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Josef Cyrys, H-Erich Wichmann, Regina Rückerl, Annette Peters
Low Emission Zones (LEZs) were implemented as a measure for improving the quality of ambient air. As of February 2018, 58 LEZs were in operation in Germany; however they differ significantly, especially regarding their size.The effectiveness of LEZs has been investigated by dispersion modelling as well as by analysis of PM10 (particles which pass through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) measurement values. Recent studies show a clear trend...
May 14, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Petra Brinskelle, Christian Smolle, Eva-Christina Prandl, Stephan Spendel, Marlene Leoni, Walter Goessler, Tara Arif, Lars-Peter Kamolz, David Benjamin Lumenta
A chemical alkali burn caused by ash and soot is quite rare, resulting from its high pH-value, and underestimated in its potential to cause injury. In folkloric medicine ash was purportedly used to relieve pain. We present an unusual case of a 27-year-old man who used a self-mixed cream of soot of wooden pellets, milking grease and baby oil to blacken his face and hands for a traditional Krampus procession.
May 11, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Yujiao Sun, Shangwei Xu, Danyang Zheng, Jie Li, Hezhong Tian, Yong Wang
In this study, particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters of ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm (PM2.5 and PM10 , respectively), which was found at different concentrations in spring, was collected in Beijing. The chemical composition and bacterial community diversity of PM were determined, and the relationship between them was studied by 16S rRNA sequencing and mathematical statistics. Chemical composition analysis revealed greater relative percentages of total organic compounds (TOC) and secondary ions (NO3 - , SO4 2- , and NH4 + )...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hugo O Garcés, Andrés Fuentes, Pedro Reszka, Gonzalo Carvajal
Industrial combustion processes are an important source of particulate matter, causing significant pollution problems that affect human health, and are a major contributor to global warming. The most common method for analyzing the soot emission propensity in flames is the Smoke Point Height (SPH) analysis, which relates the fuel flow rate to a critical flame height at which soot particles begin to leave the reactive zone through the tip of the flame. The SPH and is marked by morphological changes on the flame tip...
May 11, 2018: Sensors
Umair Ashraf, Bharat Bajantri, Gabriella Roa-Gomez, Sindhaghatta Venkatram, Amanda Cantin, Gilda Diaz-Fuentes
RATIONALE: Every year, ∼40,000 people suffer burn-related injuries in the United States. Despite recent advances, the odds of dying from exposure to fire, flames, or smoke are one in ∼1500. Smoke inhalation causes injury to the airways via a complex physiological process, and the treatment is mainly supportive. Many recent interventions aim to decrease the formation of fibrin casts, the main cause of airway damage in these patients. Among these, treatment with a combination of nebulized heparin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown benefit...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yong Han, Yingjun Chen, Saud Ahmad, Yanli Feng, Fan Zhang, Wenhuai Song, Fang Cao, Yanlin Zhang, Xin Yang, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
Inefficient coal combustion is a significant source of elemental carbon (EC) air pollution in China, but there is a limited understanding of EC's formation processes. In this study, high time-resolved particle number size distributions (PNSDs) and size-resolved chemical compositions were obtained from the combustion of four bituminous coals burned in a quartz tube furnace at 500°C and 800°C. Based on the distinct characteristics of PNSD, the flaming stage was divided into the first-flaming stage (with a PNSD peak at 0...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Cong Hou, Longyi Shao, Wei Hu, Daizhou Zhang, Chengmei Zhao, Jiaoping Xing, Xiaofeng Huang, Min Hu
Road traffic is one of the major sources of particulate matters in the atmosphere. Tunnels provide a semi-closed place to measure traffic-derived particles before the particles were photo-chemically modified in the open air. In this study, aerosol particles were collected in a tunnel, and an urban site for comparison at a coastal city in south China. The particles were analyzed by using a transmission electron microscope coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. There were four groups of particles according to sources: tailpipe-emitted particles, wear debris, road dust, and secondary particles...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yu Hao, Shuang Liu, Zhi-Nan Lu, Junbing Huang, Mingyuan Zhao
In recent years, along with rapid economic growth, China's environmental problems have become increasingly prominent. At the same time, the level of China's pollution has been growing rapidly, which has caused huge damages to the residents' health. In this regard, the public health expenditure ballooned as the environmental quality deteriorated in China. In this study, the effect of environmental pollution on residents' health expenditure is empirically investigated by employing the first-order difference generalized method of moments (GMM) method to control for potential endogeneity...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anthi Liati, Daniel Schreiber, Yadira Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler
