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Ozan Burak Ericok, Ali Taylan Cemgil, Hakan Erturk
Characterization of nanoparticle aggregates from observed scattered light leads to a highly complex inverse problem. Even the forward model is so complex that it prohibits the use of classical likelihood-based inference methods. In this study, we compare four so-called likelihood-free methods based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) that requires only numeric simulation of the forward model without the need of evaluating a likelihood. In particular, rejection, Markov chain Monte Carlo, population Monte Carlo, and adaptive population Monte Carlo (APMC) are compared in terms of accuracy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Kun Yang, John Fox
The use of carbon soot recovered from diesel particulate filters (DPF) has been investigated as a potential adsorbent for heavy metals including cadmium, chromium, and copper from wastewater. Results were compared with the adsorption performance of powder activated carbon (PAC). The uptake capacity of heavy metals for soot was found to be higher than PAC. And the thermodynamic study result for both soot and PAC indicated the adsorption procedures are exothermic. The adsorption studies were carried out for both single and binary systems...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Debajyoti Ray, Tara Shankar Bhattacharya, Abhijit Chatterjee, Achintya Singha, Sanjay K Ghosh, Sibaji Raha
Substantial impacts on climate have been documented for soot‒sulfuric acid (H2SO4) interactions in terms of optical and hygroscopic properties of soot aerosols. However, the influence of H2SO4 on heterogeneous chemistry on soot remains unexplored. Additionally, oxidation rate coefficients for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons intrinsic to the atmospheric particles evaluated in laboratory experiments seem to overestimate their degradation in ambient atmosphere, possibly due to matrix effects which are hitherto not mimicked in laboratory experiments...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peng Wang, Bo Pan, Hao Li, Yu Huang, Xudong Dong, Fang Ai, Lingyan Liu, Min Wu, Baoshan Xing
The mining and burning of low-rank coal in Xuanwei, China have attracted a great deal of research attention because of the generated polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the high incidence of lung cancer in this region. Given the abundant transition metals in the allitic soil, we hypothesized that environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are formed in this region and the potential risk had not been addressed. Strong electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals of 3.20 × 1017 - 3.10 × 1019 spins/g were detected in environmental samples, including chimney soot, coal, soil and total suspended particles (TSP)...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Deepika Kaushal, Ajay Kumar, Shweta Yadav, Ankit Tandon, Arun K Attri
Carbonaceous aerosols play an important role in affecting human health, radiative forcing, hydrological cycle, and climate change. As our current understanding about the carbonaceous aerosols, the source(s) and process(es) associated with them in the ecologically sensitive North-Western Himalayas are limited; this systematic study was planned to understand inherent dynamics in the mass concentration and source contribution of carbonaceous aerosols in the Dhauladhar region. During four winter months (January 2015-April 2015), 24-h PM10 samples were collected every week simultaneously at the rural site of Pohara (32...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yuqing Qiu, Laura Lupi, Valeria Molinero
Graphitic surfaces are the main component of soot, a major constituent of atmospheric aerosols. Experiments indicate that soots of different origins display a wide range of abilities to heterogeneously nucleate ice. The ability of pure graphite to nucleate ice in experiments, however, seems to be almost negligible. Nevertheless, molecular simulations with the monatomic water model mW predict that pure graphite nucleates ice. According to Classical Nucleation Theory, the ability of a surface to nucleate ice is controlled by the binding free energy between ice immersed in liquid water and the surface...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
M F Campbell, P E Schrader, A L Catalano, K O Johansson, G A Bohlin, N K Richards-Henderson, C J Kliewer, H A Michelsen
We have developed and built a small porous-plug burner based on the original McKenna burner design. The new burner generates a laminar premixed flat flame for use in studies of combustion chemistry and soot formation. The size is particularly relevant for space-constrained, synchrotron-based X-ray diagnostics. In this paper, we present details of the design, construction, operation, and supporting infrastructure for this burner, including engineering attributes that enable its small size. We also present data for charactering the flames produced by this burner...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Penghao Jiao, Zhijun Li, Qiang Li, Wen Zhang, Li He, Yue Wu
In the coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particular Filter (DPF) system, soot cannot be completely removed by only using the passive regeneration. And DPF active regeneration is necessary. The research method in this paper is to spray different kinds of combustion-supporting agents to the DOC in the front of the DPF. Therefore, the low temperature combustion mechanism of different kinds of combustion-supporting agents in DOC was studied, in order to grasp the law of combustion in DOC, and the influence of follow-up emission on DPF removal of soot...
