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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223692/human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-pbmcs-from-smokers-release-higher-levels-of-il-1-like-cytokines-after-exposure-to-combustion-generated-ultrafine-particles
#1
Gianluigi De Falco, Michela Terlizzi, Mariano Sirignano, Mario Commodo, Andrea D'Anna, Rita P Aquino, Aldo Pinto, Rosalinda Sorrentino
Ultrafine particles (UFP) generated by combustion processes are often associated with adverse health effects. However, little is known about the inflammatory processes generated by UFP that may underlie their toxicological activity. Murine macrophages (J774.1 cells) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to evaluate the molecular mechanism underlying the pro-inflammatory activity of UFP. The addition of soot particles to J774.1 cells induced a concentration-dependent release of IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-33 This effect was not associated with cell death and, in contrast to literature, was pronounced at very low concentrations (5-100 pg/ml)...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218700/comparative-study-of-different-methods-for-soot-sensing-and-filter-monitoring-in-diesel-exhausts
#2
Markus Feulner, Gunter Hagen, Kathrin Hottner, Sabrina Redel, Andreas Müller, Ralf Moos
Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this study, different approaches for soot sensing are compared...
February 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215071/chemical-and-equipment-free-strategy-to-fabricate-water-oil-separating-materials-for-emergent-oil-spill-accidents
#3
Guannan Ju, Jing Liu, Donglin Li, Mengjiao Cheng, Feng Shi
Oil spill accidents normally have two important features when considering practical clean-up strategies: (1) unexpected occurrence in any situations possibly without specific equipment and chemicals; (2) emergency to be cleaned to minimize the influences on ecosystems. To address these two practical problems regarding removal of spilt oil, we have proposed an in situ, rapid and facile candle-soot strategy to fabricate water/oil separating materials based on superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity. The one-step fabrication method is independent on any chemicals or equipment and can be ready for use through short smoking processes within 5 min by using raw materials available in daily life such as textiles...
February 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198887/femtosecond-two-photon-planar-laser-induced-fluorescence-of-carbon-monoxide-in-flames
#4
Daniel R Richardson, Sukesh Roy, James R Gord
Two-photon, planar laser-induced fluorescence (TP-PLIF) of carbon monoxide was performed in steady and driven flames using femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at 1 kHz. Excitation radiation at 230.1 nm (full-width at half-maximum bandwidth of 270  cm<sup>-1</sup>) was used to pump many rovibrational two-photon transitions in the B<sup>1</sup>∑<sup>+</sup>←X<sup>1</sup>∑<sup>+</sup> system. Visible fluorescence in the range 362-516 nm was captured using an image intensifier and high-speed camera...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157284/mechanisms-of-increased-particle-and-voc-emissions-during-dpf-active-regeneration-and-practical-emissions-considering-regeneration
#5
Hiroyuki Yamada, Satoshi Inomata, Hiroshi Tanimoto
Mechanisms involved in increased particle and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during active and parked active regenerations of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were investigated using heavy-duty trucks equipped with both a urea selective catalytic reduction system and a DPF (SCR + DPF) and a DPF-only. Particle emissions increased in the later part of the regeneration period but the mechanisms were different above and below 23 nm. Particles above 23 nm were emitted due to the lower filtering efficiency of the DPF because of the decreasing amount of soot trapped during regeneration...
February 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135408/a-copper-based-supramolecular-nanocapsule-that-enables-straightforward-purification-of-sc3-n-based-endohedral-metallofullerene-soots
#6
Carles Fuertes-Espinosa, Cristina García-Simón, Edison Castro, Miquel Costas, Luis Echegoyen, Xavi Ribas
A self-assembled Cu(II) -based nanocapsule enables efficient and straightforward isolation of Sc3 N@C80 from arc-processed raw soot. The newly designed Cu(II) -based supramolecular nanocapsule 5⋅(OTf)8 was used to effectively entrap fullerenes and endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) with different affinities depending on their size and shape. Moreover, we took advantage of the sharply different entrapment abilities of the 5⋅(OTf)8 cage in the solid state versus in solution to encapsulate all the species with the exception of Sc3 N@C80 (both Ih and D5h isomers), which remains pure in solution...
January 30, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116624/chemical-characterization-of-diesel-and-hydrotreated-vegetable-oil-hvo-soot-after-reactive-gas-probing-using-diffuse-reflectance-ftir-spectroscopy-drifts
#7
A Tapia, M S Salgado, M P Martín, J Rodríguez-Fernández, M J Rossi, B Cabañas
A chemical characterization of diesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) soot has been developed using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) before and after the reaction with different probe gases. Samples were generated under combustion conditions corresponding to an urban operation mode of a diesel engine and were reacted with probe gas-phase molecules in a Knudsen flow reactor. Specifically, NH2OH, O3 and NO2 were used as reactants (probes) and selected according to their reactivities towards specific functional groups on the sample surface...
