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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106838/molecular-characterization-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-and-their-relations-with-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-bioaccumulation-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#1
Floriane Boullot, Justine Castrec, Adeline Bidault, Natanael Dantas, Laura Payton, Mickael Perrigault, Damien Tran, Zouher Amzil, Pierre Boudry, Philippe Soudant, Hélène Hégaret, Caroline Fabioux
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) bind to voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and block conduction of action potential in excitable cells. This study aimed to (i) characterize Nav sequences in Crassostrea gigas and (ii) investigate a putative relation between Nav and PST-bioaccumulation in oysters. The phylogenetic analysis highlighted two types of Nav in C. gigas: a Nav1 (CgNav1) and a Nav2 (CgNav2) with sequence properties of sodium-selective and sodium/calcium-selective channels, respectively. Three alternative splice transcripts of CgNav1 named A, B and C, were characterized...
January 19, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106160/evaluation-of-three-block-anesthesia-methods-for-pain-management-during-mandibular-third-molar-extraction-a-meta-analysis
#2
Fanyuan Yu, Yao Xiao, Hanghang Liu, Fanzi Wu, Feng Lou, Dian Chen, Mingru Bai, Dingming Huang, Chenglin Wang, Ling Ye
A patient's pain during mandibular third molar extraction often creates problems for a dental surgeon and can also cause immense patient discomfort, such as decreased quality of life, serious complications, or even danger to the patients' lives. Effective pain management is therefore of great importance. Conventional block anesthesia method often fails to control such pain completely during an operation. Therefore, two available alternatives, Gow-Gates (G-G) and Vazirani-Akinosi (V-A) methods, have been developed...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106129/retooling-laser-speckle-contrast-analysis-algorithm-to-enhance-non-invasive-high-resolution-laser-speckle-functional-imaging-of-cutaneous-microcirculation
#3
Surya C Gnyawali, Kevin Blum, Durba Pal, Subhadip Ghatak, Savita Khanna, Sashwati Roy, Chandan K Sen
Cutaneous microvasculopathy complicates wound healing. Functional assessment of gated individual dermal microvessels is therefore of outstanding interest. Functional performance of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) systems is compromised by motion artefacts. To address such weakness, post-processing of stacked images is reported. We report the first post-processing of binary raw data from a high-resolution LSCI camera. Sharp images of low-flowing microvessels were enabled by introducing inverse variance in conjunction with speckle contrast in Matlab-based program code...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105664/visceral-and-somatic-pain-modalities-reveal-nav-1-7-independent-visceral-nociceptive-pathways
#4
James R F Hockley, Rafael González-Cano, Sheridan McMurray, Miguel A Tejada-Giraldez, Cian McGuire, Antonio Torres, Anna L Wilbrey, Vincent Cibert-Goton, Francisco R Nieto, Thomas Pitcher, Charles H Knowles, José Manuel Baeyens, John N Wood, Wendy J Winchester, David C Bulmer, Cruz Miguel Cendán, Gordon McMurray
Voltage-gated sodium channel NaV 1.7 is required for acute and inflammatory pain in mice and humans but its significance for visceral pain is unknown. Here we examine the role of NaV 1.7 in visceral pain processing and the development of referred hyperalgesia using a conditional nociceptor-specific NaV 1.7 knockout mouse (NaV 1.7(Nav1.8) ) and selective small-molecule NaV 1.7 antagonist PF-5198007. NaV 1.7(Nav1.8) mice showed normal nociceptive behaviours to intracolonic application of either capsaicin or mustard oil, stimuli known to evoke sustained nociceptor activity and sensitization following tissue damage, respectively...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105280/glun2a-selective-pyridopyrimidinone-series-of-nmdar-positive-allosteric-modulators-with-an-improved-in-vivo-profile
#5
Elisia Villemure, Matthew Volgraf, Yu Jiang, Guosheng Wu, Cuong Q Ly, Po-Wai Yuen, Aijun Lu, Xifeng Luo, Mingcui Liu, Shun Zhang, Patrick J Lupardus, Heidi J A Wallweber, Bianca M Liederer, Gauri Deshmukh, Emile Plise, Suzanne Tay, Tzu-Ming Wang, Jesse E Hanson, David H Hackos, Kimberly Scearce-Levie, Jacob B Schwarz, Benjamin D Sellers
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic glutamate receptor, gated by the endogenous coagonists glutamate and glycine, permeable to Ca(2+) and Na(+). NMDAR dysfunction is associated with numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. Recently, we have disclosed GNE-0723 (1), a GluN2A subunit-selective and brain-penetrant positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of NMDARs. This work highlights the discovery of a related pyridopyrimidinone core with distinct structure-activity relationships, despite the structural similarity to GNE-0723...