December 26, 2017: ISA Transactions
Sharoon Griffin, Muhammad Irfan Masood, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Muhammad Sarfraz, Azubuike Peter Ebokaiwe, Karl-Herbert Schäfer, Cornelia M Keck, Claus Jacob
During the last couple of decades, the rapidly advancing field of nanotechnology has produced a wide palette of nanomaterials, most of which are considered as "synthetic" and, among the wider public, are often met with a certain suspicion. Despite the technological sophistication behind many of these materials, "nano" does not always equate with "artificial". Indeed, nature itself is an excellent nanotechnologist. It provides us with a range of fine particles, from inorganic ash, soot, sulfur and mineral particles found in the air or in wells, to sulfur and selenium nanoparticles produced by many bacteria and yeasts...
December 29, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
N M Agarkov, S N Gontarev, V D Lutsenko, A P Yakovlev, A V Ivanov
The paper presents the results of mathematical-cartographic simulation study of the incidence of caries and acute apical periodontitis in pediatric population of Belgorod region. The Borisov district was found to be the most unfavorable area of the region with the highest incidence of the diseases. The forecast indicates an increase in the incidence of caries in children by 181.1 cases and acute apical periodontitis by 15.00 cases per 1.000 children annually in the coming years. The incidence of acute apical periodontitis is influenced by the excess of maximum permissible concentration of phenol and soot in atmospheric air, forming a homogenous cluster...
2017: Stomatologii︠a︡
Josep Sanchís, Marta Llorca, Mar Olmos, Gabriella Francesca Schirinzi, Cristina Bosch-Orea, Esteban Abad, Damia Barcelo, Marinella Farre
In this study, Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed through the diet to fullerene soot, at three concentrations in parallel to a control group. Their metabolomics response was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS). The experiments were conducted in marine mesocosms, during 35 days (7 days of acclimatization, 21 days of exposure and 7 seven days of depuration). Real conditions were emulated in terms of physicochemical conditions of the habitat...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Pawan Kumar, Sushil Kumar, Sudesh Yadav
Size distribution, water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), and organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in size-segregated aerosols were investigated during a year-long sampling in 2010 over New Delhi. Among different size fractions of PM10, PM0.95 was the dominant fraction (45%) followed by PM3-7.2 (20%), PM7.2-10 (15%), PM0.95-1.5 (10%), and PM1.5-3 (10%). All size fractions exceeded the ambient air quality standards of India for PM2.5. Annual average mass size distributions of ions were specific to size and ion(s); Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NO3-, and Cl- followed bimodal distribution while SO42- and NH4+ ions showed one mode in PM0...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nicasio R Geraldi, Linzi E Dodd, Ben Xu, David Wood, Gary Wells, Glen McHale, Michael I Newton
Much of the inspiration for the creation of superhydrophobic surfaces has come from nature, from plant such as the Sacred Lotus (Nulembo nucifera), where the micro-scale papillae epidermal cells on the surfaces of the leaves are covered with nano-scale epicuticular wax crystalloids. The combination of the surface roughness and the hydrophobic wax coating produces a superhydrophobic wetting state on the leaves allowing them to self-clean and easily shed water. Here a simple scale-up carbon nanoparticle spray coating is presented that mimics the surface of the Sacred Lotus leaves and can be applied to a wide variety of materials, complex structures, and flexible substrates, rendering them superhydrophobic, with contact angles above 160°...
