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Kun Bu, Zhen-Zhen Li, Jian-Tao Wang
We identify by ab initio calculations a new simple cubic carbon phase in Pa3¯ symmetry, which has a 48-atom unit cell in all-sp(3) bonding networks, thus termed SC48 carbon. It can be viewed as a crystalline form of C12 clusters or a combined structure of SC24 and BC12 carbon, but it is energetically more stable than the recently reported cubic carbon phases such as BC8, SC24, BC12, and fcc-C12. The structural stability is verified by phonon mode analysis. Electronic band and density of state calculations reveal that SC48 carbon is an insulator with a large direct band gap of 4...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Hongjian Zhu, Jing Xu, Yuge Yichuan, Zhongpeng Wang, Yibo Gao, Wei Liu, Henan Yin
Mesoporous ceria and transition metal-doped ceria (M0.1Ce0.9O2 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu)) catalysts were synthesized via CTAB-assisted method. The physicochemical properties of the prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, DLS analysis, SEM, BET, Raman, H2-TPR and in situ DRIFT techniques. The catalytic activity tests for soot oxidation were performed under tight contact of soot/catalyst mixtures in the presence of O2 and NO+O2, respectively. The obtained results show that mesoporous ceria-based solid solutions can be formed with large surface areas and small crystallite size...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Talal F Qahtan, Mohammed A Gondal, Ibrahim O Alade, Mohammed A Dastageer
A facile synthesis method for highly stable carbon nanoparticle (CNP) dispersion in acetone by incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame is presented. The synthesized CNP dispersion is the mixture of graphitic and amorphous carbon nanoparticles of the size range of 20-50 nm and manifested the mesoporosity with an average pore size of 7 nm and a BET surface area of 366 m(2)g(-1). As an application of this material, the carbon nanoparticle dispersion was spray coated (spray-based coating) on a glass surface to fabricate superhydrophobic (water contact angle > 150° and sliding angle < 10 °) surfaces...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Senlin Lu, Zhengying Tan, Pinwei Liu, Hui Zhao, Dingyu Liu, Shang Yu, Ping Cheng, Myat Sandar Win, Jiwen Hu, Linwei Tian, Minghong Wu, Shinich Yonemochi, Qingyue Wang
Coal combustion particles (CCPs) are linked to the high incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei and in Fuyuan, China, but studies on the chemical composition of the CCPs are still limited. Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was recently developed to measure the chemical composition and size of single particles in real-time. In this study, SPAMS was used to measure individual combustion particles emitted from Xuanwei and Fuyuan coal samples and the results were compared with those by ICP-MS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
August 1, 2017: Chemosphere
Andriy A Konchits, Bela D Shanina, Serhii V Krasnovyd, Alexander I Burya, Olga Yu Kuznetsova
The evolution of paramagnetic properties of the fullerene soot (FS), fullerene black (FB), and their polymer composites Phenylon C-2/FS, FB has been studied using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method. For the first time, a drastic growth of the EPR signals in the FB, FS, and composite samples was observed under pumping out at temperatures T = 20 ÷ 300 °C, which is attributed to the interaction between carbon defects and adsorbed gas molecules, mainly oxygen.It is shown that the ensemble of paramagnetic centers in the FB, FS, and the composite is heterogeneous...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Yasuhito Suzuki, Fujio Ishizawa, Katsuya Honda
BACKGROUND: Various autopsy findings are used for the diagnosis of burning death, including inhalation injury, soot in the respiratory tract, vital reaction, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and blood cyanide. However, not all findings are necessarily complete, and autopsy diagnosis can be difficult in cases where there are few findings. In this study, we analyzed combustion-derived volatile substances (CVSs) in post-mortem blood in fire-related cases, focusing on those that occur when buildings and furniture thermally decompose during a fire, and evaluated these as potential new autopsy findings...
