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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737601/new-ways-to-detect-pediatric-sickle-cell-retinopathy-a-comprehensive-review
#1
Daniel A Pahl, Nancy S Green, Monica Bhatia, Royce W S Chen
Sickle retinopathy reflects disease-related vascular injury of the eye, which can potentially result in visual loss from vitreous hemorrhage or retinal detachment. Here we review sickle retinopathy among children with sickle cell disease, describe the epidemiology, pediatric risk factors, pathophysiology, ocular findings, and treatment. Newer, more sensitive ophthalmological imaging modalities are available for retinal imaging, including ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737479/evaluation-of-brivaracetam-a-new-drug-to-treat-epilepsy
#2
Jasmina R Milovanović, Slobodan M Janković, Ana Pejčić, Miloš Milosavljević, Valentina Opančina, Vesela Radonjić, Zoran Protrka, Marina Kostić
High prevalence of therapy-resistant epilepsy demands development of anticonvulsants with new mechanisms of action. Brivaracetam is an analogue of levetiracetam which binds to the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) and decreases release of excitatory neurotransmitters. Areas covered. Relevant published studies were searched for by predefined strategy in MEDLINE, EBSCO and SCINDEKS electronic databases. Brivaracetam is effective as adjunctive therapy for uncontrolled partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization in patients 16 years and older with epilepsy...
July 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737463/prevalence-of-a-new-variant-oxa-204-and-oxa-48-carbapenemases-plasmids-encoded-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clinical-isolates-in-tunisia
#3
Rym Ouertani, Mariem Ben Jomàa-Jemili, Haythem Gharsa, Anne Limelette, Thomas Guillard, Lucien Brasme, Christophe de Champs, Chedly Chouchani
Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have emerged as a major problem for healthcare systems. The aim of this study was to determine the role and diversity of plasmids harboring carbapenemases encoding genes from a collection of K. pneumoniae isolates recovered between July 2011 and January 2012, with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems. Imipenem (IPM), ertapenem (ETP), meropenem (MEM), and doripenem (DOR) minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by E-test. Carbapenemase production was detected with the modified Hodge test...
July 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736966/molecular-characterization-of-nasal-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-workers-of-an-automaker-company-in-southeast-iran
#4
Mohammad Hossein Sobhanipoor, Roya Ahmadrajabi, Afsaneh Karmostaji, Fereshteh Saffari
Colonization of methicillin resistant Staphylococccus aureus (MRSA) can occur more commonly in healthy people who live in close together or are in close physical contact with each other. Having knowledge about the molecular characteristics of these strains provides considerable discernment into the epidemiology of this important microorganism. A total of 806 nasal swabs were collected from healthy workers of an automaker company in the southeast of Iran and were analyzed to detect MRSA isolates. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) were performed...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736912/performance-of-the-index-of-dental-anxiety-and-fear-in-a-population-based-sample-of-adults
#5
H Ibrahim, K M Lyons, J M Armfield, W M Thomson
BACKGROUND: The Index of Dental Anxiety and Fear (IDAF-4C) was introduced to overcome the theoretical and practical shortcomings of previously developed dental fear measures. This new scale has not been tested on population samples other than in its country of origin, Australia. The aim of this study was to validate the IDAF-4C in a different cultural setting and to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic associations of dental anxiety. METHODS: A cross sectional study of a representative New Zealand adult population sample was undertaken...
July 24, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736175/structural-basis-for-receptor-selectivity-by-the-whitewater-arroyo-mammarenavirus
#6
Amir Shimon, Orly Shani, Ron Diskin
Whitewater Arroyo Virus belongs to the 'New World' group of mammarenaviruses, which reside in rodent reservoirs and are prevalent in North and South Americas. Clades B and A/B of New World mammarenaviruses use transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) for entry. While all of these viruses use rodent-derived TfR1 orthologs, some can also use the human-TfR1 and thereby infect humans. Although we have structural information for TfR1 recognition by pathogenic virus, we do not know what the structural differences are between the receptor binding domains of pathogenic and non-pathogenic viruses that allow some but not all viruses to utilize the human receptor for entry...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735919/sleep-disturbances-at-the-time-of-a-new-diagnosis-a-comparative-study-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-cancer-patients-and-general-population-controls
#7
Yen-Chin Chen, Cheng-Yu Lin, Carol Strong, Chung-Yi Li, Jeen-Shing Wang, Wen-Chien Ko, Nai-Ying Ko
OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbances are a prevalent and troubling symptom of patients with highly stressful illnesses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and incidence of sleep disturbances among persons with HIV, those with cancer, and the general population of Taiwan. METHODS: A matched cohort study design was used to compare the risk of sleep disturbances among three groups using reimbursement claims recorded in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)...
