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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637465/early-pulmonary-response-is-critical-for-extra-pulmonary-carbon-nanoparticle-mediated-effects-comparison-of-inhalation-versus-intra-arterial-infusion-exposures-in-mice
#1
Koustav Ganguly, Dariusch Ettehadieh, Swapna Upadhyay, Shinji Takenaka, Thure Adler, Erwin Karg, Fritz Krombach, Wolfgang G Kreyling, Holger Schulz, Otmar Schmid, Tobias Stoeger
BACKGROUND: The death toll associated with inhaled ambient particulate matter (PM) is attributed mainly to cardio-vascular rather than pulmonary effects. However, it is unclear whether the key event for cardiovascular impairment is particle translocation from lung to circulation (direct effect) or indirect effects due to pulmonary particle-cell interactions. In this work, we addressed this issue by exposing healthy mice via inhalation and intra-arterial infusion (IAI) to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as surrogate for soot, a major constituent of (ultrafine) urban PM...
June 20, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607466/plausibility-of-potassium-ion-exchanged-zsm-5-as-soot-combustion-catalysts
#2
Chenxi Lu, Taizheng Liu, Qiaolan Shi, Qian Li, Ying Xin, Lei Zheng, Zhaoliang Zhang
Potassium (K) ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites were investigated for catalytic soot combustion. X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS), Raman, in situ IR and NH3-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) confirmed the location of K(+) at the ion-exchanged sites. Temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) reactions showed that K-ZSM-5 decreased ignition tempeatures of soot combustion and increased selectivity to CO2. The improved activity for soot combustion by increasing K(+)-exchanged amounts via decreasing the Si/Al ratio reinforced the K(+) ions participating in soot combustion...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603656/simultaneous-no-x-and-particulate-matter-removal-from-diesel-exhaust-by-hierarchical-fe-doped-ce-zr-oxide
#3
Ying Cheng, Weiyu Song, Jian Liu, Huiling Zheng, Zhen Zhao, Chunming Xu, Yuechang Wei, Emiel J M Hensen
Particulate matter and NO x emissions from diesel exhaust remains one of the most pressing environmental problems. We explore the use of hierarchically ordered mixed Fe-Ce-Zr oxides for the simultaneous capture and oxidation of soot and reduction of NO x by ammonia in a single step. The optimized material can effectively trap the model soot particles in its open macroporous structure and oxidize the soot below 400 °C while completely removing NO in the 285-420 °C range. Surface characterization and DFT calculations emphasize the defective nature of Fe-doped ceria...
June 2, 2017: ACS Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599961/charcoal-and-charcoal-based-dentifrices-a-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
John K Brooks, Nasir Bashirelahi, Mark A Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Sales of charcoal dentifrices and powders have rapidly emerged into the Internet marketplace. The authors conducted a literature review to examine the efficacy and safety of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices. METHODS: The authors searched the MEDLINE and Scopus databases for clinical studies on the use of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices and laboratory investigations on the bioactivity or toxicity of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices, published through February 2017...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574555/condensed-phase-biogenic-anthropogenic-interactions-with-implications-for-cold-cloud-formation
#5
Joseph C Charnawskas, Peter A Alpert, Andrew T Lambe, Thomas Berkemeier, Rachel E O'Brien, Paola Massoli, Timothy B Onasch, Manabu Shiraiwa, Ryan C Moffet, Mary K Gilles, Paul Davidovits, Douglas R Worsnop, Daniel A Knopf
Anthropogenic and biogenic gas emissions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). When present, soot particles from fossil fuel combustion can acquire a coating of SOA. We investigate SOA-soot biogenic-anthropogenic interactions and their impact on ice nucleation in relation to the particles' organic phase state. SOA particles were generated from the OH oxidation of naphthalene, α-pinene, longifolene, or isoprene, with or without the presence of sulfate or soot particles. Corresponding particle glass transition (Tg) and full deliquescence relative humidity (FDRH) were estimated using a numerical diffusion model...