July 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
Marie Pedersen, Massimo Stafoggia, Gudrun Weinmayr, Zorana J Andersen, Claudia Galassi, Johan Sommar, Bertil Forsberg, David Olsson, Bente Oftedal, Norun H Krog, Geir Aamodt, Andrei Pyko, Göran Pershagen, Michal Korek, Ulf De Faire, Nancy L Pedersen, Claes-Göran Östenson, Laura Fratiglioni, Mette Sørensen, Kirsten T Eriksen, Anne Tjønneland, Petra H Peeters, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Roel Vermeulen, Marloes Eeftens, Michelle Plusquin, Timothy J Key, Andrea Jaensch, Gabriele Nagel, Hans Concin, Meng Wang, Ming-Yi Tsai, Sara Grioni, Alessandro Marcon, Vittorio Krogh, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta Sacerdote, Andrea Ranzi, Giulia Cesaroni, Francesco Forastiere, Ibon Tamayo, Pilar Amiano, Miren Dorronsoro, Leslie T Stayner, Manolis Kogevinas, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Ranjeet Sokhi, Kees de Hoogh, Rob Beelen, Paolo Vineis, Bert Brunekreef, Gerard Hoek, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution contains low concentrations of carcinogens implicated in the etiology of urinary bladder cancer (BC). Little is known about whether exposure to air pollution influences BC in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and BC incidence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We obtained data from 15 population-based cohorts enrolled between 1985 and 2005 in eight European countries (N=303431; mean follow-up 14...
November 26, 2016: European Urology Focus
J J Pignatello, William A Mitch, Wenqing Xu
Pyrogenic carbonaceous matter (PCM) includes environmental black carbon (fossil fuel soot, biomass char), engineered carbons (biochar, activated carbon), and related materials like graphene and nanotubes. These materials contact organic pollutants due to their widespread presence in the environment or through their use in various engineering applications. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of adsorption and chemical reactions mediated by PCM and the links between these processes. It also covers adsorptive processes previously receiving little attention and ignored in models such as steric constraints, physicochemical effects of confinement in nanopores, π interactions of aromatic compounds with polyaromatic surfaces, and very strong hydrogen bonding of ionizable compounds with surface functional groups...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Chong Han, Yongchun Liu, Hong He
The influences of relative humidity (RH) on the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with soot were investigated by a coated wall flow tube reactor at ambient pressure. The initial uptake coefficient (γ initial) of NO2 showed a significant decrease with increasing RH from 7 to 70%. The γ initial on "fuel-rich" and "fuel-lean" soot at RH = 7% was (2.59 ± 0.20) × 10(-5) and (5.92 ± 0.34) × 10(-6), respectively, and it decreased to (5.49 ± 0.83) × 10(-6) and (7.16 ± 0.73) × 10(-7) at RH = 70%, respectively...
July 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Weiwei He, Yuan Wang, Jian Zuo, Yincheng Luo
To investigate the driving forces of air pollution in China, the changes in linkages amongst inter-industrial air pollutant emissions were analyzed by hypothetical extraction method under the input-output framework. Results showed that the emissions of SO2, soot and dust from industrial sources increased by 56.46%, 36.95% and 11.69% respectively in 2010, compared with 2002. As major contributors to emissions, the power and gas sectors were responsible for the growing SO2 emissions, the nonmetal products sector for soot emissions, and the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors for dust emissions...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Miaolei Ya, Xinhong Wang, Yuling Wu, Yongyu Li, Jingming Yan, Chao Fang, Yanyan Zhao, Ranran Qian, Xiaolong Lin
To study the spatial distributions and seasonal differences of concentrations, source identification, and phase partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface water, intensive sampling was carried out along the marginal seas of China in four seasons. In the northern South China Sea (SCS), the highest PAH levels occurred in the summer (July to August) and autumn (October to November). In the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea, the highest occurred in the summer (August) and winter (December)...
