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Miao-Lei Ya, Xin-Hong Wang, Yu-Ling Wu, Yong-Yu Li, Jing-Ming Yan, Chao Fang, Yan-Yan Zhao, Ran-Ran Qian, Xiao-Long Lin
To study the spatial distributions and seasonal differences of concentrations, source identification, and phase partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface water, intensive sampling was carried out along the marginal seas of China in four seasons. In the northern South China Sea (SCS), the highest PAH levels occurred in summer (July to August) and autumn (October to November). In the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea, the highest occurred in summer (August) and winter (December)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Rituraj Niranjan, Ashwani Kumar Thakur
The environmental soot and carbon blacks (CBs) cause many diseases in humans, but their underlying mechanisms of toxicity are still poorly understood. Both are formed after the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons but differ in their constituents and percent carbon contents. For the first time, "Sir Percival Pott" described soot as a carcinogen, which was subsequently confirmed by many others. The existing data suggest three main types of diseases due to soot and CB exposures: cancer, respiratory diseases, and cardiovascular dysfunctions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Agnes Jocher, Heinz Pitsch, Thomas Gomez, Jérôme Bonnety, Guillaume Legros
The present interdisciplinary study combines electromagnetics and combustion to unveil an original and basic experiment displaying a spontaneous flame instability that is mitigated as the non-premixed sooting flame experiences a magnetic perturbation. This magnetic instability mitigation is reproduced by direct numerical simulations to be further elucidated by a flow stability analysis. A key role in the stabilization process is attributed to the momentum and thermochemistry coupling that the magnetic force, acting mainly on paramagnetic oxygen, contributes to sustain...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Andrea Comandini, Said Abid, Nabiha Chaumeix
The recent theoretical and experimental investigations on the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pyrolytic environments highlight the possible role of the 1,4-cycloaddition/fragmentation (1,4-CAF) steps in the formation of PAH intermediates and consequently soot. The present theoretical study explores the possibility to generalize such mechanism to reactions involving various diradical compounds and stable multi-ring structures. The calculations were performed using the uB3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method and different composite methods, when possible, for more accurate energy estimates...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Sourab Sinha, Ramees K Rahman, Abhijeet Raj
Resonantly stabilized radicals, such as propargyl, cyclopentadienyl, benzyl, and indenyl, play a vital role in the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are soot precursors in engines and flames. Pyrene is considered to be an important PAH, as it is thought to nucleate soot particles, but its formation pathways are not well known. This paper presents a reaction mechanism for the formation of four-ring aromatics, pyrene and fluoranthene, through the combination of benzyl and indenyl radicals...
July 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lei Liu, Shaofei Kong, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Liang Xu, Qin Yan, A P Lingaswamy, Zongbo Shi, Senlin Lv, Hongya Niu, Longyi Shao, Min Hu, Daizhou Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Xiaoye Zhang, Weijun Li
Morphology, composition, and mixing state of individual particles emitted from crop residue, wood, and solid waste combustion in a residential stove were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study showed that particles from crop residue and apple wood combustion were mainly organic matter (OM) in smoldering phase, whereas soot-OM internally mixed with K in flaming phase. Wild grass combustion in flaming phase released some Cl-rich-OM/soot particles and cardboard combustion released OM and S-rich particles...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Qianhui Wei, Yu Zhu, Shouliang Liu, Yongjie Gao, Xiaolong Li, Mi Shi, Xueji Zhang, Meiqin Zhang
We demonstrate a facile method termed candle soot coating (CSC) for fast developing latent fingermarks (LFMs) on various kinds of surfaces (glass, ceramic, metal, paper and adhesive tape). The CSC method can be considered as simple, fast, and low-cost as well as providing high contrast for LFM visualization in potential forensic applications.