Ultrafine (<100 nm) particles related to traffic are of high environmental and human health concern, as they are supposed to be more toxic than larger particles. In the present study transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is applied to obtain a concrete picture on the nature, morphology and chemical composition of non-volatile ultrafine particles in the exhaust of state-of-the-art, Euro 6b, Gasoline and Diesel vehicles. The particles were collected directly on TEM grids, at the tailpipe, downstream of the after-treatment system, during the entire duration of typical driving cycles on the chassis dynamometer...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Thomas Häusler, Paul Gebhardt, Daniel Iglesias, Christoph Rameshan, Silvia Marchesan, Dominik Eder, Hinrich Grothe
Aerosols can act as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice-nucleating particles (INPs), influencing cloud properties. In particular, INPs show a variety of different and complex mechanisms when interacting with water during the freezing process. To gain a fundamental understanding of the heterogeneous freezing mechanisms, studies with proxies for atmospheric INPs must be performed. Graphene and its derivatives offer suitable model systems for soot particles, which are ubiquitous aerosols in the atmosphere. In this work, we present an investigation of the ice nucleation activity (INA) of different types of graphene and graphene oxides...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Claire J Sully, G Stewart Walker, Neil E I Langlois
It has been noted there are gaps and inconsistencies in data pertaining to fire related deaths in Australia, which poses difficulties for analysis of national statistics. A search of post-mortem examination reports at Forensic Science SA from 2000 to 2015 revealed 275 cases regarded as fire related in which the body had been involved in a fire. The autopsy reports were evaluated to determine parameters including the location of the fire event, age and sex of victim, as well as the presence of soot in the airways and cherry-red coloration to the blood and/or organs, in addtion to toxicological levels of carboxyhemoglobin and alcohol...
April 28, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Lijie Ai, Zhongpeng Wang, Chenchen Cui, Wei Liu, Liguo Wang
A novel active Ca-Co dually-doping pyrochlore oxide La2&minus;x Cax Sn2&minus;y Coy O₇ catalyst was synthesized by the sol-gel method for catalytic oxidation of soot particulates. The microstructure, atomic valence, reduction, and adsorption performance were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H₂-TPR (temperature-programmed reduction), and in situ diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transformed (DRIFTS) techniques...
April 24, 2018: Materials
Anton Kontunen, Markus Karjalainen, Jukka Lekkala, Antti Roine, Niku Oksala
Electrosurgery is widely used in various surgical operations. When tissue is cut with high-frequency current, the cell contents at the incision area evaporate and together with water and possible soot particles, form surgical smoke. The smoke contains cell metabolites, and therefore, possible biomarkers for cancer or bacterial infection. Thus, the analysis of surgical smoke could be used in intraoperative medical diagnostics. We present a method that can be used to detect the characteristics of various tissue types by means of differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) analysis of surgical smoke...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Joel Corbin, Amewu Antoinette Mensah, Simone Maria Pieber, Jürgen Orasche, Bernhard Michalke, Marco Zanatta, Hendryk Czech, Dario Massabò, Francesco Buatier de Mongeot, Carlo Mennucci, Imad El Haddad, Nivedita K Kumar, Benjamin Stengel, Yuting Huang, Ralf Zimmermann, Andre S H Prevot, Martin Gysel
Heavy fuel oil (HFO) particulate matter (PM) emitted by marine engines is known to contain toxic heavy metals including vanadium (V) and nickel (Ni). The toxicity of such metals will depend on the their chemical state, size distribution, and mixing state. Using online soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SP-AMS), we quantified the mass of five metals (V, Ni, Fe, Na, and Ba) in HFO-PM soot particles produced by a marine diesel research engine. The in-soot metal concentrations were compared to 25 in-PM 2...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mohammed Ali Abu Ameerh, Muawyah Dawoud Al Bdour, Maha Al-Till, Muhannad Al Faouri
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of trans-epithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with Iontophoresis among patients with progressive keratoconus. METHODS: It is a prospective interventional study, which is based on 41 eyes of 23 patients, suffering from progressive keratoconus and treated with trans-epithelial corneal cross-linking, using iontophoresis with ETDA and trometamol-enriched riboflavin 5 phosphates 0.1% hypotonic solution (Ricrolin+, Soot Italia SpA, Italy)...
