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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910522/design-and-characterization-of-a-linear-hencken-type-burner
#1
M F Campbell, G A Bohlin, P E Schrader, R P Bambha, C J Kliewer, K O Johansson, H A Michelsen
We have designed and constructed a Hencken-type burner that produces a 38-mm-long linear laminar partially premixed co-flow diffusion flame. This burner was designed to produce a linear flame for studies of soot chemistry, combining the benefit of the conventional Hencken burner's laminar flames with the advantage of the slot burner's geometry for optical measurements requiring a long interaction distance. It is suitable for measurements using optical imaging diagnostics, line-of-sight optical techniques, or off-axis optical-scattering methods requiring either a long or short path length through the flame...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883014/first-in-flight-synchrotron-x-ray-absorption-and-photoemission-study-of-carbon-soot-nanoparticles
#2
F-X Ouf, P Parent, C Laffon, I Marhaba, D Ferry, B Marcillaud, E Antonsson, S Benkoula, X-J Liu, C Nicolas, E Robert, M Patanen, F-A Barreda, O Sublemontier, A Coppalle, J Yon, F Miserque, T Mostefaoui, T Z Regier, J-B A Mitchell, C Miron
Many studies have been conducted on the environmental impacts of combustion generated aerosols. Due to their complex composition and morphology, their chemical reactivity is not well understood and new developments of analysis methods are needed. We report the first demonstration of in-flight X-ray based characterizations of freshly emitted soot particles, which is of paramount importance for understanding the role of one of the main anthropogenic particulate contributors to global climate change. Soot particles, produced by a burner for several air-to-fuel ratios, were injected through an aerodynamic lens, focusing them to a region where they interacted with synchrotron radiation...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872972/characteristics-sources-and-health-risk-assessment-of-trace-metals-in-pm10-in-panzhihua-china
#3
Xin Cheng, Yi Huang, Zhijie Long, Shijun Ni, Zeming Shi, Chengjiang Zhang
Ambient PM10 air samples were collected at two industrial sites and one urban residential site in the mining city of Panzhihua, China, from April, 2014, to January, 2015. Mass concentrations of ten trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in PM10 were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The results showed Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn and V were the most abundant elements from the industrial sites. Concentrations for Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Mn and Cu at industrial sites greatly exceeded the air quality standards of the World Health Organization and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection...
November 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858151/chimney-sweeps-in-sweden-a-questionnaire-based-assessment-of-long-term-changes-in-work-conditions-and-current-eye-and-airway-symptoms
#4
Ayman Alhamdow, Per Gustavsson, Lars Rylander, Kristina Jakobsson, Håkan Tinnerberg, Karin Broberg
OBJECTIVES: To explore chimney sweeping work tasks, chimney sweeps' use of protective equipment, and type of fuel used by clients, over time. Further, to assess work-relatedness of current eye and airway symptoms. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study in 2011, male Swedish chimney sweeps (n = 483; age 21-69 years) answered a questionnaire about their occupational history and eye and airway symptoms. RESULTS: Between 1960 and 2010, black-soot-sweeping in private homes was the major task, although it decreased during the time period, for chimney sweeps...