July 11, 2017: Sensors
Cary Presser, Ashot Nazarian, Joseph M Conny, Duli Chand, Arthur Sedlacek, John M Hubbe
Absorptivity measurements with a laser-heating approach, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR), were carried out in the infrared and applied at ambient (laboratory) non-reacting conditions to particle-laden filters from a three-wavelength (visible) particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP). The particles were obtained during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field campaign. The focus of this study was to determine the particle absorption coefficient from field-campaign filter samples using the LDTR approach, and compare results with other commercially available instrumentation (in this case with the PSAP, which has been compared with numerous other optical techniques)...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
Aijing Ma, Liu Gu, Yingming Zhu, Ming Meng, Jianzhou Gui, Yifu Yu, Bin Zhang
We propose a facile and versatile strategy for the fabrication of a hierarchically crossed metal oxide nanosheet array on a monolithic FeOx substrate. This strategy can also be extended to synthesize a composite metal oxide nanosheet array, in which the composition can be easily modulated. The as-obtained hierarchically crossed metal oxide nanosheet array exhibited high catalytic activities for diesel soot elimination owing to the enhanced contact efficiency between soot particulates and macroporous catalysts...
July 5, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Zilan Wu, Tian Lin, Zhongxia Li, Yuqing Jiang, Yuanyuan Li, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, Zhigang Guo
We measured 15 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmosphere and water during a research cruise from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) in the spring of 2015 to investigate the occurrence, air-sea gas exchange, and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs with a particular focus on the influence of East Asian continental outflow. The gaseous PAH composition and identification of sources were consistent with PAHs from the upwind area, indicating that the gaseous PAHs (three-to five-ring PAHs) were influenced by upwind land pollution...
July 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Di Wu, Fei Zhang, Wenhao Lou, Dan Li, Jianmin Chen
Fuel consumption is one of the major contributors to air pollution worldwide. Plenty of studies have demonstrated that the diesel and petrol exhaust fine particulate matters (FPMs) are associated with increases of various diseases. However, the influences of different fuel types and their chemical components on toxicity have been less investigated. In this study, four kinds of fuels that widely used in China were burned in a laboratory simulation, and the FPMs were collected and analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that black carbon was mainly soot with a dendritic morphology...
June 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
José M De la Rosa, Ana Z Miller, J Santiago Pozo-Antonio, José A González-Pérez, Nicasio T Jiménez-Morillo, Amelia Dionisio
The deposition of soot on building surfaces darkens their colour and leads to undesirable black crusts, which are one of the most serious problems on the conservation of built cultural heritage. As a preventive strategy, self-cleaning systems based on the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings have been employed on building materials for degrading organic compounds deposited on building surfaces, improving their durability and performance. In this study, the self-cleaning effect of TiO2-containing mortars coated with diesel soot has been appraised under laboratory conditions...
June 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Peter Mühlschlegel, Armin Hauk, Ulrich Walter, Robert Sieber
Honey samples from Switzerland were investigated with regard to their microplastic particle burden. Five representative honey samples of different origin were processed following a standardized protocol to separate plastic-based microparticles from particles of natural origin, such as pollen, propolis, wax, and bee-related debris. The procedure was optimized to minimize post-sampling microplastic cross-contamination in the laboratory. The isolated microplastic particles were characterized and grouped by means of light microscopy as well as chemically characterized by microscopically coupled Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
July 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
U C Dumka, D G Kaskaoutis, Ram Sagar, Jianmin Chen, Narendra Singh, Suresh Tiwari
The present work examines the influence of relative humidity (RH), physical and optical aerosol properties on the light-scattering enhancement factor [f(RH=85%)] over central Indian Himalayas during the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX). The aerosol hygroscopic properties were measured by means of DoE/ARM (US Department of Energy, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) mobile facility focusing on periods with the regular instrumental operation (November-December 2011). The measured optical properties include aerosol light-scattering (σsp) and absorption (σap) coefficients and the intensive parameters i...