December 14, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Guanglang Xu, Patrick G Stegmann, Sarah D Brooks, Ping Yang
Fractal particle morphologies are employed to study the light scattering properties of soot-laden mineral dust aerosols. The applicability of these models is assessed in comparison with measurements and other numerical studies. To quantify the dust-soot mixing effects on the single and multiple scattering properties, a parameterization of the effective bulk properties is developed. Based on the parameterized bulk properties, polarized one-dimensional radiative transfer simulations are performed. The results indicate that small uncertainties in conjunction with soot contamination parameters may lead to large uncertainties in both forward and inverse modeling involving mineral dust contaminated with soot...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Quentin Chevalier, Hind El Hadri, Patrice Petitjean, Martine Bouhnik-Le Coz, Stéphanie Reynaud, Bruno Grassl, Julien Gigault
Cigarette butts (CGB) are equivalent to plastic litter in terms of number of pieces released directly into the environment. Due to their small size and social use, CGB are commonly found in natural systems, and several questions have been raised concerning the contaminants that are released with CGB, including metals, organic species, and nanoparticles. The aim of the present study is to investigate the release of nanoscale particles from CGB by leaching with rainwater. After seven days of passive stirring of both smoked and unsmoked CGB in synthetic rainwater, the solutions were treated and analyzed by specific nano-analytical methods...
November 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Ionel Popescu, Marco Piumetti, Samir Bensaid, Ioan-Cezar Marcu
Three Ce-Cu mixed oxides, namely Ce0.95Cu0.05, Ce0.6Cu0.4 and Ce0.15Cu0.85, along with pure CeO2 and CuO were characterized by in situ electrical conductivity measurements. Their electrical conductivity was studied as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure, and was followed with time during successive exposure to air, nitrogen and different gaseous mixtures containing propane as a VOC model molecule, under conditions close to those of their catalytic applications. CeO2 and CuO appeared to be n-type and p-type semiconductors, respectively, while the semiconducting behavior of the Ce-Cu mixed oxides depended on the oxide composition...
November 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Félix Zapata, María López-López, José Manuel Amigo, Carmen García-Ruiz
Multispectral images of clothing targets shot at seven different distances (from 10 to 220cm) were recorded at 18 specific wavelengths in the 400-1000nm range to visualize the gunshot residue (GSR) pattern. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the use of violet-blue wavelengths (430, 450 and 470nm) provided the largest contrast between the GSR particles and the white cotton fabric. Then, the correlation between the amount of GSR particles on clothing targets and the shooting distance was studied. By selecting the blue frame of multispectral images (i...
January 2018: Forensic Science International
Chunshan Zhou, Jing Chen, Shaojian Wang
The frequent occurrence of extreme smog episodes in recent years has begun to present a serious threat to human health. In addition to pollutant emissions and meteorological conditions, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is also influenced by socioeconomic development. Thus, identifying the potential effects of socioeconomic development on PM2.5 variations can provide insights into particulate pollution control. This study applied spatial regression and the geographical detector technique for assessing the directions and strength of association between socioeconomic factors and PM2...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Masaru Uraoka, Keisuke Maegawa, Shoji Ishizaka
A laser trapping technique is a powerful means to investigate the physical and chemical properties of single aerosol particles in a noncontact manner. However, optical trapping of strongly light-absorbing particles such as black carbon or soot is quite difficult because the repulsive force caused by heat is orders of magnitude larger than the attractive force of radiation pressure. In this study, a laser trapping and Raman microspectroscopy system using an annular laser beam was constructed to achieve noncontact levitation of single light-absorbing particles in air...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Dingyu Hou, Xiaoqing You
Hydrogen abstraction reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by H atoms play a very important role in both PAH and soot formation processes. However, large discrepancies up to a few orders of magnitude exist among the literature rate constant values. To increase the reliability of the computed rate constants, it is critical to obtain highly accurate potential energy surfaces. For this purpose, we have investigated the energetics of hydrogen abstraction from benzene and naphthalene using both high level-of-theory quantum chemistry methods and a series of density functional theory (DFT) methods, among which M06-2X/6-311g(d,p) has the best performance with a mean unsigned deviation from the CCSD(T)/CBS calculations of 1...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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