November 17, 2016: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857193/a-self-regenerable-soot-sensor-with-a-proton-conductive-thin-electrolyte-and-a-nanostructured-platinum-sensing-electrode
#5
Peiling Lv, Takenori Ito, Akihide Oogushi, Kensaku Nakashima, Masahiro Nagao, Takashi Hibino
In recent years, exhaust sensors have become increasingly attractive for use in energy and environmental technologies. Important issues regarding practical applications of these sensors, especially for soot measurements, include the further development of ion-conductive electrolytes and active electrode catalysts for meeting performance and durability requirements. Herein, we design a proton conductor with a high breakdown voltage and a sensing electrode with high sensitivity to electrochemical carbon oxidation, enabling continuous soot monitoring with self-regeneration of the sensor...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837473/integrated-assessment-of-air-pollution-by-metals-and-source-apportionment-using-ryegrass-lolium-multiflorum-lam-in-southern-brazil
#6
Júlia Carolina Illi, Tafael Vancetta, Darlan Daniel Alves, Daniela Montanari Migliavacca Osório, Liane Bianchin, Daniela Müller de Quevedo, Fernando Juchem
One of the biggest environmental problems existing today is air pollution, which is characterized by the presence of toxic gases and metal pollutants, the latter of which is generally associated with emissions of particulate matter (PM) from industries or automotive vehicles. Biomonitoring is a method that can be used to assess air pollution levels because it makes it possible to determine what effects these air pollutants cause in living organisms and their responses. The species Lolium multiflorum Lam., known as ryegrass, is considered a good bioindicator of metals, since it accumulates these substances during exposure...
November 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830571/catalytic-oxidation-of-co-and-soot-over-ce-zr-pr-mixed-oxides-synthesized-in-a-multi-inlet-vortex-reactor-effect-of-structural-defects-on-the-catalytic-activity
#7
Samir Bensaid, Marco Piumetti, Chiara Novara, Fabrizio Giorgis, Angelica Chiodoni, Nunzio Russo, Debora Fino
In the present work, ceria, ceria-zirconia (Ce = 80 at.%, Zr = 20 at.%), ceria praseodymia (Ce = 80 at.%, Pr = 20 at.%) and ceria-zirconia-praseodymia catalysts (Ce = 80 at.%, Zr = 10 at.% and Pr = 10 at.%) have been prepared by the multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR). For each set of samples, two inlet flow rates have been used during the synthesis (namely, 2 ml min(-1), and 20 ml min(-1)) in order to obtain different particle sizes. Catalytic activity of the prepared materials has been investigated for CO and soot oxidation reactions...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828047/sensitivity-stability-and-precision-of-quantitative-ns-libs-based-fuel-air-ratio-measurements-for-methane-air-flames-at-1-11-bar
#8
Paul S Hsu, Mark Gragston, Yue Wu, Zhili Zhang, Anil K Patnaik, Johannes Kiefer, Sukesh Roy, James R Gord
Nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ns-LIBS) is employed for quantitative local fuel-air (F/A) ratio (i.e., ratio of actual fuel-to-oxidizer mass over ratio of fuel-to-oxidizer mass at stoichiometry, measurements in well-characterized methane-air flames at pressures of 1-11 bar). We selected nitrogen and hydrogen atomic-emission lines at 568 nm and 656 nm, respectively, to establish a correlation between the line intensities and the F/A ratio. We have investigated the effects of laser-pulse energy, camera gate delay, and pressure on the sensitivity, stability, and precision of the quantitative ns-LIBS F/A ratio measurements...