June 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Haomiao Xu, Naiqiang Yan, Zan Qu, Wei Liu, Jian Mei, Wenjun Huang, Songjian Zhao
Manganese oxide has been recognized as one of the most promising gaseous heterogeneous catalyst due to its low cost, environmental friendliness and high catalytic oxidation performance. Mn-based oxides can be classified into four types: 1) single manganese oxide (MnOx), 2) supported manganese oxide (MnOx/Support), 3) composite manganese oxides (MnOx-X), and 4) special crystalline manganese oxides (S-MnOx). These Mn-based oxides have been widely used as catalysts for the elimination of gaseous pollutants. This review aims to describe the environmental applications of these manganese oxides and provide perspectives...
June 29, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Kaiser Leung, Elijah G Schnitzler, Ramin Dastanpour, Steven Rogak, Wolfgang Jaeger, Jason S Olfert
The restructuring of mono-disperse soot aggregates due to coatings of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated in a series of photo-oxidation chamber experiments. Soot aggregates were generated by one of three sources (an ethylene premixed burner, a methane inverted diffusion burner, or a diesel generator), treated by denuding, size-selected by a differential mobility analyzer, and injected into a smog chamber, where they were exposed to the photo-oxidation products of p-xylene, which partitioned to form SOA coatings...
June 29, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Islam Mohammad Monirul, Haji Hassan Masjuki, Mohammad Abdul Kalam, Nurin Wahidah Mohd Zulkifli, Islam Shancita
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the polymethyl acrylate (PMA) additive on the formation of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emission from a diesel coconut and/or Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel-fueled engine. The physicochemical properties of 20% of coconut and/or C. inophyllum biodiesel-diesel blend (B20), 0.03 wt% of PMA with B20 (B20P), and diesel fuel were measured and compared to ASTM D6751, D7467, and EN 14214 standard. The test results showed that the addition of PMA additive with B20 significantly improves the cold-flow properties such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), and cold filter plugging point (CFPP)...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Koustav Ganguly, Dariusch Ettehadieh, Swapna Upadhyay, Shinji Takenaka, Thure Adler, Erwin Karg, Fritz Krombach, Wolfgang G Kreyling, Holger Schulz, Otmar Schmid, Tobias Stoeger
BACKGROUND: The death toll associated with inhaled ambient particulate matter (PM) is attributed mainly to cardio-vascular rather than pulmonary effects. However, it is unclear whether the key event for cardiovascular impairment is particle translocation from lung to circulation (direct effect) or indirect effects due to pulmonary particle-cell interactions. In this work, we addressed this issue by exposing healthy mice via inhalation and intra-arterial infusion (IAI) to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as surrogate for soot, a major constituent of (ultrafine) urban PM...
June 20, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Chenxi Lu, Taizheng Liu, Qiaolan Shi, Qian Li, Ying Xin, Lei Zheng, Zhaoliang Zhang
Potassium (K) ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites were investigated for catalytic soot combustion. X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS), Raman, in situ IR and NH3-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) confirmed the location of K(+) at the ion-exchanged sites. Temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) reactions showed that K-ZSM-5 decreased ignition tempeatures of soot combustion and increased selectivity to CO2. The improved activity for soot combustion by increasing K(+)-exchanged amounts via decreasing the Si/Al ratio reinforced the K(+) ions participating in soot combustion...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ying Cheng, Weiyu Song, Jian Liu, Huiling Zheng, Zhen Zhao, Chunming Xu, Yuechang Wei, Emiel J M Hensen
Particulate matter and NO x emissions from diesel exhaust remains one of the most pressing environmental problems. We explore the use of hierarchically ordered mixed Fe-Ce-Zr oxides for the simultaneous capture and oxidation of soot and reduction of NO x by ammonia in a single step. The optimized material can effectively trap the model soot particles in its open macroporous structure and oxidize the soot below 400 °C while completely removing NO in the 285-420 °C range. Surface characterization and DFT calculations emphasize the defective nature of Fe-doped ceria...
June 2, 2017: ACS Catalysis
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