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Pourya Shahpoury, Gerhard Lammel, Alexandre Albinet, Aysun Sofuoglu, Yetkin Dumanoglu, Sait C Sofuoglu, Zdenek Wagner, Vladimir Zdimal
A model for gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships (ppLFERs) following a multiphase aerosol scenario. The model differentiates between various organic (i.e. liquid water soluble (WS)/organic soluble (OS) organic matter (OM) and solid/semi-solid organic polymers) and inorganic phases of the particulate matter (PM). Dimethyl sulfoxide and polyurethane were assigned as surrogates to simulate absorption into the abovementioned organic phases, respectively, whereas soot, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride simulated adsorption processes onto PM...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Maria Muñoz, Norbert V Heeb, Regula Haag, Peter Honegger, Kerstin Zeyer, Joachim Mohn, Pierre Comte, Jan Czerwinski
Bioethanol as an alternative fuel is widely used as a substitute for gasoline, also in gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles, which are quickly replacing traditional port-fuel injection (PFI) vehicles. Better fuel efficiency and increased engine power are reported advantages of GDI-vehicles. But increased emissions of soot-like nanoparticles are also associated with the GDI-technology with yet unknown health impact. In this study, we compare emissions of a flex-fuel Euro-5 GDI-vehicle operated with gasoline (E0) and two ethanol/gasoline blends (E10 and E85) under transient and steady driving conditions and report effects on particle, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), alkyl- and nitro-PAH emissions and assess the genotoxic potential of them...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
P Naresh Kumar, Ankita Kolay, S Krishna Kumar, Prabir Patra, Ashish Aphale, Avanish Kumar Srivastava, Melepurath Deepa
The counter electrode (CE), despite being as relevant as the photoanode in a quantum dot solar cell (QDSC), has hardly received the scientific attention it deserves. In this study, nine CEs (single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), tungsten oxide (WO3), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), copper sulfide (Cu2S), candle soot, functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNTs), reduced tungsten oxide (WO3-x), carbon fabric (C-Fabric), and C-Fabric/WO3-x) were prepared by using low-cost components and facile procedures...
October 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
A Bauer
The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population...
September 28, 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Gustavo Sousa, Geoffrey Gaulier, Luigi Bonacina, Jean-Pierre Wolf
The optical identification of bioaerosols in the atmosphere and its discrimination against combustion related particles is a major issue for real-time, field compatible instruments. In the present paper, we show that by embedding advanced pump-probe depletion spectroscopy schemes in a portable instrument, it is possible to discriminate amino acid containing airborne particles (bacteria, humic particles, etc.) from poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon containing combustion particles (Diesel droplets, soot, vehicle exhausts) with high selectivity...
2016: Scientific Reports
Stephen M Roberts, John W Munson, Michael V Ruby, Yvette Lowney
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of soil composition, PAH concentration, and source material type on PAH bioavailability using an approach capable of measuring uptake at low, environmentally relevant PAH concentrations (down to 1 ppm). Contaminated soil samples were constructed using PAHs from three source materials-solvent, soot, and fuel oil-to which (3)H-benzo(a)pyrene ((3)H-BaP; total BaP concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ppm) was added in a mixture of PAHs. The soils were weathered for 8 weeks using weekly wet-dry cycles...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
H A Calderon, A Okonkwo, I Estrada-Guel, V G Hadjiev, F Alvarez-Ramírez, F C Robles Hernández
We present experimental evidence under low-dose conditions transmission electron microscopy for the unfolding of the evolving changes in carbon soot during mechanical milling. The milled soot shows evolving changes as a function of the milling severity or time. Those changes are responsible for the transformation from amorphous carbon to graphenes, graphitic carbon, and highly ordered structures such as morphed graphenes, namely Rh6 and Rh6-II. The morphed graphenes are corrugated layers of carbon with cross-linked covalently nature and sp(2)- or sp(3)-type allotropes...