January 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107740/ambient-air-pollution-and-primary-liver-cancer-incidence-in-four-european-cohorts-within-the-escape-project
#8
Marie Pedersen, Zorana J Andersen, Massimo Stafoggia, Gudrun Weinmayr, Claudia Galassi, Mette Sørensen, Kirsten T Eriksen, Anne Tjønneland, Steffen Loft, Andrea Jaensch, Gabriele Nagel, Hans Concin, Ming-Yi Tsai, Sara Grioni, Alessandro Marcon, Vittorio Krogh, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta Sacerdote, Andrea Ranzi, Ranjeet Sokhi, Roel Vermeulen, Kees de Hoogh, Meng Wang, Rob Beelen, Paolo Vineis, Bert Brunekreef, Gerard Hoek, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence. METHODS: We obtained data from four cohorts with enrolment during 1985-2005 in Denmark, Austria and Italy. Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX), particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10µm (PM10), less than 2...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090765/aggregation-kinetics-of-diesel-soot-nanoparticles-in-wet-environments
#9
Chengyu Chen, Weilin Huang
Soot produced during incomplete combustion consists mainly of carbonaceous nanoparticles (NPs) with severe adverse environmental and health effects, and its environmental fate and transport are largely controlled by aggregation. In this study, we examined the aggregation behavior for diesel soot NPs under aqueous condition in an effort to elucidate the fundamental processes that govern soot particle-particle interactions in wet environments such as rain droplets or surface aquatic systems. The influence of electrolytes and aqueous pH on colloidal stability of these NPs was investigated by measuring their aggregation kinetics in different aqueous solution chemistries...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088011/particulates-and-noise-exposure-during-bicycle-bus-and-car-commuting-a-study-in-three-european-cities
#10
Enembe O Okokon, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Anu W Turunen, Pekka Taimisto, Arto Pennanen, Ilias Vouitsis, Zissis Samaras, Marita Voogt, Menno Keuken, Timo Lanki
BACKGROUND: In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. METHODS: We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079987/body-centered-tetragonal-c16-a-novel-topological-node-line-semimetallic-carbon-composed-of-tetrarings
#11
Yong Cheng, Xing Feng, Xiaoting Cao, Bin Wen, Qian Wang, Yoshiyuki Kawazoe, Puru Jena
The present work not only predicts the existence of 3D topological semimetallic carbon allotropes composed of tetrarings, but also provides a likely crystalline structure for the unknown phase produced in the detonation soot.
January 12, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079220/facile-pentagon-formation-in-the-dissociation-of-polyaromatics
#12
Arjen J de Haas, Jos Oomens, Jordy Bouwman
Energetic processing of gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) plays a pivotal role in the chemistries of inter- and circumstellar environments, certain planetary atmospheres, and also in the chemistry of combustion and soot formation. Although the precursor PAH species have been extensively characterized, the products from these gaseous breakdown reactions have received far less attention. It has been particularly challenging to accurately determine their molecular structure in gas-phase experiments, where comparisons against theoretical modeling are best made...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078345/comparison-between-the-optical-properties-of-aerosols-in-the-fine-and-coarse-fractions-over-valladolid-spain
#13
S Mogo, J F López, V E Cachorro, A de Frutos, R Zocca, A Barroso, D Mateos, E Conceição
Continuous measurements of the optical properties of aerosol particles have been made at Valladolid, Spain, covering the period from June 2011 to July 2012. The measurements were made at two size cuts: sub-10 μm and sub-1 μm (PM10 and PM1). The data measured were the scattering and backscattering coefficients, σs and σbs, obtained from an integrating nephelometer, and the absorption coefficient, σa, obtained from a particle soot absorption photometer. Spectrally resolved data were obtained from both instruments at 3 wavelengths (blue/green/red) at low relative humidity (RH < 40%)...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071885/transparent-superhydrophobic-surface-with-varied-surface-tension-responsiveness-in-wettability-based-on-tunable-porous-silica-structure-for-gauging-liquid-surface-tension
#14
Yan Wang, Yingjie Zhu, Chunyang Zhang, Jun Li, Zisheng Guan
Any solid surface can spontaneously exhibit variational wettability toward liquids with varied surface tension (γ). However, this correspondence has seldom been proposed or used on an artificial superhydrophobic surface, which should be more remarkable and peculiar. Herein, we fabricated robust, transparent superhydrophobic surfaces utilizing acid- and base-catalyzed silica (AC- and BC-silica) particles combined with candle soot template for structural construction and the CVD process for chemical modification...