June 2, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567673/diesel-reformulation-using-bio-derived-propanol-to-control-toxic-emissions-from-a-light-duty-agricultural-diesel-engine
#6
Muthukkumar Thillainayagam, Krishnamoorthy Venkatesan, Rana Dipak, Saravanan Subramani, Balaji Sethuramasamyraja, Rajesh Kumar Babu
In the Indian agricultural sector, millions of diesel-driven pump-sets were used for irrigation purposes. These engines produce carcinogenic diesel particulates, toxic nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions which threaten the livelihood of large population of farmers in India. The present study investigates the use of n-propanol, a less-explored high carbon bio-alcohol that can be produced by sustainable pathways from industrial and crop wastes that has an attractive opportunity for powering stationary diesel engines meant for irrigation and rural electrification...
May 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558225/can-cf3-functionalized-la-c60-be-isolated-experimentally-and-become-superconducting
#7
Jie Guan, David Tománek
Superconducting behavior even under harsh ambient conditions is expected to occur in La@C60 if it could be isolated from the primary metallofullerene soot when functionalized by CF3 radicals. We use ab initio density functional theory calculations to compare the stability and electronic structure of C60 and the La@C60 endohedral metallofullerene to their counterparts functionalized by CF3. We found that CF3 radicals favor binding to C60 and La@C60 and have identified the most stable isomers. Structures with an even number m of radicals are energetically preferred for C60 and structures with odd m for La@C60 due to the extra charge on the fullerene...
June 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549547/a-systematic-review-on-ricochet-gunshot-injuries
#8
REVIEW
Yuw-Er Yong
Ricocheted bullets may still retain sufficient kinetic energy to cause gunshot injuries. Accordingly, this paper reviews the literature surrounding gunshot injuries caused by ricocheted bullets. In doing so, it discusses the characteristics of ricochet entrance wounds and wound tracks, noting several important considerations for assessment of a possible ricochet incident. The shapes of ricochet entrance wounds vary, ranging from round holes to elliptical, large and irregular shapes. Pseudo-stippling or pseudo-gunpowder tattooing, pseudo-soot blackening and tumbling abrasions seen on the skin surrounding the bullet hole are particularly associated with ricochet incidents...
May 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549323/investigation-of-submicron-aerosol-characteristics-in-changzhou-china-composition-source-and-comparison-with-co-collected-pm2-5
#9
Zhaolian Ye, Qing Li, Jiashu Liu, Shipeng Luo, Quanfa Zhou, Chenglu Bi, Shuaishuai Ma, Yanfang Chen, Hui Chen, Ling Li, Xinlei Ge
Mass concentrations and chemical compositions of submicron particles (PM1) collected during July 2015 to April 2016 in Changzhou, a city in the Yangtze River Delta region, were systematically investigated for the first time. Specifically, an Aerodyne soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was employed to characterize the water-soluble organic matter (WSOM). The average concentration of PM1 was 63.6 μg m(-3), occupying ∼60% of co-collected PM2.5 mass. Water soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) was the most abundant component with secondary ions (SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+)) as the dominant species...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548846/ambient-size-distributions-and-lung-deposition-of-aerosol-dithiothreitol-measured-oxidative-potential-contrast-between-soluble-and-insoluble-particles
#10
Ting Fang, Linghan Zeng, Dong Gao, Vishal Verma, Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Rodney J Weber
Ambient particulate matter may upset redox homeostasis, leading to oxidative stress and adverse health effects. Size distributions of water-insoluble and water-soluble OP(DTT) (dithiothreitol assay, measure of oxidative potential per air volume) are reported for a roadside site and an urban site. The average water-insoluble fractions were 23% and 51%, and 37% and 39%, for fine and coarse modes at the roadside and urban sites, respectively, measured during different periods. Water-soluble OP(DTT) was unimodal, peaked near 1-2...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527873/comparison-of-xenon-with-led-illuminant-in-difficult-and-inhalation-injury-airway-scenario-a-randomized-crossover-manikin-study