October 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734681/evaluation-of-a-conceptual-model-for-gas-particle-partitioning-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-using-poly-parameter-linear-free-energy-relationships
#9
Pourya Shahpoury, Gerhard Lammel, Alexandre Albinet, Aysun Sofuoglu, Yetkin Dumanoglu, Sait C Sofuoglu, Zdenek Wagner, Vladimir Zdimal
A model for gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships (ppLFERs) following a multiphase aerosol scenario. The model differentiates between various organic (i.e. liquid water soluble (WS)/organic soluble (OS) organic matter (OM) and solid/semi-solid organic polymers) and inorganic phases of the particulate matter (PM). Dimethyl sulfoxide and polyurethane were assigned as surrogates to simulate absorption into the abovementioned organic phases, respectively, whereas soot, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride simulated adsorption processes onto PM...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712054/bioethanol-blending-reduces-nanoparticle-pah-alkyl-and-nitro-pah-emissions-and-the-genotoxic-potential-of-exhaust-from-a-gasoline-direct-injection-flex-fuel-vehicle
#10
Maria Muñoz, Norbert V Heeb, Regula Haag, Peter Honegger, Kerstin Zeyer, Joachim Mohn, Pierre Comte, Jan Czerwinski
Bioethanol as an alternative fuel is widely used as a substitute for gasoline, also in gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles, which are quickly replacing traditional port-fuel injection (PFI) vehicles. Better fuel efficiency and increased engine power are reported advantages of GDI-vehicles. But increased emissions of soot-like nanoparticles are also associated with the GDI-technology with yet unknown health impact. In this study, we compare emissions of a flex-fuel Euro-5 GDI-vehicle operated with gasoline (E0) and two ethanol/gasoline blends (E10 and E85) under transient and steady driving conditions and report effects on particle, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), alkyl- and nitro-PAH emissions and assess the genotoxic potential of them...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700023/counter-electrode-impact-on-quantum-dot-solar-cell-efficiencies
#11
P Naresh Kumar, Ankita Kolay, S Krishna Kumar, Prabir Patra, Ashish Aphale, Avanish Kumar Srivastava, Melepurath Deepa
The counter electrode (CE), despite being as relevant as the photoanode in a quantum dot solar cell (QDSC), has hardly received the scientific attention it deserves. In this study, nine CEs (single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), tungsten oxide (WO3), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), copper sulfide (Cu2S), candle soot, functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNTs), reduced tungsten oxide (WO3-x), carbon fabric (C-Fabric), and C-Fabric/WO3-x) were prepared by using low-cost components and facile procedures...
October 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680010/-skin-cancer-as-occupational-disease
#12
A Bauer
The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population...
September 28, 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619546/discriminating-bio-aerosols-from-non-bio-aerosols-in-real-time-by-pump-probe-spectroscopy
#13
Gustavo Sousa, Geoffrey Gaulier, Luigi Bonacina, Jean-Pierre Wolf
The optical identification of bioaerosols in the atmosphere and its discrimination against combustion related particles is a major issue for real-time, field compatible instruments. In the present paper, we show that by embedding advanced pump-probe depletion spectroscopy schemes in a portable instrument, it is possible to discriminate amino acid containing airborne particles (bacteria, humic particles, etc.) from poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon containing combustion particles (Diesel droplets, soot, vehicle exhausts) with high selectivity...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617342/effects-of-source-and-concentration-on-relative-oral-bioavailability-of-benzo-a-pyrene-from-soil
#14
Stephen M Roberts, John W Munson, Michael V Ruby, Yvette Lowney
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of soil composition, PAH concentration, and source material type on PAH bioavailability using an approach capable of measuring uptake at low, environmentally relevant PAH concentrations (down to 1 ppm). Contaminated soil samples were constructed using PAHs from three source materials-solvent, soot, and fuel oil-to which (3)H-benzo(a)pyrene ((3)H-BaP; total BaP concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ppm) was added in a mixture of PAHs. The soils were weathered for 8 weeks using weekly wet-dry cycles...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617185/hrtem-low-dose-the-unfold-of-the-morphed-graphene-from-amorphous-carbon-to-morphed-graphenes
#15
H A Calderon, A Okonkwo, I Estrada-Guel, V G Hadjiev, F Alvarez-Ramírez, F C Robles Hernández
We present experimental evidence under low-dose conditions transmission electron microscopy for the unfolding of the evolving changes in carbon soot during mechanical milling. The milled soot shows evolving changes as a function of the milling severity or time. Those changes are responsible for the transformation from amorphous carbon to graphenes, graphitic carbon, and highly ordered structures such as morphed graphenes, namely Rh6 and Rh6-II. The morphed graphenes are corrugated layers of carbon with cross-linked covalently nature and sp(2)- or sp(3)-type allotropes...