February 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066694/ice-residual-properties-in-mixed-phase-clouds-at-the-high-alpine-jungfraujoch-site
#15
Piotr Kupiszewski, Marco Zanatta, Stephan Mertes, Paul Vochezer, Gary Lloyd, Johannes Schneider, Ludwig Schenk, Martin Schnaiter, Urs Baltensperger, Ernest Weingartner, Martin Gysel
Ice residual (IR) and total aerosol properties were measured in mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) at the high-alpine Jungfraujoch research station. Black carbon (BC) content and coating thickness of BC-containing particles were determined using single-particle soot photometers. The ice activated fraction (IAF), derived from a comparison of IR and total aerosol particle size distributions, showed an enrichment of large particles in the IR, with an increase in the IAF from values on the order of 10(-4) to 10(-3) for 100 nm (diameter) particles to 0...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066131/application-of-blue-laser-triangulation-sensors-for-displacement-measurement-through-fire
#16
Matthew S Hoehler, Christopher M Smith
This paper explores the use of blue laser triangulation sensors to measure displacement of a target located behind or in the close proximity of natural gas diffusion flames. This measurement is critical for providing high-quality data in structural fire tests. The position of the laser relative to the flame envelope can significantly affect the measurement scatter, but has little influence on the mean values. We observe that the measurement scatter is normally distributed and increases linearly with the distance of the target from the flame along the beam path...
November 2016: Measurement Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066027/light-source-effects-on-aerosol-photoacoustic-spectroscopy-measurements
#17
James G Radney, Christopher D Zangmeister
Photoacoustic spectroscopy measurements of flame-generated soot aerosol coated with small amounts of water yielded absorption enhancements that were dependent on the laser used: quasi-continuous wave (Q-CW, ≈ 650 ps pulse duration and 78 MHz repetition rate) versus continuous wave (CW). Water coating thickness was controlled by exposing the aerosol to a set relative humidity (RH). At ≈ 85 % RH, the mass of the soot particles increased by an amount comparable to a monolayer of water being deposited and enhanced the measured absorption by 36 % and 15 % for the Q-CW and CW lasers, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059341/high-speed-three-dimensional-tomographic-laser-induced-incandescence-imaging-of-soot-volume-fraction-in-turbulent-flames
#18
Terrence R Meyer, Benjamin R Halls, Naibo Jiang, Mikhail N Slipchenko, Sukesh Roy, James R Gord
High-speed, laser-based tomographic imaging of the three-dimensional time evolution of soot volume fraction in turbulent jet diffusion flames is demonstrated to be feasible at rates of 10 kHz or higher. The fundamental output of a burst-mode Nd:YAG laser with 1 J/pulse is utilized for volumetric impulsive heating of soot particles with a laser fluence of 0.1 J/cm<sup>2</sup>, enabling signal-to-noise ratios of ~100:1 in images of the resulting incandescence. The three-dimensional morphology of the soot distribution is captured with a spatial resolution of <1...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051865/evolution-of-in-cylinder-diesel-engine-soot-and-emission-characteristics-investigated-with-online-aerosol-mass-spectrometry
#19
V B Malmborg, A C Eriksson, M Shen, P Nilsson, Y Gallo, B Waldheim, J Martinsson, Ö Andersson, J Pagels
To design diesel engines with low environmental impact, it is important to link health and climate-relevant soot (black carbon) emission characteristics to specific combustion conditions. The in-cylinder evolution of soot properties over the combustion cycle and as a function of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. A novel combination of a fast gas-sampling valve and a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) enabled online measurements of the in-cylinder soot chemistry...
January 30, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050905/detailed-analysis-of-criteria-and-particle-emissions-from-a-very-large-crude-carrier-using-a-novel-eca-fuel
#20
Nicholas R Gysel, William A Welch, Kent Johnson, Wayne Miller, David R Cocker
Ocean going vessels (OGVs) operating within emission control areas (ECA) are required to use fuels with ≤0.1 wt % sulfur. Up to now only distillate fuels could meet the sulfur limits. Recently refiners created a novel low-sulfur heavy-fuel oil (LSHFO) meeting the sulfur limits so questions were posed whether nitric oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions were the same for the two fuels. This project characterized criteria pollutants and undertook a detailed analysis of PM emissions from a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) using a distillate ECA fuel (MGO) and novel LSHFO...
January 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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