August 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735903/genetics-of-non-syndromic-childhood-obesity-and-the-use-of-high-throughput-dna-sequencing-technologies
#8
REVIEW
Ana Carolina Proença da Fonseca, Claudio Mastronardi, Angad Johar, Mauricio Arcos-Burgos, Gilberto Paz-Filho
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with the development of several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The elevated prevalence of obesity is mostly due to inadequate diet and lifestyle, but it is also influenced by genetic factors. OBJECTIVES: To review recent advances in the field of the genetics of obesity. We summarize the list of genes associated with the rare non-syndromic forms of obesity, and explain their function...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735774/trends-in-hepatitis-c-antibody-prevalence-among-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-people-attending-australian-needle-and-syringe-programs-1996-2015
#9
Simon Graham, Lisa Maher, Handan Wand, Michael Doyle, Jenny Iversen
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) prevalence is higher among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) than non-Aboriginal people who inject drugs (PWID). We examined trends in demographic and drug use characteristics and anti-HCV prevalence among Australian Needle and Syringe Program Survey (ANSPS) respondents by Aboriginal status from 1996 to 2015. METHODS: The ANSPS survey involved collecting demographic, behavioural data and a dried blood spot for anti-HCV testing...
July 20, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735459/diabetes-and-the-hospitalized-patient-a-cluster-analytic-framework-for-characterizing-the-role-of-sex-race-and-comorbidity-from-2006-to-2011
#10
Nisha Nataraj, Julie Simmons Ivy, Fay Cobb Payton, Joseph Norman
In the US, one in four adults has two or more chronic conditions; this population accounts for two thirds of healthcare spending. Comorbidity, the presence of multiple simultaneous health conditions in an individual, is increasing in prevalence and has been shown to impact patient outcomes negatively. Comorbidities associated with diabetes are correlated with increased incidence of preventable hospitalizations, longer lengths of stay (LOS), and higher costs. This study focuses on sex and race disparities in outcomes for hospitalized adult patients with and without diabetes...
July 22, 2017: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735109/design-and-rationale-for-a-real-world-observational-cohort-of-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-the-target-nash-study
#11
A Sidney Barritt, Norman Gitlin, Samuel Klein, Anna S Lok, Rohit Loomba, Laura Malahias, Margaret Powell, Miriam B Vos, L Michael Weiss, Kenneth Cusi, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Arun Sanyal
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent and can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver disease. NAFLD comprises the spectrum from simple steatosis (nonalcoholic fatty liver, NAFL), to steatosis with inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH). Current primary therapy recommended for NAFLD is weight loss induced by lifestyle modification. The difficulty in achieving this has led to robust pharmacological therapy development. While new drugs may show efficacy in selected phase II/III clinical trial populations, their real-world effectiveness is unknown...
July 19, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735037/injection-drug-use-and-overdose-among-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-non-medically
#12
Elliott J Liebling, Traci C Green, Scott E Hadland, Brandon D L Marshall
INTRODUCTION: Non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) use is a critical public health problem in the United States, with 2.1 million new initiates annually. Young adult NMPO users are at high risk for initiating injection drug use. We assessed correlates of injection drug use among young adult NMPO users in Rhode Island, a state heavily impacted by opioid overdose. METHODS: We used data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which recruited 199 residents aged 18-29 who reported past-30-day NMPO use (65...
July 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734631/sexting-and-the-definition-issue
#13
REVIEW
Yara Barrense-Dias, André Berchtold, Joan-Carles Surís, Christina Akre
Sexting among youths has become a necessary topic of interest in research because of the negative consequences that this activity could create, especially when content is shared with others. Indeed, this loss of control could lead to humiliation, (cyber)bullying, or harassment. The development of new technologies, press coverage, and increase of prevalence rates could also explain the growth of interest in sexting. However, its definition is still a gray area. This review examines the different definitions of sexting used in the literature and its correlates...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734543/crouch-severity-is-a-poor-predictor-of-elevated-oxygen-consumption-in-cerebral-palsy
#14
Katherine M Steele, Benjamin R Shuman, Michael H Schwartz
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) expend more energy to walk compared to typically-developing peers. One of the most prevalent gait patterns among children with CP, crouch gait, is often singled out as especially exhausting. The dynamics of crouch gait increase external flexion moments and the demand on extensor muscles. This elevated demand is thought to dramatically increase energy expenditure. However, the impact of crouch severity on energy expenditure has not been investigated among children with CP. We evaluated oxygen consumption and gait kinematics for 573 children with bilateral CP...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733894/risk-and-maintenance-factors-for-young-women-s-dsm-5-eating-disorders
#15
Antonios Dakanalis, Massimo Clerici, Francesco Bartoli, Manuela Caslini, Cristina Crocamo, Giuseppe Riva, Giuseppe Carrà
Recent research with young women attending colleges, who are at the average age of eating disorder (ED) onset, established that the ED symptoms are not only prevalent but also relatively stable over the college period. Nonetheless, our knowledge regarding the course and modifiable factors associated with both the onset and maintenance of diagnosable (DSM-5) EDs in this population is limited. The objective of this report was to address these key research gaps. Data were examined from 2713 women who completed assessments of potential vulnerability factors and EDs in the autumn semester of the first (baseline) and fourth (follow-up) college years...