2017: Adv Struct Chem Imaging
Guo-Liang Shi, Xing Peng, Jia-Yuan Liu, Ying-Ze Tian, Dan-Lin Song, Hao-Fei Yu, Yin-Chang Feng, Armistead G Russell
Ambient fine particulate matter samples were collected during 2009-2013 in Chengdu, a megacity in western China, and the samples were speciated into organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), char-EC, soot-EC, eight carbon fractions, inorganic elements and water-soluble ions. Char-EC and soot-EC contribute to the better understanding of the sources and properties of EC. The highest levels of most carbon fractions were found in winter and May. The higher OC/EC ratio in winter suggests higher SOC fraction in winter, and higher char-EC/soot-EC ratio in May are the direct consequences of straw burning activities...
September 8, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Jenny N Poynter, Michaela Richardson, Michelle Roesler, Cindy K Blair, Betsy Hirsch, Phuong Nguyen, Adina Cioc, James R Cerhan, Erica Warlick
Benzene exposure is one of the few well-established risk factors for myeloid malignancy. Exposure to other chemicals has been inconsistently associated with hematologic malignancies. We evaluated occupational and residential chemical exposures as risk factors for AML and MDS using population-based data. AML and MDS cases were identified by the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System. Controls were identified through the Minnesota driver's license/identification card list. Chemical exposures were measured by self-report...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Chia-Hsiang Chen, Laura Abella, Maira R Cerón, Miguel A Guerrero-Ayala, Antonio Rodríguez-Fortea, Marilyn M Olmstead, Xian B Powers, Alan L Balch, Josep M Poblet, Luis Echegoyen
A non-isolated pentagon rule metallic carbide clusterfullerene containing a heptagonal ring, Sc2C2@Cs(hept)-C88, was isolated from the raw soot obtained by electric arc vaporization of graphite rods packed with Sc2O3 and graphite powder under a helium atmosphere. The Sc2C2@Cs(hept)-C88 was purified by multistage high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), cocrystallized with Ni-(octaethylporphyrin), and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The diffraction data revealed a zigzag Sc2C2 unit inside an unprecedented Cs(hept)-C88 carbon cage containing 13 pentagons, 32 hexagons, and 1 heptagon...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Pannan Isa Kyesmen, Audu Onoja, Alexander Nwabueze Amah
The two main electrode techniques for fullerenes production; the direct arc technique and the resistive heating of graphite rod were employed in this work. One of the electrodes was resistively heated to high temperature and subjected to arc discharge along its length by the second graphite rod. Fullerenes solid were extracted from carbon soot samples collected from an installed arc discharge system using the solvent extraction method. The fullerenes solid obtained from carbon soot collected for 2 min of arc discharge run when one of the electrodes was resistively heated at different voltages all gave higher yields (maximum of 67 % higher, at 150 A arc current and 200 Torr chamber pressure) compared to when no resistive heating was carried out...
2016: SpringerPlus
Chong Han, Yongchun Liu, Hong He
The atmospheric aging of soot can significantly modify its composition and microstructure, likely leading to changes in its effects on climate and health. The photochemical aging process of soot by O3 under simulated sunlight was investigated using in situ attenuated total internal reflection infrared spectroscopy. Simulated sunlight could markedly enhance the aging of soot by O3, which produced various oxygen containing species such as lactones, anhydrides, ketones and aldehydes. Elemental carbon (EC) showed minor reactivity toward O3...