#11
Andreas Moritz, Johannes Prottengeier, Joachim Schmidt
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a Xenon halogen with a light-emitting diode (LED) laryngoscope light handle in a difficult airway scenario, as well as in an inhalation injury airway scenario that combines a difficult airway and a limited view. METHODS: We recruited forty-two anesthetists into a randomized crossover trial. Each performed tracheal intubation (TI) with a Xenon halogen and a LED light handle in the two manikin scenarios...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521094/critical-assessment-of-photoionization-efficiency-measurements-for-characterization-of-soot-precursor-species
#12
K Olof Johansson, Judit Zádor, Paolo Elvati, Matthew F Campbell, Paul E Schrader, Nicole K Richards-Henderson, Kevin R Wilson, Angela Violi, Hope A Michelsen
We present a critical evaluation of photoionization efficiency (PIE) measurements coupled with aerosol mass spectrometry for the identification of condensed soot-precursor species extracted from a premixed atmospheric-pressure ethylene/oxygen/nitrogen flame. Definitive identification of isomers by any means is complicated by the large number of potential isomers at masses likely to comprise particles at flame temperatures. This problem is compounded using PIE measurements by the similarity in ionization energies and PIE-curve shapes among many of these isomers...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514839/occurrence-of-brominated-dioxins-in-a-study-using-various-firefighting-methods
#13
Filip Bjurlid, Anna Kärrman, Niklas Ricklund, Jessika Hagberg
The use of different firefighting methods influences how fast a fire is extinguished and how fast the temperature drops in the area affected by the fire. These differences may also influence the formation of harmful pollutants during firefighting of an accidental fire. The aim was to study occurrence of brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in gas and soot during five fire scenarios resembling a small apartment fire and where different firefighting methods were used. Samples of gas and soot were taken both during the buildup of the fire and during the subsequent extinguishing of the fire while using different firefighting methods (nozzle, compressed air foam system, cutting extinguisher) and an extinguishing additive...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512709/influence-of-low-temperature-combustion-and-dimethyl-ether-diesel-blends-on-performance-combustion-and-emission-characteristics-of-common-rail-diesel-engine-a-cfd-study
#14
Venkatesh Tavareppa Lamani, Ajay Kumar Yadav, Kumar Gottekere Narayanappa
Due to presence of more oxygen, absence of carbon-carbon (C-C) bond in chemical structure, and high cetane number of dimethyl ether (DME), pollution from DME operated engine is less compared to diesel engine. Hence, the DME can be a promising alternative fuel for diesel engine. The present study emphasizes the effect of various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates (0-20%) and DME/Diesel blends (0-20%) on combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508863/anthropogenic-iron-oxide-aerosols-enhance-atmospheric-heating
#15
Nobuhiro Moteki, Kouji Adachi, Sho Ohata, Atsushi Yoshida, Tomoo Harigaya, Makoto Koike, Yutaka Kondo
Combustion-induced carbonaceous aerosols, particularly black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC), have been largely considered as the only significant anthropogenic contributors to shortwave atmospheric heating. Natural iron oxide (FeOx) has been recognized as an important contributor, but the potential contribution of anthropogenic FeOx is unknown. In this study, we quantify the abundance of FeOx over East Asia through aircraft measurements using a modified single-particle soot photometer. The majority of airborne FeOx particles in the continental outflows are of anthropogenic origin in the form of aggregated magnetite nanoparticles...