April 19, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Michio Yamada, Takeshi Akasaka, Shigeru Nagase
The awesome allotropy of carbon yields innumerable, topologically possible cage structures of molecular carbon. This field is also related to endohedral metallofullerenes constructed by metal-atom encapsulation. Pure form of stable and soluble empty fullerenes and endohedral metallofullerenes are available in macroscopic amounts from carbon arc production or other physical processes followed by extraction and subsequent chromatographic separation. However, many other unidentified fullerene species, which must be reactive and insoluble in their pristine forms, remain in soot...
April 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Priyanka Sharma, Kandasamy Nagarajan, Bihu Prasad Panda
The frequency of Bacillus subtilis infection such as pneumonia pan-opthalmitis, visceral abscess or musculoskeletal infection etc. complications following bacteremia, meningitis in children & the infection associated with majority of motor vehicle accidents associated with trauma & gun shoot injury. Antibiotics which appear especially useful in the treatment of Bacillus. infection are clindamycin and vancomycin to which vast majority of strains are susceptible in vitro. Our objective is to test the synthesized peptidomimetics with the efforts mainly directed towards the identification of antibacterial compounds against recurrent septicemia infection...
April 16, 2018: Drug Research
Won-Ju Lee, Han Vin Kim, Jae-Hyuk Choi, Gasidit Panomsuwan, Young-Chan Lee, Beom-Seok Rho, Jun Kang
In this study, the waste soot generated by ships was recycled to produce an active material for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Soot collected from a ship was graphitized by a heat treatment process and used as an anode active material. It was confirmed that the graphitized soot was converted into a highly crystalline graphite, and was found to form carbon nano-onions with an average diameter of 70 nm. The graphitized soot showed a high discharge capacity and an excellent cycle life, with a reversible capacity of 260 mAhg-1 even after 150 cycles at a rate of 1 C...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karina Lindner, Sina Webering, Michael Stroebele, Henning Bockhorn, Tanja Hansen, Peter König, Heinz Fehrenbach
Exposure to exogenous noxae, such as particulate matter, can trigger acute aggravations of allergic asthma-a chronic inflammatory airway disease. We tested whether Carbon Black nanoparticles (CBNP) with or without surface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) aggravate an established allergic airway inflammation in mice. In an ovalbumin mouse model, Printex® 90 (P90), P90 coated with benzo[a]pyrene (P90-BaP) or 9-nitroanthracene (P90-9NA), or acetylene soot exhibiting a mixture of surface PAH (AS-PAH) was administered twice (70 µL, 100 µg/mL) during an established allergic airway inflammation...
March 31, 2018: Nanomaterials
Cornelia Irimiea, Alessandro Faccinetto, Yvain Carpentier, Ismael-Kenneth Ortega, Nicolas Nuns, Eric Therssen, Pascale Desgroux, Cristian Focsa
RATIONALE: Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is used to provide detailed information on the surface chemical composition of soot. An analytical protocol is proposed and tested on a laboratory flame, and the results are compared with our previous measurements provided by two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS). METHODS: This work details: (1) the development of a dedicated apparatus to sample combustion products from atmospheric flames and deposit them on substrates suitable for ToF-SIMS analysis; (2) the choice of the deposition substrate and the material of the sampling line, and their effect on the mass spectra; (3) a method to separate the contributions of soot and condensable gas based on impact deposition, and finally (4) the post-acquisition data processing...
March 30, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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