August 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Rituraj Niranjan, Ashwani Kumar Thakur
The environmental soot and carbon blacks (CBs) cause many diseases in humans, but their underlying mechanisms of toxicity are still poorly understood. Both are formed after the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons but differ in their constituents and percent carbon contents. For the first time, "Sir Percival Pott" described soot as a carcinogen, which was subsequently confirmed by many others. The existing data suggest three main types of diseases due to soot and CB exposures: cancer, respiratory diseases, and cardiovascular dysfunctions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Agnes Jocher, Heinz Pitsch, Thomas Gomez, Jérôme Bonnety, Guillaume Legros
The present interdisciplinary study combines electromagnetics and combustion to unveil an original and basic experiment displaying a spontaneous flame instability that is mitigated as the non-premixed sooting flame experiences a magnetic perturbation. This magnetic instability mitigation is reproduced by direct numerical simulations to be further elucidated by a flow stability analysis. A key role in the stabilization process is attributed to the momentum and thermochemistry coupling that the magnetic force, acting mainly on paramagnetic oxygen, contributes to sustain...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
A Comandini, S Abid, N Chaumeix
The recent theoretical and experimental investigations on the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pyrolytic environments highlight the possible role of the 1,4-cycloaddition/fragmentation (1,4-CAF) steps in the formation of PAH intermediates and consequently soot. The present theoretical study explores the possibility to generalize such mechanism to reactions involving various diradical compounds and stable multiring structures. The calculations were performed using the uB3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method and different composite methods, when possible, for more accurate energy estimates...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Sourab Sinha, Ramees K Rahman, Abhijeet Raj
Resonantly stabilized radicals, such as propargyl, cyclopentadienyl, benzyl, and indenyl, play a vital role in the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are soot precursors in engines and flames. Pyrene is considered to be an important PAH, as it is thought to nucleate soot particles, but its formation pathways are not well known. This paper presents a reaction mechanism for the formation of four-ring aromatics, pyrene and fluoranthene, through the combination of benzyl and indenyl radicals...
July 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lei Liu, Shaofei Kong, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Liang Xu, Qin Yan, A P Lingaswamy, Zongbo Shi, Senlin Lv, Hongya Niu, Longyi Shao, Min Hu, Daizhou Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Xiaoye Zhang, Weijun Li
Morphology, composition, and mixing state of individual particles emitted from crop residue, wood, and solid waste combustion in a residential stove were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study showed that particles from crop residue and apple wood combustion were mainly organic matter (OM) in smoldering phase, whereas soot-OM internally mixed with K in flaming phase. Wild grass combustion in flaming phase released some Cl-rich-OM/soot particles and cardboard combustion released OM and S-rich particles...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Qianhui Wei, Yu Zhu, Shouliang Liu, Yongjie Gao, Xiaolong Li, Mi Shi, Xueji Zhang, Meiqin Zhang
We demonstrate a facile method termed candle soot coating (CSC) for fast developing latent fingermarks (LFMs) on various kinds of surfaces (glass, ceramic, metal, paper and adhesive tape). The CSC method can be considered as simple, fast, and low-cost as well as providing high contrast for LFM visualization in potential forensic applications.
July 11, 2017: Sensors
Cary Presser, Ashot Nazarian, Joseph M Conny, Duli Chand, Arthur Sedlacek, John M Hubbe
Absorptivity measurements with a laser-heating approach, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR), were carried out in the infrared and applied at ambient (laboratory) non-reacting conditions to particle-laden filters from a three-wavelength (visible) particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP). The particles were obtained during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field campaign. The focus of this study was to determine the particle absorption coefficient from field-campaign filter samples using the LDTR approach, and compare results with other commercially available instrumentation (in this case with the PSAP, which has been compared with numerous other optical techniques)...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
Aijing Ma, Liu Gu, Yingming Zhu, Ming Meng, Jianzhou Gui, Yifu Yu, Bin Zhang
We propose a facile and versatile strategy for the fabrication of a hierarchically crossed metal oxide nanosheet array on a monolithic FeOx substrate. This strategy can also be extended to synthesize a composite metal oxide nanosheet array, in which the composition can be easily modulated. The as-obtained hierarchically crossed metal oxide nanosheet array exhibited high catalytic activities for diesel soot elimination owing to the enhanced contact efficiency between soot particulates and macroporous catalysts...
July 27, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Zilan Wu, Tian Lin, Zhongxia Li, Yuqing Jiang, Yuanyuan Li, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, Zhigang Guo
We measured 15 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmosphere and water during a research cruise from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) in the spring of 2015 to investigate the occurrence, air-sea gas exchange, and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs with a particular focus on the influence of East Asian continental outflow. The gaseous PAH composition and identification of sources were consistent with PAHs from the upwind area, indicating that the gaseous PAHs (three-to five-ring PAHs) were influenced by upwind land pollution...
July 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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