September 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yanyan Zhang, Joseph J Pignatello, Shu Tao
Ingestion of soot present in soil or other environmental particles is expected to be an important route of exposure to nitro and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We measured the apparent bioaccessibility (Bapp) of native concentrations of 1-nitropyrene (1N-PYR), 9-fluorenone (9FLO), anthracene-9,10-dione (ATQ), benzo[a]anthracene-7,12-dione (BaAQ), and benzanthrone (BZO) in a composite fuel soot sample using a previously-developed in vitro human gastrointestinal model that includes silicone sheet as a third-phase absorptive sink...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Jin-Fu Guan, Jun Fang, Yan Xue, Jing-Wu Wang, Jin-Jun Wang, Yong-Ming Zhang
The production of smoke particles from the jet bursting flame caused by overheating fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) wire insulations was investigated. Experiments examining the morphology and volume fraction of the fractal smoke particle aggregates with forced airflow were conducted in a 3.5s drop tower. Gravity level and forced flow were shown to have significant hydrodynamic effects on the pathlines and fractal aggregation of the smoke particles, thus the residence time-dependent flame shape, particle size and concentration have obvious changes...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Huahua Xiao, Michael J Gollner, Elaine S Oran
Fire whirls are powerful, spinning disasters for people and surroundings when they occur in large urban and wildland fires. Whereas fire whirls have been studied for fire-safety applications, previous research has yet to harness their potential burning efficiency for enhanced combustion. This article presents laboratory studies of fire whirls initiated as pool fires, but where the fuel sits on a water surface, suggesting the idea of exploiting the high efficiency of fire whirls for oil-spill remediation. We show the transition from a pool fire, to a fire whirl, and then to a previously unobserved state, a "blue whirl...
August 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hongya Niu, Wei Hu, Daizhou Zhang, Zhijun Wu, Song Guo, Wei Pian, Wenjing Cheng, Min Hu
Chemical composition, morphology, size and mixture of fine particles were measured in a heavy haze and the post-haze air in Beijing in January 2012. With the occurrence of haze, the concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants including organics, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium grew gradually. The hourly averaged PM2.5 concentration increased from 118μgm(-3) to 402μgm(-3) within 12h. In contrast, it was less than 10μgm(-3) in the post-haze air. Occupying approximately 46% in mass, organics were the major component of PM1 in both the haze and post-haze air...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
C Schyma, K Bauer, J Brünig, N Schwendener, R Müller
The powder pocket or soot cavity is a morphologic characteristic of a close contact shot. In a research project concerning staining inside the barrel, the influence of the powder pocket on these traces was investigated.According to the 'triple contrast method', thin pads containing a mixture of acrylic paint, radiocontrast agent and blood were glued on plastic boxes which were coated with a 3-4-mm-thick silicone layer. The containers filled with 10 % ballistic gelatine, were stored for at least 60 h at 4 °C...
July 28, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Jorrit L Opstelten, Rob M J Beelen, Max Leenders, Gerard Hoek, Bert Brunekreef, Fiona D M van Schaik, Peter D Siersema, Kirsten T Eriksen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Franck Carbonnel, Kees de Hoogh, Timothy J Key, Robert Luben, Simon S M Chan, Andrew R Hart, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas Oldenburg
BACKGROUND: Industrialization has been linked to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM: We investigated the association between air pollution exposure and IBD. METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort was used to identify cases with Crohn's disease (CD) (n = 38) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 104) and controls (n = 568) from Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the UK, matched for center, gender, age, and date of recruitment...
October 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Lars Schmüser, Noemi Encinas, Maxime Paven, Daniel J Graham, David G Castner, Doris Vollmer, Hans Jürgen Butt, Tobias Weidner
Super nonfouling surfaces resist protein adhesion and have a broad field of possible applications in implant technology, drug delivery, blood compatible materials, biosensors, and marine coatings. A promising route toward nonfouling surfaces involves liquid repelling architectures. The authors here show that soot-templated super-amphiphobic (SAP) surfaces prepared from fluorinated candle soot structures are super nonfouling. When exposed to bovine serum albumin or blood serum, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis showed that less than 2 ng/cm(2) of protein was adsorbed onto the SAP surfaces...
2016: Biointerphases
Kunio Kaiho, Naga Oshima, Kouji Adachi, Yukimasa Adachi, Takuya Mizukami, Megumu Fujibayashi, Ryosuke Saito
The mass extinction of life 66 million years ago at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary, marked by the extinctions of dinosaurs and shallow marine organisms, is important because it led to the macroevolution of mammals and appearance of humans. The current hypothesis for the extinction is that an asteroid impact in present-day Mexico formed condensed aerosols in the stratosphere, which caused the cessation of photosynthesis and global near-freezing conditions. Here, we show that the stratospheric aerosols did not induce darkness that resulted in milder cooling than previously thought...
2016: Scientific Reports
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