July 21, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733687/an-ecologic-study-of-trends-in-the-prevalence-of-myopia-in-chinese-adults-in-singapore-born-from-the-1920s-to-1980s
#16
Sonoko Sensaki, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Pavan K Verkicharla, Adeola Awodele, Kok Hian Tan, Audrey Chia, Seang Mei Saw
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate secular trends in the prevalence of myopia over 6 decades (from the 1920s to 1980s) in Chinese adults in Singapore. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parental myopia prevalence was estimated using a parent-completed questionnaire in paediatric cohorts that included: 1) The Singapore Cohort Of Risk factors for Myopia (SCORM), 2) The Strabismus, Amblyopia and Refractive Error in Singaporean Children (STARS), and 3) The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO)...
June 2017: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733608/revealing-higher-than-expected-meiofaunal-diversity-in-antarctic-sediments-a-metabarcoding-approach
#17
V G Fonseca, F Sinniger, J M Gaspar, C Quince, S Creer, Deborah M Power, Lloyd S Peck, Melody S Clark
An increasing number of studies are showing that Antarctic mega- and macrofauna are highly diverse, however, little is known about meiofaunal biodiversity in sediment communities, which are a vital part of a healthy and functional ecosystem. This is the first study to analyse community DNA (targeting meiofauna) using metabarcoding to investigate biodiversity levels in sediment communities of the Antarctic Peninsula. The results show that almost all of the meiofaunal biodiversity in the benthic habitat has yet to be characterised, levels of biodiversity were higher than expected and similar to temperate regions, albeit with the existence of potentially new and locally adapted species never described before at the molecular level...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733221/incidence-predictors-and-outcomes-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-outpatients-with-cirrhosis
#18
Salvatore Piano, Marta Tonon, Elia Vettore, Marialuisa Stanco, Chiara Pilutti, Antonietta Romano, Sara Mareso, Carmine Gambino, Alessandra Brocca, Antonietta Sticca, Silvano Fasolato, Paolo Angeli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is the most life-threatening complication of cirrhosis. Prevalence and outcomes of ACLF have been recently described in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. However, no data is currently available on the prevalence and the risk factors of ACLF in outpatients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate incidence, predictors and outcomes of ACLF in a large cohort of outpatients with cirrhosis. METHODS: 466 patients with cirrhosis consecutively evaluated in a tertiary hospital outpatient clinic were included and followed up until death and/or liver transplantation for a mean of 45±44 months...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733148/prevalence-and-predictors-of-pain-and-opioid-analgesic-use-following-total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation-for-pancreatitis
#19
Robert A Moran, Robert Klapheke, George K John, Sarah Devlin, Daniel Warren, Niraj Desai, Zhaoli Sun, Christi Walsh, Rita R Kalyani, Erica Hall, Ellen M Stein, Anthony N Kalloo, Atif Zaheer, Kenzo Hirose, Martin A Makary, Vikesh K Singh
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is employed for the management of refractory pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) with the prospect of partial beta cell preservation. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of abdominal pain and opioid use following TPIAT. METHODS: A single center cohort study of all adult patients who underwent TPIAT from 2011 to 2015 for CP. Postoperative pain outcomes included: opioid use, ongoing abdominal pain and new characteristic abdominal pain...
July 12, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733097/injectable-naltrexone-oral-naltrexone-and-buprenorphine-utilization-and-discontinuation-among-individuals-treated-for-opioid-use-disorder-in-a-united-states-commercially-insured-population
#20
Jake R Morgan, Bruce R Schackman, Jared A Leff, Benjamin P Linas, Alexander Y Walley
We investigated prescribing patterns for five opioid use disorder (OUD) medications: 1) injectable naltrexone, 2) oral naltrexone, 3) sublingual or oralmucosal buprenorphine/naloxone, 4) sublingual buprenorphine, and 5) transdermal buprenorphine in a nationally representative claims-based database (Truven Health MarketScan®) of commercially insured individuals in the United States. We calculated the prevalence of OUD in the database for each year from 2010 to 2014 and the proportion of diagnosed patient months on OUD medication...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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