January 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104909/selective-neuronal-vulnerability-in-parkinson-disease
#6
D James Surmeier, José A Obeso, Glenda M Halliday
Intracellular α-synuclein (α-syn)-rich protein aggregates called Lewy pathology (LP) and neuronal death are commonly found in the brains of patients with clinical Parkinson disease (cPD). It is widely believed that LP appears early in the disease and spreads in synaptically coupled brain networks, driving neuronal dysfunction and death. However, post-mortem analysis of human brains and connectome-mapping studies show that the pattern of LP in cPD is not consistent with this simple model, arguing that, if LP propagates in cPD, it must be gated by cell- or region-autonomous mechanisms...
January 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104238/monitoring-of-vancomycin-in-human-plasma-via-portable-microchip-electrophoresis-with-contactless-conductivity-detector-and-multi-stacking-strategy
#7
Kah Chun Chong, Lee Yien Thang, Joselito P Quirino, Hong Heng See
A portable microchip electrophoresis (MCE) coupled with on-chip contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) system was evaluated for the determination of vancomycin in human plasma. In order to enhance the detection sensitivity, a new online multi-stacking preconcentration technique based on field-enhanced sample injection (FESI) and micelle-to-solvent stacking (MSS) was developed and implemented in MCE-C(4)D system equipped with a commercially available double T-junction glass chip. The cationic analytes from the two sample reservoirs were injected under FESI conditions and subsequently focused by MSS within the sample-loading channel...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101733/3d-absorbed-dose-distribution-estimated-by-monte-carlo-simulation-in-radionuclide-therapy-with-a-monoclonal-antibody-targeting-synovial-sarcoma
#8
David Sarrut, Jean-Noël Badel, Adrien Halty, Gwenaelle Garin, David Perol, Philippe Cassier, Jean-Yves Blay, David Kryza, Anne-Laure Giraudet
BACKROUND: Radiolabeled OTSA101, a monoclonal antibody targeting synovial sarcoma (SS) developed by OncoTherapy Science, was used to treat relapsing SS metastases following a theranostic procedure: in case of significant (111)In-OTSA101 tumor uptake and favorable biodistribution, patient was randomly treated with 370/1110 MBq (90)Y-OTSA101. Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry integrating time-activity curves in VOI was performed on (111)In-OTSA101 repeated SPECT/CT. Estimated absorbed doses (AD) in normal tissues were compared to biological side effects and to the admitted maximal tolerated absorbed dose (MTD) in normal organs...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100806/the-lateral-line-confers-evolutionarily-derived-sleep-loss-in-the-mexican-cavefish
#9
James Jaggard, Beatriz G Robinson, Bethany A Stahl, Ian Oh, Pavel Masek, Masato Yoshizawa, Alex C Keene
Sleep is an essential behavior exhibited by nearly all animals, and disruption of this process is associated with an array of physiological and behavioral deficits. Sleep is defined by changes in sensory gating that reduce sensory input to the brain, but little is known about the neural basis for interactions between sleep and sensory processing. Blind Mexican cavefish comprise an extant surface dwelling form and 29 cave morphs that have independently evolved increased numbers of mechanoreceptive lateral line neuromasts and convergent evolution of sleep loss...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100426/ferumoxytol-mra-for-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-planning-with-renal-insufficiency
#10
Kimberly Kallianos, Travis S Henry, Yerem Yeghiazarians, Jeffrey Zimmet, Kendrick A Shunk, Elaine E Tseng, Vaikom Mahadevan, Michael D Hope
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the test of choice for pre-procedure imaging of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) candidates. The iodinated contrast required, however, increases the risk of renal dysfunction in patients with pre-existing renal failure. Ferumoxytol is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent that can be used with renal failure. Its long vascular resonance time allows gated MRA sequences that approach CTA in image quality. We present respiratory and cardiac gated MRA enabled by ferumoxytol that can be post-processed in an analogous fashion to CTA...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096552/novel-missense-variant-of-cacna1a-gene-in-a-slovak-family-with-episodic-ataxia-type-2
#11
Andrea Petrovicova, Miroslav Brozman, Egon Kurca, Tibor Gobo, Jana Dluha, Klaudia Kalmarova, Vladimir Nosal, Martina Hikkelova, Adriana Krajciova, Tatiana Burjanivova, Stefan Sivak
INTRODUCTION: Episodic ataxias (EAs) are rare dominantly inherited neurological disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of ataxia lasting minutes to hours. The most common subtype is EA type 2 (EA2) caused by pathogenic variants of calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 A gene (CACNA1A) on chromosome 19p13. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We examined a Slovak three-generation family. Genomic DNA of the family members was extracted from peripheral blood and amplified by polymerase chain reaction...