2017: Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616649/quantification-of-long-term-primary-and-secondary-source-contributions-to-carbonaceous-aerosols
#16
Guo-Liang Shi, Xing Peng, Jia-Yuan Liu, Ying-Ze Tian, Dan-Lin Song, Hao-Fei Yu, Yin-Chang Feng, Armistead G Russell
Ambient fine particulate matter samples were collected during 2009-2013 in Chengdu, a megacity in western China, and the samples were speciated into organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), char-EC, soot-EC, eight carbon fractions, inorganic elements and water-soluble ions. Char-EC and soot-EC contribute to the better understanding of the sources and properties of EC. The highest levels of most carbon fractions were found in winter and May. The higher OC/EC ratio in winter suggests higher SOC fraction in winter, and higher char-EC/soot-EC ratio in May are the direct consequences of straw burning activities...
September 8, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603749/chemical-exposures-and-risk-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-myelodysplastic-syndromes-in-a-population-based-study
#17
Jenny N Poynter, Michaela Richardson, Michelle Roesler, Cindy K Blair, Betsy Hirsch, Phuong Nguyen, Adina Cioc, James R Cerhan, Erica Warlick
Benzene exposure is one of the few well-established risk factors for myeloid malignancy. Exposure to other chemicals has been inconsistently associated with hematologic malignancies. We evaluated occupational and residential chemical exposures as risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) using population-based data. AML and MDS cases were identified by the Minnesota Cancer Surveillance System. Controls were identified through the Minnesota driver's license/identification card list...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592501/zigzag-sc2c2-carbide-cluster-inside-a-88-fullerene-cage-with-one-heptagon-sc2c2-cs-hept-c88-a-kinetically-trapped-fullerene-formed-by-c2-insertion
#18
Chia-Hsiang Chen, Laura Abella, Maira R Cerón, Miguel A Guerrero-Ayala, Antonio Rodríguez-Fortea, Marilyn M Olmstead, Xian B Powers, Alan L Balch, Josep M Poblet, Luis Echegoyen
A non-isolated pentagon rule metallic carbide clusterfullerene containing a heptagonal ring, Sc2C2@Cs(hept)-C88, was isolated from the raw soot obtained by electric arc vaporization of graphite rods packed with Sc2O3 and graphite powder under a helium atmosphere. The Sc2C2@Cs(hept)-C88 was purified by multistage high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), cocrystallized with Ni-(octaethylporphyrin), and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The diffraction data revealed a zigzag Sc2C2 unit inside an unprecedented Cs(hept)-C88 carbon cage containing 13 pentagons, 32 hexagons, and 1 heptagon...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563518/fullerenes-synthesis-by-combined-resistive-heating-and-arc-discharge-techniques
#19
Pannan Isa Kyesmen, Audu Onoja, Alexander Nwabueze Amah
The two main electrode techniques for fullerenes production; the direct arc technique and the resistive heating of graphite rod were employed in this work. One of the electrodes was resistively heated to high temperature and subjected to arc discharge along its length by the second graphite rod. Fullerenes solid were extracted from carbon soot samples collected from an installed arc discharge system using the solvent extraction method. The fullerenes solid obtained from carbon soot collected for 2 min of arc discharge run when one of the electrodes was resistively heated at different voltages all gave higher yields (maximum of 67 % higher, at 150 A arc current and 200 Torr chamber pressure) compared to when no resistive heating was carried out...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534511/the-photoenhanced-aging-process-of-soot-by-the-heterogeneous-ozonization-reaction
#20
Chong Han, Yongchun Liu, Hong He
The atmospheric aging of soot can significantly modify its composition and microstructure, likely leading to changes in its effects on climate and health. The photochemical aging process of soot by O3 under simulated sunlight was investigated using in situ attenuated total internal reflection infrared spectroscopy. Simulated sunlight could markedly enhance the aging of soot by O3, which produced various oxygen containing species such as lactones, anhydrides, ketones and aldehydes. Elemental carbon (EC) showed minor reactivity toward O3...
September 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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