May 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495378/performance-of-biomorphic-silicon-carbide-as-particulate-filter-in-diesel-boilers
#16
M Pilar Orihuela, Aurora Gómez-Martín, José A Becerra, Ricardo Chacartegui, Joaquín Ramírez-Rico
Biomorphic Silicon Carbide (bioSiC) is a novel porous ceramic material with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Previous studies have demonstrated that it may be a good candidate for its use as particle filter media of exhaust gases at medium or high temperature. In order to determine the filtration efficiency of biomorphic Silicon Carbide, and its adequacy as substrate for diesel particulate filters, different bioSiC-samples have been tested in the flue gases of a diesel boiler. For this purpose, an experimental facility to extract a fraction of the boiler exhaust flow and filter it under controlled conditions has been designed and built...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443610/ordered-micro-macro-porous-k-oms-2-sio2-nanocatalysts-facile-synthesis-low-cost-and-high-catalytic-activity-for-diesel-soot-combustion
#17
Xuehua Yu, Zhen Zhao, Yuechang Wei, Jian Liu
A series of novel oxide catalysts, which contain three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) and microporous structure, were firstly designed and successfully synthesized by simple method. In the as-prepared catalysts, 3DOM SiO2 is used as support and microporous K-OMS-2 oxide nanoparticles are supported on the wall of SiO2. 3DOM K-OMS-2/SiO2 oxide catalysts were firstly used in soot particle oxidation reaction and they show very high catalytic activities. The high activities of K-OMS-2/SiO2 oxide catalysts can be assigned to three possible reasons: macroporous effect of 3DOM structure for improving contact between soot and catalyst, microporous effect of K-OMS-2 for adsorption of small gas molecules and interaction of K and Mn for activation of gas molecules...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436524/tio2-and-cu1-5mn1-5o4-co-modified-hierarchically-porous-zeolite-beta-for-soot-oxidation-with-excellent-sulfur-resistance-and-stability
#18
X X Zhou, H Zhao, W M Huang, H R Chen, J L Shi
TiO2 and spinel Cu1.5Mn1.5O4 co-modified hierarchically porous zeolite Beta (Ti/Cu1.5Mn1.5O4-HBeta) with 3D interpenetrating micro-mesoporosity has been synthesized, which showed highly efficient catalytic activity to the soot oxidation in the presence of O2/NO/N2 due to the rich moderate intensity acidic sites and chemisorbed oxygen species. In the presence of SO2/O2/NO/N2, the SO2 could be preferentially adsorbed on the Ti/Cu1.5Mn1.5O4-HBeta and the resulting sulfates could easily decompose at elevated temperatures, thus leading to significantly improved sulfur-resistance...
May 9, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426195/one-step-fabrication-of-non-fluorinated-transparent-super-repellent-surfaces-with-tunable-wettability-functioning-in-both-air-and-oil
#19
Mengying Long, Shan Peng, Xiaojun Yang, Wanshun Deng, Ni Wen, Kai Miao, Gongyun Chen, Xinrui Miao, Wenli Deng
In this paper, we have developed a one-step thermal treatment of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) liquid to create transparent super-repellent surface (TSS) and super-repellent powder. They are super-repellent toward water and ethylene glycol. During the one-step thermal treatment, PDMS soot is generated and deposited onto a glass slide (GS) surface to fabricate the TSS without fluorosilane modification. The facilely obtained TSS presented superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning property when immersed into very low surface tension oils such as petroleum ether, hexadecane, peanut oil, and dodecane...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417138/long-term-exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-and-traffic-noise-and-incident-hypertension-in-seven-cohorts-of-the-european-study-of-cohorts-for-air-pollution-effects-escape
#20
Kateryna B Fuks, Gudrun Weinmayr, Xavier Basagaña, Olena Gruzieva, Regina Hampel, Bente Oftedal, Mette Sørensen, Kathrin Wolf, Geir Aamodt, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Inmaculada Aguilera, Thomas Becker, Rob Beelen, Bert Brunekreef, Barbara Caracciolo, Josef Cyrys, Roberto Elosua, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Maria Foraster, Laura Fratiglioni, Agneta Hilding, Danny Houthuijs, Michal Korek, Nino Künzli, Jaume Marrugat, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Claes-Göran Östenson, Johanna Penell, Göran Pershagen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Wim J R Swart, Annette Peters, Barbara Hoffmann
Aims: We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. Methods and results: We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression...
April 1, 2017: European Heart Journal
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