January 13, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093916/understanding-coulomb-scattering-mechanism-in-monolayer-mos2-channel-in-the-presence-of-h-bn-buffer-layer
#12
Min-Kyu Joo, Byoung Hee Moon, Hyunjin Ji, Gang Hee Han, Hyun Kim, Gwan Mu Lee, Seong Chu Lim, Dongseok Suh, Young Hee Lee
As the thickness becomes thinner, the importance of Coulomb scattering in two-dimensional layered materials increases because of the close proximity between channel and interfacial layer and the reduced screening effects. The Coulomb scattering in the channel is usually obscured mainly by the Schottky barrier at the contact in the noise measurements. Here, we report low-temperature (T) noise measurements to understand the Coulomb scattering mechanism in MoS2 channel in the presence of h-BN buffer layer on silicon dioxide (SiO2) insulating layer...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093211/pharmacological-properties-of-sak3-a-novel-t-type-voltage-gated-ca-2-channel-enhancer
#13
Yasushi Yabuki, Kazuya Matsuo, Hisanao Izumi, Hidaka Haga, Takashi Yoshida, Minoru Wakamori, Akira Kakehi, Kenji Sakimura, Takaichi Fukuda, Kohji Fukunaga
T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (T-VGCCs) function in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, pain and sleep. However, their role in cognitive function remains unclear. We previously reported that the cognitive enhancer ST101, which stimulates T-VGCCs in rat cortical slices, was a potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutic. Here, we introduce a more potent T-VGCC enhancer, SAK3 (ethyl 8'-methyl-2',4-dioxo-2-(piperidin-1-yl)-2'H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,3'-imidazo [1,2-a]pyridin]-2-ene-3-carboxylate), and characterize its pharmacological properties in brain...
January 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092172/analysis-of-indium-tin-oxide-film-using-argon-fluroide-arf-laser-excited-atomic-fluorescence-of-ablated-plumes
#14
Sut Kam Ho, Dario Machado Garcia
A two-pulse laser-excited atomic fluorescence (LEAF) technique at 193 nm wavelength was applied to the analysis of indium tin oxide (ITO) layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Fluorescence emissions from analytes were induced from plumes generated by first laser pulse. Using this approach, non-selective LEAF can be accomplished for simultaneous multi-element analysis and it overcomes the handicap of strict requirement for laser excitation wavelength. In this study, experimental conditions including laser fluences, times for gating and time delay between pulses were optimized to reveal high sensitivity with minimal sample destruction and penetration...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090633/magnetic-field-effects-on-particle-beams-and-their-implications-for-dose-calculation-in-mr-guided-particle-therapy
#15
Hermann Fuchs, Philipp Moser, Martin Gröschl, Dietmar Georg
PURPOSE: To investigate and model effects of magnetic fields on proton and carbonion beams for dose calculation. METHODS: In a first step Monte Carlo simulations using Gate 7.1/Geant4.10.0.p03 were performed for proton and carbon ion beams in magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 3 T. Initial particle energies ranged from 60-250 MeV (protons) and 120-400 MeV/u (carbon ions), respectively. The resulting dose distributions were analyzed focusing on beam deflection, dose deformation as well as the impact of material het- erogeneities...
