. We describe a post-neonatal manifestation of PL in a 7-year-old boy presenting chylothorax. Radiological examinations included thorax X-ray, ultrasound, and computed tomography scans. After the failure of conservative management (maintenance of the chest tube, total parenteral nutrition, administration of somatostatin synthetic analogues) we performed a thoracoscopic massive ligation of the thoracic duct's collateral along with a lung biopsy...
June 2013: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery Reports
Kh Lomauri
Neonatal chylothorax results from the accumulation of chyle in the pleural space and may be either congenital or an acquired condition. Congenital chylothorax is most likely due to abnormal development or obstruction of the lymphatic system. It is often associated with hydrops fetalis. It can be idiopathic or may be associated with various chromosomal anomalies including Trisomy 21, Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and other genetic abnormalities. Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia and generalized lymphangiomatosis have also been reported to be associated with congenital chylothorax...
November 2014: Georgian Medical News
Scott Bickel, Nemr Eid, Edward Kim, Russell Chowning, Robert Debski, Adrian O'Hagan, Ronald Morton
Pediatric Student/Resident Case Report PostersSESSION TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare entity characterized by the diffuse proliferation of capillaries throughout the pulmonary interstitium, bronchioles, and vascular structures. We report on a premature neonate with complex heart disease with persistent radiographic features at several days of life which was ultimately determined to be PCH...
October 1, 2014: Chest
M Gray, K Z Kovatis, T Stuart, E Enlow, M Itkin, M S Keller, H M French
Historically, congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (CPL) has had poor treatment outcomes despite aggressive therapy. There are recent reports of ethiodized oil (Lipiodol) lymphangiography successfully treating lymphatic leakage in adults. In this report, we describe two infants with CPL complicated by chylothoraces successfully treated by instillation of ethiodized oil into the lymphatic system. Congenital atresia of the thoracic duct was demonstrated on the lymphangiogram in both patients before treatment...
September 2014: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Havva Serap Toru, Cem Yasar Sanhal, Gulden Tasova Yilmaz, Irem Hicran Ozbudak, Inanc Mendilcioglu, Gulay Ozbilim
Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (CPL) is a rare congenital disorder that typically presents with intractable respiratory failure in the first few days of life. There is an association non-immun hydrops and CPL. In this study we reviewed four CPL cases between January 2006 and January 2014 among 684 fetal-pediatric autopsies. All cases were in the second trimester. In light microscopy there were marked dilatated channels in the subpleural -peribronchial-subseptal region of the lungs. The channels were lined with flattened cells which were expressing CD 31 and D2-40, negative for CD34...
August 2015: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Teresa Victoria, Savvas Andronikou
BACKGROUND: A pattern of abnormal signal at fetal MRI may be seen in the setting of primary or secondary congenital lymphangiectasia, manifested as a heterogeneous appearance of the lung parenchyma and the presence of subtle T2-hyperintense branching tubular structures that emanate from the hila. We have named this pattern the nutmeg lung. OBJECTIVE: We describe the nutmeg lung appearance seen in fetal MRI scans, with discussion of possible etiologies and outcomes in a series of eight fetuses...
October 2014: Pediatric Radiology
Joon Ho Hwang, Joo Heon Kim, Jung Ju Hwang, Kyu Soon Kim, Seung Yeon Kim
Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (CPL) is a rare lymphatic pulmonary abnormality. CPL with respiratory distress has a poor prognosis, and is frequently fatal in neonates. We report a case of pneumonectomy for CPL in a newborn. An infant girl, born at 39 weeks' after an uncomplicated pregnancy, exhibited respiratory distress 1 hr after birth, which necessitated intubation and aggressive ventilator care. Right pneumonectomy was performed after her symptoms worsened. Histologic examination indicated CPL. She is currently 12 months old and developing normally...
April 2014: Journal of Korean Medical Science
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