January 16, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090611/performance-of-nano-assembly-logic-gates-with-a-dna-multi-hairpin-motif
#16
Lulu Zhang, Annie M Bluhm, Kuan-Jen Chen, Nicholas E Larkey, Sean M Burrows
DNA nano-assemblies have far-reaching implications for molecular computers. Boolean logic gates made from DNA respond to specific combinations of chemical or molecular inputs. In complex samples an assortment of other chemicals and molecules may interfere with the gate's recognition and response mechanisms. For logic gates to accept an increasing number of inputs, while maintaining selectivity, their design must only respond when specific input combinations are available simultaneously. Here we present proof-of-principle for a fluorescent-based nano-assembly logic gate for three inputs...
January 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089740/early-remodeling-of-repolarizing-k-currents-in-the-%C3%AE-mhc-403-mouse-model-of-familial-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#17
Rocco Hueneke, Adam Adenwala, Rebecca L Mellor, Jonathan G Seidman, Christine E Seidman, Jeanne M Nerbonne
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), linked to mutations in myosin, myosin-binding proteins and other sarcolemmal proteins, is associated with increased risk of life threatening ventricular arrhythmias, and a number of animal models have been developed to facilitate analysis of disease progression and mechanisms. In the experiments here, we use the αMHC(403/+) mouse line in which one αMHC allele harbors a common HCM mutation (in βMHC, Arg403 Gln). Here, we demonstrate marked prolongation of QT intervals in young adult (10-12week) male αMHC(403/+) mice, well in advance of the onset of measurable left ventricular hypertrophy...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088920/cardiac-strain-findings-in-children-with-latent-rheumatic-heart-disease-detected-by-echocardiographic-screening
#18
Andrea Beaton, Hedda Richards, Michelle Ploutz, Lasya Gaur, Twalib Aliku, Peter Lwabi, Greg Ensing, Craig Sable
BACKGROUND: Identification of patients with latent rheumatic heart disease by echocardiography presents a unique opportunity to prevent disease progression. Myocardial strain is a more sensitive indicator of cardiac performance than traditional measures of systolic function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that abnormalities in myocardial strain may be present in children with latent rheumatic heart disease. METHODS: Standard echocardiography images with electrocardiogram gating were obtained from Ugandan children found to have latent rheumatic heart disease as well as control subjects...
January 16, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087633/the-abl-pathway-bifurcates-to-balance-enabled-and-rac-signaling-in-axon-patterning-in-drosophila
#19
Ramakrishnan Kannan, Jeong-Kuen Song, Tatiana Karpova, Akanni Clarke, Madhuri Shivalkar, Benjamin Wang, Lyudmila Kotlyanskaya, Irina Kuzina, Qun Gu, Edward Giniger
The Abl tyrosine kinase signaling network controls cell migration, epithelial organization, axon patterning and other aspects of development. While individual components are known, the relationships among them remain mysterious. We now use FRET measurements of pathway activity, analysis of protein localization and genetic epistasis to dissect the structure of this network in Drosophila We find that the adaptor protein Disabled stimulates Abl kinase activity. Abl suppresses the actin regulatory factor Enabled, and we find that Abl also acts through the GEF Trio to stimulate the signaling activity of Rac GTPase: Abl gates the activity of the spectrin repeats of Trio, allowing them to relieve intramolecular repression of Trio GEF activity by the Trio N-terminal domain...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081141/could-a-neuroscientist-understand-a-microprocessor
#20
Eric Jonas, Konrad Paul Kording
There is a popular belief in neuroscience that we are primarily data limited, and that producing large, multimodal, and complex datasets will, with the help of advanced data analysis algorithms, lead to fundamental insights into the way the brain processes information. These datasets do not yet exist, and if they did we would have no way of evaluating whether or not the algorithmically-generated insights were sufficient or even correct. To address this, here we take a classical microprocessor as a model organism, and use our ability to perform arbitrary experiments on it to see if popular data analysis methods from neuroscience can elucidate the way it processes information...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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